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Dr.

Kim S Elliott
University of Nottingham, UK

The Design and Construction of


Precast Concrete Structures

Lecture course and frame design workshop


KL : 24-25 July 2006
KK : 27-28 July 2006 www.nottingham.ac.uk
Programme:
1. Conceptual issues and architectural features
2. Precast concrete in mixed construction
3. Precast flooring and composite slabs
4. Precast frame analysis and components
5. Diaphragm action and frame stability
6. Connections
7. Progressive collapse
8. 10 storey frame design exercise

+ Special presentation from Belgium (May 2006)


The Design and Construction of
Precast Concrete Structures

Conceptual Issues and


Architectural Features
Precast concrete – friend or foe

?
Precast concrete – friend ……

Vauxhall Cross, London, 1995


Precast concrete – … foe

Precast wall frame, c 1960, Manchester, UK


7 September 2003

Paddington Station, London.


“British Precast” – concerted efforts
Aalborg’s prize winning staircase

Precast stairs for Tuborg, Denmark


and many special projects ….
UK Concrete Society Winner …

Cambridge Science Park, UK, 1988


and Loser !

National Building Frame, Portsmouth University, UK, 1966


..and all in safe working conditions ?
DO YOU KNOW THESE MEN ?
Conceptual Issues and
Architectural Features

Contents

Background
to the
problem
Contents

Current
climate
for
precast
concrete
Contents

Current Buildability
climate of
for skeletal
precast frames
concrete

4 3
Contents

Current Buildability
climate of
for skeletal
precast frames
concrete

4
Integrated
architectural
structures
Contents

Current Buildability
climate of
for skeletal
precast frames
concrete

Discussion Integrated
and architectural
future structures
developments
Current climate for precast concrete

Understanding the basic principles of


precast concrete design and construction
Current climate for precast concrete

Understanding the basic principles of


precast concrete design and construction

Infill wall diagram


DIAGONAL
TENSION
Current climate for precast concrete
Current climate for precast concrete
Current climate for precast concrete

Understanding the basic principles of


precast concrete design and construction

Diagram of floor slab with no tie


steel and screed Bournemouth
Current climate for precast concrete

Understanding the basic principles of


precast concrete design and construction

END REACTION
NO TIE STEEL

FRICTION
Current climate for precast concrete

Spalling photo Bournemouth


Spalling
Current climate for precast concrete
Current climate for precast concrete
Current climate for precast concrete

500 kN connector made and tested

Welding brackets for Lloyds of London


Current climate for precast concrete

100 %
repetition
increases

3.6 m wide hollow core floors, MGM Hotel, Las Vegas


productivity
by up to
50 %

11 m x 3.6 = 40 sq.m per unit


Current climate for precast concrete

Modular construction - repeated 360 times

Simmons Hall of Residence, MIT, USA


Current climate for precast concrete

‘Egan Report’ 1998


Rethinking Construction :

… sustained improvement targets:


10 % savings in capital costs
10 % reduction in construction time
20 % less defects
20 % improvement in predictability
Current climate for precast concrete

Egan Report called for maximum use of


standard components and processes ….
Current climate for precast concrete

Egan Report called for maximum use of


standard components and processes

Precast concrete town near to Helsinki


Current climate for precast concrete

Stack cast wall panels in Far East

Stack cast panels at Johor Baru, Malaysia


Current climate for precast concrete

Economic indicators of
precast concrete

C factor =
Cost of 1 day skilled labour
Cost of 1 cu. m. insitu concrete
Current climate for precast concrete
LABOUR £40-50
RC £50
UK where ratio of factory/site
labour costs 1.5 – 2.0 : 1

Let C = 1.0

Nottingham University, UK, 2003


Current climate for precast concrete
LABOUR €120
RC €80-90

Scandinavia C = 1.4

Arlanda Airport, Stockholm, 2000


Current climate for precast concrete
LABOUR €50
RC €70
Southern Europe (Italy, Portugal)

C = 0.7

italy
Current climate for precast concrete
LABOUR US$40
RC US$75
Brazil

C = 0.55
Current climate for precast concrete
LABOUR AUS $65
RC AUS $130
Australia

C = 0.5
Economic indicators for precast concrete
LABOUR HK$100
RC HK$480
Hong Kong

C = 0.2
Current climate for precast concrete

Far East (e.g. Malaysia)

C=?

School Building at Kuantan, Malaysia, 1994


italy
Current climate for precast concrete
LABOUR R 50-70
RC R 180
Far East (e.g. Malaysia)

C = 0.2 - 0.3

School Building at Kuantan, Malaysia, 1994


italy
Current climate for precast concrete

Economic indicators of 50 t mobile over


3 months
precast concrete

Crane factor =
Daily hire of typical crane
Daily labour rate
Current climate for precast concrete

Crane factor
UK
Scandinavia
Europe
Far East
Brazil
Australia
Current climate for precast concrete

Crane factor
UK 8 - 12
Scandinavia 6 - 10
Europe 10 - 15
Far East ?
Brazil 15 - 20
Australia 17 - 20
Current climate for precast concrete

Crane factor
UK 8 - 12
Scandinavia 6 - 10
Europe 10 - 15
Far East 25 - 30
Brazil 15 - 20
Australia 17 - 20
Current climate for precast concrete

Economic indicators of
precast concrete

Factory and site labour


efficiency

Man x day / sq.m.


Current climate for precast concrete

Case study is 10 storey frame of


area 16,000 m 2 comprising :
RC Columns
PSC Beams
RC Walls
RC Staircases
200 deep PSC hollow core slabs
60 mm insitu concrete topping
Current climate for precast concrete

Man x day rate


RC Columns 2.5 / cu.m
PSC Beams
RC Walls
RC Staircases
PSC slabs
Insitu topping

UK rates 1996-2000
Current climate for precast concrete

Man x day rate


RC Columns 2.5 / cu.m
PSC Beams 2.0 / cu.m
RC Walls 2.2 / cu.m
RC Staircases 3.2 / cu.m
PSC slabs
Insitu topping

UK rates 1996-2000
Current climate for precast concrete

Man x day rate


RC Columns 2.5 / cu.m
PSC Beams 2.0 / cu.m
RC Walls 2.2 / cu.m
RC Staircases 3.2 / cu.m
PSC slabs 0.13 / sq.m
Insitu topping 0.05 / sq.m

Average = 0.35 – 0.40 man days /sq.m.


Contents

Buildability
of
skeletal
frames

4 3
Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Dimensional stability to within 6 mm


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Dimensional stability to within 6 mm


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Precast Concrete Technology

Cube strength : 50 – 100 MPa


Variation : 3 - 5 MPa
Water / cement ratio : 0.3 – 0.4
PFA : < 30% x cement content
Self compacting concrete in all precast
factories
Recycled concrete coarse aggregate : < 20%
18 hour strength : 20 – 30 MPa
Shrinkage strain : 150-300 x 10 -6
Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Stockyard after
24 hours

Precast beams for Lloyds of London


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Column pitching
on-site Day 1

6 storey columns at Grand island, Manchester


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Fixing shear walls


by Day 5

Shear walls at Grand island, Manchester


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Fixing beams
by Day 8

Beam-column bolted connection


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Fixing prestressed slabs by Day 12

16 m span x 400 mm deep hollow core floor units


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Skeletal structure after 4 weeks

Dudley Hill shopping centre, Birmingham, UK


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Parking structure after 4 weeks

Cross span car park, UK


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Parking structure after 5 months

The Big Apple, Helsinki


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

500,000 sq. m Europark, Italy


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

192 m

218 m
Buildability of precast skeletal structures

6 expansion zones,
mainly 75-100 m x 75 m

218 m
Buildability of precast skeletal structures
Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Shopping centre after 6 months

Kepong Mall, Malaysia


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

..in spite of interruptions!!

Kepong Mall, Malaysia


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Frame and wall construction in Sydney


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Speed of precast construction


m2 per week

Floor bay area


100 m 2
75 m 2
50 m 2

Floor bay = beam span x slab span


Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Speed of precast construction


m2 per week

Floor bay area < 4 storey


100 m 2 1000 - 1500
75 m 2 900 - 1200
50 m 2 700 - 1000
Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Speed of precast construction


?? m 2 per week

2
Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Speed of precast construction


1200 m 2 per week

2
Buildability of precast skeletal structures

Speed of precast construction


m2 per week

Floor bay area < 12 storey


100 m 2 600 - 900
75 m 2 400 - 700
50 m 2 300 - 500
Contents

4
Integrated
architectural
structures
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Alternative finishes

Natural stone
Polished granite
Acid etched
Grit blasted
Polished
Recon Portland stone
Recon sandstone
Brick slips/halves
Pigments
Paint
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Spun columns.
Opera House, Erfurt, Germany (2006)
c. BFT Journal 26 March 2006
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures
Integrated architectural structures

RM6000
per sq. m !!
Contents

Discussion
and
future
developments
Future Developments

Self compacting concrete,


now upto C90
Future Developments

Self compacting concrete with 1%


volume steel or polypropylene fibres
Future Developments

Self compacting concrete: surface crazing, corner


bleeding and mould oil patches
Future Developments

Mixed construction and SCC (New Wembley terraces)


Future Developments

Accurate SCC surface finish: 2 mm depression / 3 m length


Future Developments

Prestressed tee beams

Double – tee slabs


Future Developments

75 kg/m 2 Termacol floor units


Future Developments

Robotic formwork
Future Developments

Concrete delivery
Future Developments
Future Developments

Split skin system

Phase 1
Future Developments

Split skin system


Phase 2
Future Developments

Split skin system

Phase 3
Future Developments – mixed construction