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Ian D. Greenwood
Opus International Consultants Limited, New Zealand

Christopher R. Bennett
Highway and Traffic Consultants Limited, New Zealand

Roger C.M. Dunn

The University of Auckland, New Zealand

Ian Greenwood completed his B.E (Civil) with first class honours in 1992, prior to taking up a
position as an Assistant Engineer with Opus International Consultants (formerly Works
Consultancy Services Ltd). He has been involved in numerous research projects in the road
and transport fields within New Zealand. In 1995 he was seconded to N.D. Lea International
in Malaysia for 9 months to take up the position of Researcher Traffic for the HDM-4
Technical Relationships Study. Following this he spent 3 months at the University of
Birmingham as an Honorary Research Associate, where he was involved with
implementation of his previous research. Ian has written several modules of the HDM-4
software including those on costing congestion and road works delay, and several
calibration routines. He has spent time in Canada and Australia while working on Pavement
Management Systems. He is currently completing his Ph.D. (Civil) at the University of

Christopher Bennett was Team Leader on the HDM-4 Technical Relationships Study and is
a recognised international expert on the Highway Development and Management Model
(HDM). He has carried out studies with HDM in India, Myanmar, Nepal and Thailand as well
as incorporating HDM modelling relationships into several pavement management systems.
He has prepared guidelines on the calibration of HDM to be published by the International
Study of Highway Development and Management Tools (ISOHDM). He received a Ph.D.
from the University of Auckland in 1994 for a project that developed a microscopic speed
simulation model for two-lane highways in New Zealand. His M.Eng was also from Auckland
and focused on vehicle operating costs for use in economic appraisals based on HDM-III.
This lead to the development of the NZVOC model that is used by Transit NZ to prepare
VOC tables for the Project Evaluation Manual.

Roger Dunn began his professional career with 10 years in the Ministry of Works and
Development NZ engaged on various aspects of roading - he then joined Freeman Fox
Wilbur Smith & Associates (UK and France) on traffic planning and new town developments.
In 1972 he returned to NZ to The University of Auckland. Current and recent projects have
included the Highway Technical Relationships Study for HDM-4 (for Asian Development
Bank in Malaysia), a Study on the Access Frequency and Accidents on Rural State
Highways (for Transit New Zealand) and applications of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems).
He is a member of two international committees on the standardisation of traffic information
and control systems.
The International Study of Highway Development and Management Tools (ISOHDM) began
in 1993 with the objective of developing enhanced tools for road management systems.
Funded principally by the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank, the U.K. Overseas
Development Administration and the Swedish National Road Administration, this multi-
national project has undertaken a significant amount of research into road user costs and
pavement deterioration modelling. This work will provide new relationships for the Highway
Development and Management Model (HDM-4) as well as being adapted for other systems.

In New Zealand road projects are financed based on an economic analysis carried out in
accordance with the Transfund New Zealand Project Evaluation Manual (PEM) (1997). The
PEM derives benefits primarily from three sources: reductions in vehicle operating costs
(road user costs), reductions in travel time and reductions in accident costs. The PEM
vehicle operating cost model is based on the results of the New Zealand Vehicle Operating
Cost (NZVOC) model, which was developed following a review of international research in
this field. The HDM-III research results formed a significant component of NZVOC and thus
the current PEM (Bennett, 1989a).

As the PEM draws extensively on work undertaken for the HDM-III study, which has been
superseded by the work on HDM-4, an evaluation of the differences between the PEM and
the results of the ISOHDM study should be made. In addition, an appreciation of the
implications of the HDM-4 research on funding priorities needs to be considered.

This paper presents the results of a subjective comparison of the New Zealand Vehicle
Operating Cost (NZVOC) model and the vehicle operating cost (VOC) model within HDM-4.
The objective of this paper is to present practitioners with a clear understanding of the
implications that the HDM-4 research is likely to have on project evaluations in New

The paper provides a general overview of the models before providing a subjective
comparison of those areas suspected of having the greatest differences. It should be noted
that at no stage have the two models been utilised to generate a full set of VOC values for a
range of pavement and vehicle characteristics.


In 1996 Transit New Zealand commissioned a small research project to compare the
NZVOC and HDM-4 (Opus, 1996). The objective was to subjectively determine significant
differences between the New Zealand Vehicle Operating Cost Model (NZVOC) and the
comparable components in HDM-4.

It is important to realise that there are three components to HDM-4:

• The HDM-4 approach which is a deterministic modelling of VOC and road deterioration
• The life-cycle analysis of VOC and RDME; and
• The technical relationships applied in HDM-4

The HDM-4 software is a platform which applies these components. Many other systems
have been developed with do not use the HDM-4 software but which embody all three
components. Others, such as NZVOC, use all or some of the technical relationships for a
specific application. In the NZVOC model’s case it is used primarily to generate tables of
VOC for use in the PEM, although it can also predict the VOC for individual sections of road.

In terms of total functionality, HDM-4 is much more inclusive than NZVOC. It not only has a
module to calculate VOC’s for the given road and traffic conditions, but also has modules to
calculate vehicle speeds, delays at road works, predict accidents and carry out noise
calculations, such that it can carry out full treatment selection analysis. This is in addition to
predicting road deterioration and maintenance effects as well as undertaking life-cycle

Figure 1 provides a simplistic comparison of the NZVOC model and the HDM-4 road user
effects model. Although not entirely evident from Figure 1, HDM-4 has a much greater
capability than the NZVOC model. It is a fair assessment to conclude that HDM-4 in its
entirety has a similar capability to a combination of NZVOC, the RAMM treatment selection
algorithm and the Project Evaluation Manual (PEM). As a result of this, some components,
such as the effect of road works on road users and modelling of safety, are not and should
not be in NZVOC. Owing to this difference in functionality, some items in HDM-4 that have
been addressed in this paper do not have a comparable function in NZVOC and hence
comparisons are not possible so they are not discussed here.


The objective here is to present practitioners with an indication of where the main
differences in the models lies, and more importantly, what these differences are likely to
mean to road project selection. This section details those areas of the two models that were
identified as having significant differences between them. Each item identified is presented
with a brief description of the item, followed by the differences observed between NZVOC
and HDM-4, and what the likely effect would be of adopting the HDM-4 approach.

3.1 Maintenance Cost Modelling

One of the major components of vehicle operating costs is that of ongoing maintenance of
the vehicle. Maintenance costs are modelled as being made up of two components — Parts
and Labour — with the latter of these two being modelled as a function of the former. The
independent variables affecting these costs are the roughness of the road and the age of
the vehicle.

In HDM-4 there are two major changes to predicting maintenance costs:

• The elimination of any benefits from reducing roughness below a certain level;
• A reduction in the effects of roughness on maintenance costs.
Figure 1: Overview of New Zealand Vehicle Operating Cost Model and HDM-4 Road
User Cost Model

New Zealand Vehicle Operating

HDM-4, Road User Cost Module
Cost Model

Required Input Data

Road geometry and condition Road geometry and conditions

Vehicle characteristics Vehicle characteristics
Accident rates Vehicle Speed
Unit costs Unit Costs

Computational Modules

Speed prediction Fuel consumption

Congestion modelling Maintenance costs - parts and labour
Fuel consumption Oil consumption
Vehicle maintenance - parts and labour Tyre consumption
Oil consumption
Tyre consumption
Accident prediction
Road works effects

Model Outputs

Speed on section of road Running costs at given speed and gradient

Running costs including roughness effects Additional cost for roughness
Accident costs
Road works effects

Recent research has found that modern vehicles are not as influenced by roughness as
older vehicles and that the suspension systems dampen out most effects. The elimination
of roughness effects below 3 IRI m/km (78 NAASRA counts/km) was recommended in
HDM-III and has been incorporated into the HDM-4 software. This was also incorporated
into NZVOC as evidenced by the reduction in the marginal roughness costs below 80
NAASRA counts in the PEM.
Within this paper a conversion of 1 IRI = 26 NAASRA has been used.
The effect of this change is that justification for rehabilitating pavements with moderate
roughness counts (< 80 NAASRA counts/km) and high traffic volumes are difficult to justify.

The reduction in the effects of roughness on maintenance costs in HDM-4 will have a
significant impact on the prioritisation of road projects. The default roughness effects for
cars are approximately 1/3 what they were in HDM-III and other vehicles are also lower. The
basis for this change was recommendations made at a workshop on HDM-4 where the
delegates reported consistent overpredictions of the effects of roughness on maintenance
and also pointed out deficiencies in the original data collection.

This change will make it much more difficult to justify road improvement projects which result
in roughness reductions.

3.2 Depreciation Costs

NZVOC uses the results of a study into New Zealand depreciation in the late 1980’s
(Bennett, 1989b). This lead to a models which predicted depreciation as a function of
vehicle age and distance travelled.

For HDM-4 the ‘Optimal Life’ approach has been adopted. This predicts that the optimal
time for scrapping a vehicle is a function of the time stream of maintenance and repair costs
(Chesher and Harrison, 1987). Since the maintenance costs are a function of roughness,
this serves to make the depreciation costs also a function of roughness.

One implication of the HDM-4 approach is that all depreciation is due to the use of the
vehicle. This is at variance with the NZVOC allocation of only part of the costs to use and
some to time and could influence the types of projects selected in the PEM.

3.3 Congestion Modelling

Congestion, measured as an increase in traffic volume, has two major effects; firstly speeds
decrease and secondly, vehicle speeds vary by a greater amount about the lower mean

Traditionally modellers have concentrated on the first of these two components, with the
result been that congestion resulted in reduced speeds and hence the incurring of a delay
cost. Other operating cost components are calculated at this lower speed, although the
models used have always been based on the assumption of steady state travel. In reality,
as the speeds decrease there is an increase in the accelerations and decelerations so the
steady state

Within HDM-4 both of the effects are modelled. The first is accounted for through a speed-
flow model, whilst the second through the modelling of acceleration noise . The
acceleration noise component determines the marginal fuel when travelling with different
levels of congestion over travelling at a steady state speed. This results in a factor which is
used to adjust the other RUE components (tyres, maintenance and oil) for congestion

NZVOC contains a different set of calculations for rural and urban roads. The difference lies
in the parameters used with the fuel consumption models. An examination of the PEM
indicates that the result of these different models is reflected in a change to the VOC of
approximately 1 per cent. This is much lower than that yielded by the HDM-4 model under
the assumption that the rural conditions are free-flowing and the urban has moderate

It is obvious to most people that driving in rural conditions are significantly different to that
encountered in urban centres. Furthermore, it is expected that to maintain the same average
speed over a long journey, one would require periods of much higher speeds to account for
the time stopped at signals etc. Therefore, the conclusion is that substantially different VOC
values should be obtained for the rural and urban environments. However, if a rural road is
operating at capacity the costs would be similar to those for an urban road operating at
capacity. This is modelled in the HDM-4 approach.

The HDM-4 approach predicts that the effect of congestion is greater than that currently
predicted by NZVOC, with differences in the range of 50 per cent not uncommon. If project
evaluations in New Zealand moved to an HDM-4 type approach to congestion, then projects
such as lane additions or shoulder widening, which increase capacity thus enabling a
smoother flow of traffic, would be favoured. By smoothing the flow of traffic, Advance Traffic
Management Systems (ATMS) can also be modelled within the HDM-4 approach, and their
benefits accounted for.

The refinement of the HDM-4 approach is considered by Greenwood (1998) who is

expected to provide an enhanced model for the modelling of congestion based on data
collected in New Zealand and overseas.

3.4 Effects of Road Works on VOCs

To account for the true costs of carrying out maintenance work on roads, the additional
costs to road users caused by reduced capacity and diversions must be included. The basic
items to be costed are:

• Additional delay due to queues and/or reduced travel speed;

• Additional costs involved in speed change cycles through work zone;
• Additional emissions of pollutants owing to speed change cycles and delays.

Acceleration noise is equal to the standard deviation of accelerations. It is at a minimum on
low-flow roads with good alignments and a maximum under severely congested conditions or on
roads with poor alignments.
Although the inclusion of this disbenefit is a legitimate inclusion into project evaluation
according to the PEM, the lack of a simple means to quantity this item has generally seen its
exclusion for economic analyses. As part of the HDM-4 project a simulation program that
enables the user to generate the cost of carrying out maintenance activities on the road was
developed (Greenwood et al., 1995 and NDLI, 1995). This simulation model is to be utilised to
calibrate a series of equations for predicting the additional delays and fuel consumption due to
road works. These additional costs will be considered when generating pavement
maintenance strategies for a network.

NZVOC does not contain such a model, nor is it considered appropriate for it to have one
included, as preparation of tables for the PEM to cover for every lane closure configuration
and traffic volume would be nigh on impossible. However, costing of this item is considered to
be very important in that roading activities that have longer construction periods generally have
lower maintenance costs. Therefore, to truly compare two alternatives requires all costs to be
included. The authors note that this is one of the major anomalies between the requirements
of the PEM and the RAMM treatment selection algorithm, in that the PEM clearly indicates that
this cost should be included, yet the treatment selection algorithm excludes this component.

Two reports contain details of the HDM-4 approach, the first (Greenwood et al. 1995) provides
a background to the modelling process used within HDM-4, while the second (NDLI 1995)
contains a full description of the modelling process implemented. An additional report (Bennett
1996) provides details of the methodology used to calibrate the predictive equations from the
simulation output.

The size of delays typically increases with both traffic volumes and length of the work zone. It
is expected that inclusion of this component of costs into the calculations will result in the
favouring of maintenance activities that can be carried out either in a short period of time, or
alternatively at very low frequencies (long life products). Although not quantified, this cost has
been indirectly considered for several years on heavily trafficked routes through the adoption
of night maintenance and rehabilitation works.

The inclusion of this item may also make pavements requiring less maintenance such as
concrete pavements appear more attractive to road controlling authorities. Greenwood et al.
(1995 and 1996) present details of the HDM-4 model in greater depth, including the input
parameters required.

We recommend that a standard methodology be prepared for all projects, which includes the
negative benefits to road users. As noted above, HDM-4 contains a simulation model that may
be suitable to generate a range of tables for the PEM. These tables would then enable users
to easily add in this cost component to their total project costing. Alternatively, Transfund could
adopt the simulation program to cost this item.

For inclusion into the RAMM treatment selection algorithm, a methodology similar to that been
introduced into HDM-4 may be warranted. This option would require careful selection of typical
AADT profiles over the 24-hour period, to ensure the suitability of the model to New Zealand
3.5 Free Speed Modelling

The NZVOC does not predict the speed of traffic, as tables of costs are presented for various
combinations of speed and gradient. However, the PEM does provide a comprehensive
approach to calculating the free speed of vehicles based on the highway capacity manual
(HCM) prepared by the Transportation Research Board (1992). Therefore, this section has
been included to illustrate the changes made to the free speed model within HDM-4 which is
based on work from New Zealand (Bennett, 1994).

Free speed models are used to predict the speeds of unimpeded vehicles on the road. The
basic assumption of most free speed models is that a number of constraints act on a driver,
with the resulting speed being some function of these. Typical factors deemed to affect free
speeds are alignment, engine power, speed limits and roughness. Other factors such as
roadside development (side friction) and the presence of slow moving transport are also
considered in some models.

The three most significant differences between the HDM-Iii and HDM-4 speed models are that
HDM-4 has significantly altered the model for downgrade speeds, the desired speed
component has been altered to include posted speed limit effects and finally the curvature
speed is no longer a function of side friction. It should be noted that the speed model
presented in the HDM-4 reports (NDLI, 1995) is not the same as will be implemented into

The change to the downgrade speed is through the introduction of a critical gradient length,
whereby vehicles travelling on downgrades less than this critical length will not show any
reduction in speed. Once the downgrade exceeds this critical length the speed is determined
by resolving a force balance equation. This downgrade critical length is expected to show a
high degree of correlation to the time a vehicles wheel brakes can be applied before they

HDM-4 will predict the cornering constraining speed as a function of radius only. The move
away from using side friction to predict curvature constraining speeds is the result of research
undertaken in both New Zealand and Australia, and thus some credence must be given to it
for inclusion in to NZVOC. Although Bennett (1994) showed significant improvement in the
prediction of the model through the incorporation of a term based on the speed of the
preceding section of road, this model was not suitable for inclusion into the HDM-4 modelling

The change to the downgrade formulation and curvature speeds are especially relevant to
New Zealand given the large number of medium to short downgrades on our roads and the
number of curves on our roading system. The HCM deals with gradient effects through a
series of adjustment factors depending on the road type. As much of the HDM-4 speed
prediction model comes from research undertaken within New Zealand, it would seem
appropriate to utilise the model for speed prediction within New Zealand, rather than the
American developed HCM.

3.6 Rolling Resistance

The rolling resistance of a vehicle plays a role in determining the total forces opposing
motion for a vehicle. At low speeds it can be the dominant component of the total forces.
The HDM-4 model was developed based on work done New Zealand by Opus Central
Laboratories (NDLI, 1995).

NZVOC utilised the ARFCOM rolling resistance model up until version 3.3j, when it was
decided to utilise an approach recommended in a draft HDM-4 report (Greenwood and
Bennett 1995). This new approach allowed texture effects to be incorporated into the rolling
resistance equation. Subsequent research led to a change in the HDM-4 approach that saw
HDM-4 adopt the ARFCOM rolling resistance model.

Changes were made to the surface parameter CR2 to account for surface texture and
roughness on various pavement types (NDLI, 1995). In general, rolling resistance increases
with increasing roughness and texture depth and with decreasing pavement strength. Week
pavements effectively result in vehicles creating a bow wave in front of the tyres, which in
turn results in higher rolling resistance as vehicles are essentially driving 'uphill' all the time.

A further 'enhancement' was made to the ARFCOM model in HDM-4 to account for the
effect of rain and/or snow on roads. This term, FCLIM, increases the rolling resistance on
wet and/or snow covered roads over that encountered on a dry road by allowing for the
percentage of driving undertaken within these weather conditions.

Cenek (1994) highlighted the significance of texture effects on rolling resistance when he
stated that a reduction in surface texture depth from 2.2 mm to 1.4 mm would have the
same impact on fuel consumption (a reduction of 4 per cent) as reducing roughness from
5.7 IRI (150 NAASRA counts/km) to 2.7 IRI (70 NAASRA counts/km).

The current rolling resistance model contained within NZVOC is not capable of differentiating
between different wheel types (radial or bias-ply), number of wheels or diameter of wheels. It
was this inability to discern between these parameters that resulted in HDM-4 adopting the
ARFCOM model, with the aforementioned changes.

The inclusion of texture effects is a major change, and when considered with the decreased
domination of roughness at low levels a shift in maintenance activities is possible. This change
is expected to be greatest on low roughness roads, and could well result in a shift away from
coarse chip seals towards surface treatments with a much lower texture depth. This shift could
however be offset to some degree by safety concerns raised by aquaplaning effects at speed
in excess of 60 km/h.

We recommend that due consideration of the effects of the model implemented be made. The
current model, while dealing adequately with texture effects, has a major deficiency in its ability
to handle other components involved in rolling resistance. For example, utilising the ARFCOM
model a 30 per cent variation in the tyre type term, CR1, is observed between bias and radial
tyres. With such large variations in rolling resistance not predicted by the current NZVOC
model, it is strongly recommended that a review be carried out with the aim of replacing this

If the HDM-4 approach to modelling rolling resistance were adopted, the resulting model would
differentiate between pavement types. This would require separate tables in the PEM for
vehicle operating costs depending upon the type of surface the vehicle is travelling on. One
option would be to develop tables for a 'standard' combination of tyre type and pavement, and
then add factors to adjust for variations on the standard conditions.

The default coefficients given for the HDM-4 rolling resistance formula should be calibrated to
New Zealand road conditions. This is especially so for unsealed roads where the default
values predict 20 per cent higher rolling resistances for unsealed roads in comparison to a
sealed flexible pavement. With some 40 per cent of New Zealands roads been unsealed, to
have models under-predicting rolling resistance by 20 per cent is considered unsatisfactory. By
changing to the HDM-4 approach, it could be expected that the justifiable traffic volume for the
sealing of currently unsealed roads would reduce from the current value of around 300
vehicles per day.

3.7 Engine Speed Predictions

The engine speed (RPM) is used within VOC models to assist in calculation of the engine
drag and accessories power, and the operating efficiency of the engine. The engine drag
and accessories power, in turn, feeds into the fuel consumption model and is discussed
separately in the next section.

NZVOC utilises the ARFCOM approach to predicting engine speed. This approach has two
regimes, one for when a vehicle is in top gear, and the other for gears other than top. The
predicted engine speed is a function of vehicle speed and power requirements. At the point
where drivers are deemed to change gear there is a discontinuity that results in a sudden
change in fuel consumption. Considering the variety in driving styles and the variation in
vehicle speeds about the mean speed, it is considered somewhat inappropriate to have
such a discontinuity.

For HDM-4 a simulation program was written which resulted in a continuous function
between vehicle speed and engine speed (Greenwood and Bennett, 1995). This model
averts the problems of a discontinuity, and explicitly considers the variation in vehicle
speeds about the mean speed. However, it does not consider the power requirements of the
vehicle, and hence predicts the same engine speed for a given vehicle speed whether
travelling up or down a significant grade.

As noted in the preceding section, a sudden discontinuity is undesirable in VOC models.

NZVOC would be expected to show a significant change in fuel consumption at the vehicle
speed where all drivers are deemed to change gear, which is not considered appropriate by
us. Although correction of this factor is unlikely to result in a substantial change to the
output, it is considered that this issue needs to be rectified.

We recommend that a detailed examination of the output from NZVOC made to ensure that
the ARFCOM engine speed model is not causing a discontinuity. If the ARFCOM engine
speed model is considered to be giving such a discontinuity, then research should be carried
out to rectify this problem. As a starting point we suggest that the HDM-4 approach, wherein
a continuous relationship is developed, should be used.
3.8 Engine Drag and Accessories Power

Engine drag and accessories power can account for a significant proportion of fuel
consumption values, especially when a high level of idling time or low vehicle speeds are
observed. Fuel consumption during congested periods of motoring, when both long idle
times and low speeds are encountered is therefore highly dependent on this factor.

NZVOC utilises the ARFCOM approach to predicting accessories power and a combination
of ARFCOM and HDM-4 draft relationships for predicting engine drag. This combination of
models arises out of the fact that the ARFCOM model does not yield sensible results for all
vehicle types, and hence for HDM-4 Greenwood and Bennett (1995) constructed a model
which addressed these problems.

This draft HDM-4 model was later found to have deficiencies of its own, so HDM-4 contains
a simple linear function between engine speed, engine drag and accessories power
(Bennett and Greenwood 1996). This linear function is essentially the same as was
incorporated in to HDM-III. However, HDM-III utilised a constant engine speed and hence
the resulting power consumption was a constant for all conditions.

It is considered that the draft HDM-4 model incorporated into NZVOC has been done so
incorrectly. The NZVOC model appears to reference an incorrect engine speed. Moreover,
HDM-4 research (Greenwood and Bennett 1995) indicated that the biggest problem with the
ARFCOM model was for petrol engines, whereas NZVOC has retained the ARFCOM model
for petrol engines and altered the diesel model.

The magnitude of the differences on any results is difficult to estimate, however any change
is expected to be relatively consistent across all road types and conditions and thus it is not
anticipated that a change to the modelling of these components would dramatically effect
treatment selection.

3.9 Modelling Safety

As HDM-4 has the ability to generate maintenance strategies for a road network, it was
necessary to prepare a methodology for incorporating the accident costs in to the modelling
process. The result was a series of look up tables that give the accident rate for a certain
group of roads. When a maintenance activity is carried out, it is anticipated that the resulting
road would fall into a different group (may be texture depth > 2 mm) with an associated
change in accident rate.

This approach while useful for a pavement management system, is not required with NZVOC.
The PEM is considered to provide adequately for the estimation of accident costs for one off
projects. However, consideration should be given to the inclusion of safety aspects into the
RAMM treatment selection algorithm. As the treatment selection algorithm does not include
this component, there is a significant discrepancy between the economic analysis undertaken
by the algorithm, and that done in accordance with the PEM.

Further consideration to the safety implications of maintenance treatments should be carried

out. For one off projects, the PEM provides a methodology for determining these costs and
thus no new methods need be introduced. However, as noted, the RAMM treatment selection
algorithm does not explicitly consider safety issues, and it is this omission that is considered to
need addressing.


This paper has presented an overview of many of the variations between the HDM-4 models
and those used in project evaluations within New Zealand. In general, the HDM-4 models
result in a move towards congestion and safety works, at the expense of works to address

As the HDM-4 work is the most recent research undertaken into vehicle operating cost
modelling, and many of the relationships have been developed from New Zealand and
Australian data, consideration should be given to adopting the HDM-4 models into the NZVOC

The current documentation on the NZVOC model is also alarmingly poor, with little written
documentation on what models are contained in the current version. The last report was for v
3.0 by Bennett (1989a). The NZVOC program is now up to version 3.3j, yet very little
documentation on the refinements since 3.0 exists. During the work described within this
paper, what appeared to be errors in the coding of relationships within the NZVOC model were
observed. In order to clarify the models used.


This paper has presented a subjective comparison of the NZVOC and HDM-4 models, with the
aim of advising practitioners as to what changes in project selections could be expected from
moving to the HDM-4 approach. In some instances, the NZVOC model was found to contain
interim research findings from the HDM-4 research, which were subsequently changed within
HDM-4 but not NZVOC.

In general the HDM-4 models give greater weighting to congestion and safety works, at the
expense of rehabilitation work.


Bennett, C.R. 1989a. The New Zealand Vehicle Operating Cost Model. RRU Bulletin 82.
Transit New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.

Bennett, C.R. 1989b. The Depreciation of Motor Vehicles in New Zealand. Occasional
Paper, Transit New Zealand.

Bennett, C.R. 1994. A Speed Prediction Model for Rural Two-Lane Highways. PhD Thesis,
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Bennett, C.R. 1995. The HDM-4 Road User Effects Model. Briefing Paper for the ISOHDM
Workshop on Road User Effects. Transport Research Laboratory. ISOHDM Secretariat,
University of Birmingham, England.

Bennett, C.R. 1996. Modelling Road User Effects in HDM-4. ISOHDM Secretariat, University
of Birmingham, England.

Bennett, C.R. and Greenwood, I.D. 1996. Specifications for the HDM-4 Road User Effects
Model. Third Draft. Project Secretariat International Study of Highway Development and
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Cenek, P.D. 1994. Rolling Resistance Characteristics of New Zealand Roads. Transit New
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Chesher, A.D. and Harrison, R. 1987. Vehicle Operating Costs: Evidence from Developing
Countries. World Bank Publications, Washington, D.C.

Dempsey, N.C. 1995. The New Zealand vehicle Operating Cost model. Model Technical
Reference, Milestones and Milestone Definition, Transit New Zealand Research Report PR3-
0100 Draft Final Report. Wellington.

Greenwood, I.D. 1998. Modelling the Effects of Congestion on Road Users, PhD Thesis. Civil
and Resource Engineering, University of Auckland (due for completion in 1998, supervisors
R.C.M. Dunn and R.R. Raine).

Greenwood, I.D. and Bennett, C.R. 1995. HDM-4 Fuel Consumption Modelling. Preliminary
Draft Report - Task 2020-3. Asian Development Bank RETA: 5549.

Greenwood, I.D., Bennett, C.R. and Dunn R.C.M. 1996. The Effects of Roadworks on Users.
Proceedings Roads 96 Conference, Part 4 pp 169 - 182, ARRB Transport Research.

Greenwood, I.D., Bennett, C.R. and Rahman A. 1995. Effects of Pavement Maintenance on
Road Users. Preliminary Draft Report - Task 2070. Asian Development Bank RETA: 5549.

NDLI 1995. Modelling Road User Effects in HDM-4. International Study of Highway
Development and Management Tools. RETA 5549-REG Final Report to the Asian
Development Bank. Vancouver, B.C.

Poleman, M.A. and Weir, R.P. 1992. Vehicle Fatigue Induced by Road Surface Roughness.
Vehicle, Tire, Pavement Interface, ASTM STP 1164, J.J. Henry and J.C. Wambold, Eds., pp.
97-111. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.

Transportation Research Board, 1992. Highway Capacity Manual. Washington, D.C.


Much of the work described in this paper was undertaken as part of the Transit New Zealand
research project PR3-0184 "Comparison of NZVOC and HDM-4 VOC Models". The authors
would like to acknowledge the permission of the General Manager of Transit New Zealand
to present the research information. The authors would also like to acknowledge the input of
Peter Cenek of Opus International Consultants for his input into both the ISOHDM and
Transit New Zealand research project PR3-0184.

The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and not necessarily those of
Transit New Zealand, Opus International Consultants Ltd., Highway and Traffic Consultants
Ltd., or The University of Auckland.