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V ELOPMENT • CA RB ON BL ACK LOA DING • S O LV E N T • GLOS S

ROFILE • F O R M U L AT I O N • A N A LY T I C A L PROPERTIES • ACRY


NAMEL • INDUSTRIA L C O AT I N G A P P L I C AT I O N S • MILLBAS
AW M AT E R I A L • MILLBASE • PERFOR MANCE PROPERTIES • G
O LV E N T • V ISCOSITY PROFILE • CARB ON BL ACK • TINTING •
LACK PEARL • EASE OF DISPERSION • COLOR DE V ELOPMENT
AS STONE • GLOS S A PPE AR A NCE • JETNES S • A P P L I C AT I O N S
ASE OF DISPERSION • WEIGHT • GLOS S VOLUME • COLOR D
V ELOPMENT • CA RBON BL ACK LOA DING • S O LV E N T • GLOS S
ROFILE • F O R M U L AT I O N • A N A LY T I C A L PROPERTIES • ACRY
NAMEL
AW

M AT E R I A L
INDUSTRIA L
• CARBON BLACK
MILLBASE
C O AT I N G

A P P L I C AT I O N S
PERFOR MANCE
• MILLBAS
PROPERTIES • G
O LV E N T • V ISCOSITY PROFILE • CARB ON BL ACK • TINTING •
LACK PEARL • EASE OF DISPERSION • COLOR DE V ELOPMENT
AS STONE • GLOS S A PPE AR A NCE • JETNES S • A P P L I C AT I O N S
ASE OF DISPERSION • WEIGHT • GLOS S VOLUME • COLOR D
V ELOPMENT • CA RBON BL ACK LOA DING • S O LV E N T • GLOS S
ROFILE • F O R M U L AT I O N • A N A LY T I C A L PROPERTIES • ACRY
NAMEL • INDUSTRIA L C O AT I N G A P P L I C AT I O N S • MILLBAS
AW M AT E R I A L • MILLBASE • PERFOR MANCE PROPERTIES • G
O LV E N T • V ISCOSITY PROFILE • CARB ON BL ACK • TINTING •
LACK PEARL • EASE OF DISPERSION • COLOR DE V ELOPMENT
AS STONE • GLOS S A PPE AR A NCE • JETNES S • A P P L I C AT I O N S
ASE OF DISPERSION • WEIGHT • GLOS S VOLUME • COLOR D
V ELOPMENT • CA RBON BL ACK LOA DING • S O LV E N T • GLOS S
ROFILE • F O R M U L AT I O N • A N A LY T I C A L PROPERTIES • ACRY
NAMEL
AW

M AT E R I A L A COMPARISON STUDY
INDUSTRIA L
• MILLBASE
C O AT I N G

A P P L I C AT I O N S
PERFOR MANCE
• MILLBAS
PROPERTIES • G
O LV E N T
LACK PEARL

FOR INDUSTRIAL
V ISCOSITY
• EASE OF
PROFILE
DISPERSION
• CARB ON

BL ACK
COLOR
• TINTING
DE V ELOPMENT

AS STONE • GLOS S A PPE AR A NCE • JETNES S • A P P L I C AT I O N S


ASE OF COATING APPLICATIONS
DISPERSION • WEIGHT • GLOS S VOLUME • COLOR D
V ELOPMENT • CA RBON BL ACK LOA DING • S O LV E N T • GLOS S
ROFILE • F O R M U L AT I O N • A N A LY T I C A L PROPERTIES • ACRY
NAMEL • INDUSTRIA L C O AT I N G A P P L I C AT I O N S • MILLBAS
AW M AT E R I A L • MILLBASE • PERFOR MANCE PROPERTIES • G
O LV E N T • V ISCOSITY PROFILE • CARB ON BL ACK • TINTING •
LACK PEARL • EASE OF DISPERSION • COLOR DE V ELOPMENT
AS STONE • GLOS S A PPE AR ANCE • JETNESS • A P P L I C AT I O N S
Carbon Black
A Comparison Study for Industrial Coating Applications

INTRODUCTION

Carbon blacks are used widely in industrial coating Several grades of carbon black were tested in the
applications to impart jetness and to provide tinting above formulations. Among them were Cabot’s
strength. Many grades of carbon black are available Regal® 400, Regal 660 and Black Pearls® L
for use in such applications and each will affect carbon blacks. These were compared with two other
coating properties differently. This report is designed commercially available grades of carbon black.
to give sufficient information to assist the formulator Comparisons were made on the basis of color
in selecting grades of carbon black for use in industrial development (both degree of jetness and bluetone),
coating applications.* gloss appearance and tinting strength.

STUDY METHODOLOGY RESULTS SUMMARY

Two formulations are detailed in this study: a high Based on our study, Black Pearls L was found far
solids acrylic polyol formulation based on Setalux® superior in color development versus competitor’s
17-1445 and a high solids saturated polyester products and Cabot’s Regal 400 and Regal 660 when
formulation based on Setal® 26-1035. Although used at equal loading levels of carbon black. This
not included in this report, other resin systems were result applies to Black Pearls L in terms of higher
studied with equal result. For example, Macrynal® jetness in a masstone formulation or increased tinting
516 and Acrylamac® HS 232-2980 acrylic polyol strength. Further, other important properties, such as
resins were found suitable for use in the high solids dispersion stability and coating gloss, were maintained
acrylic polyol formulation. Similarly, Polymac® without compromise in quality. Finally, lower loading
57-5776 polyester resin was found to be a useful levels of Black Pearls L may be used during
alternative in the high solids polyester formulation. formulation if achieving color properties similar to
the competitor’s products is desirable.
Both the acrylic polyol and saturated polyester
resins were formulated into thermosetting enamel Details of the formulations used in this study and the
finishes. In addition to carbon black, each formulation testing results may be found on the following pages of
contained an amino resin, such as Cymel® 325, for this brochure.
the purposes of crosslinking and a dispersion agent.
Several dispersion agents were investigated and one,
DisperBYK® 2000, gave the most favorable results
in terms of achieving a high carbon black loading
with a workable viscosity. For this reason, DisperBYK
2000 was chosen for use in the final formulation.
*See Notice and Disclaimer on the page 10 of this report.
Recommendations for other dispersion agents ®Regal and ®Black Pearls are registered trademarks of CABOT Corporation.
can be found in the Formulation Guide section ®Setal and ®Setalux are registered trademarks of Akzonobel.
®Arylamac and ®Polymac are registered trademarks of McWhorter.
of this brochure. ®Macrynal is a registered trademark of Solution.
®Disperbyk is a registered trademark of Byk-Chemie.
High-Solids Acrylic Enamel
A Thermosetting Acrylic Formulation
for Industrial Coating Applications

PREPARATION OF MILLBASE AND LETDOWN MASTERBATCH MATERIAL


The tables below show the components and their amounts used to prepare both the millbase and the letdown
masterbatch materials. The millbase was prepared by first premixing Setalux 17-1445, xylene, butyl acetate,
DisperBYK 2000 and carbon black at 4000 RPM in a high speed disperser for 10 minutes. Once the pigment
was wet-out, the premix was then recirculated for another 20 minutes through a horizontal media mill using
zirconium oxide media of 1.0 millimeter diameter and a tipspeed 10.0 m/s.

Millbase Formula Parts Description

Setalux 17-1445 (70% N.V.)* 50.00 Vehicle


Xylene 7.81 Solvent
Butyl Acetate 7.81 Solvent
DisperBYK 2000 (40% N.V.) 9.37 Dispersion Agent
Carbon Black 25.00 Pigment
Total 100

Letdown Masterbatch Formula Parts Description

Setalux 17-1445 (70% N.V.) 809.38 Vehicle


Cymel 325 (80% N.V.) 250.00 Melamine Resin
Butyl Acetate 130.00 Solvent
Total 1189.38

To prepare the finish formulation, 10 parts of the millbase and 118.9 parts of the letdown masterbatch were stirred
together at high speed for approximately 10 minutes before application.

Formulation Constants Millbase Finish Formulation

Carbon black loading,% 25 1.93


Total solids by weight, % 63.75 64.40
Pigment/Dispersant ratio, solids 1.00/0.15 N/A
Pigment/Binder ratio, solids 0.71/1.00 0.03/1.00
Crosslinker, % N/A 25

*N.V. = Non-volatiles

Page - 2
Performance Properties
High Solids Acrylic Enamel
MASSTONE COMPARISON

Formulations were diluted with Aromatic 100 to 35-40 seconds with a No. 4 Ford cup before spraying out. All panels
were sprayed onto cold roll steel, flashed off for 20 minutes, then cured at 140°C for another 20 minutes.

Masstone Regal 400 Regal 660 Black Pearls L Competitor 1 Competitor 2

DFT,* mil/micron 1.0/25 1.0/25 1.0/25 1.0/25 1.0/25


Gloss-20 Degrees 99 99 98 98 98
Gloss-60 Degrees 99 99 98 98 98
Color Development †
L* 3.62 2.77 2.20 3.36 3.31
a* -.054 0.00 -0.33 -0.40 -0.23
b* -0.50 -0.13 -1.12 -0.14 0.32
Mc 245 253 274 245 247

*DFT = Dry Film Thickness


†Mc: Mc is the Color Dependent Black Value and was developed by K. Lippok-Lohmer (Farbe + Lack, (1986), vol. 92, p. 1024). It is defined by the equation
Mc = 100[log(Xn/X) - log (Zn/Z) + log (Yn/Y)], where X, Y, and Z are measured tristimulus values. The Mc value correlates well with the human perception
of increased jetness. The higher the Mc value, the higher the jettness of the masstone.
†L* is a measure of the lightness/darkness (lower numbers indicate darker color)
†b* is a measure of blue/yellow (lower numbers indicate bluer color)
†a* is a measure of red/green (lower numbers indicate a greener color)

Page - 3
TINTING COMPARISON (10/90)
Tint formulations were prepared by adding 10 parts of the mill base to 90 parts of awhite base (white base composed
of 20% titanium dioxide and 80% binder based on volume concentration). The formulations were diluted with
Aromatic 100 to 35-40 seconds with a No. 4 Ford cup before spraying out. All panels were sprayed onto cold roll steel,
flashed off for 20 minutes, then cured at 140°C for another 20 minutes.

Tinting (10/90) Regal 400 Regal 660 Black Pearls L Competitor 1 Competitor 2

DFT, mil/micron 1.0/25 1.0/25 1.0/25 1.0/25 1.0/25


Gloss-20 Degrees 75 80 74 74 75
Gloss-60 Degrees 89 90 88 88 88
Color Development
L* 27.48 31.00 25.85 28.95 27.20
a* -0.73 -1.02 -0.64 -0.70 -0.82
b* -3.37 -4.50 -2.35 -3.67 -3.64

Page - 4
High-Solids Saturated Polyester Enamel
Thermosetting Formulation for
Industrial Coating Applications

PREPARATION OF MILLBASE AND LETDOWN MASTERBATCH MATERIAL


The tables below show the components and their amounts used to prepare both the millbase and the letdown masterbatch
materials. The millbase was prepared by first premixing Setal 26-1035, xylene, butyl acetate, DisperBYK 2000 and
carbon black at 4000 RPM in a high speed disperser for 10 minutes. Once the pigment was wet-out, the premix was
then recirculated for another 20 minutes through a horizontal media mill using zirconium oxide media of 1.0 millimeter
diameter and a tipspeed 10.0 m/s.

Millbase Formula Parts Description

Setal 26-1035 (90% N.V.) 40.00 Vehicle


DisperBYK 2000 (40% N.V.) 7.50 Dispersion Agent
Xylene 16.25 Solvent
Butyl Acetate 16.25 Solvent
Carbon Black 20.00 Pigment
Total 100

Letdown Masterbatch Formula Parts Description

Setal 26-1035 (90% N.V.) 520.00 Vehicle


Cymel 325 (80% N.V.) 210.0 Amino resin
Butyl Acetate 330.0 Solvent
Total 1060.0

To prepare the finish formulation, 10 parts of the millbase and 106 parts of the letdown masterbatch were stirred together
at high speed for approximately 10 minutes before application.

Formulation Constants Millbase Finish Formulation

Carbon black loading, % 20 1.7


Total solids by weight, % 59 59.9
Pigment/Dispersant ratio, solids 1.00/0.15 N/A
Pigment/Binder ratio, solids 0.56/1.00 0.03/1.00
Crosslinker, % N/A 25

*N.V. = Non-volatiles

Page - 5
Performance Properties
High Solids Saturated Polyester Enamel
MASSTONE COMPARISON

Formulations were diluted with Aromatic 100 to 35-40 seconds with a No. 4 Ford cup before spraying out. All panels
were sprayed onto cold roll Steel, flashed off for 20 minutes, then cured at 140°C for another 20 minutes.

Masstone Regal 400 Black Pearls L Competitor 1 Competitor 2

DFT,* mil/micron 1.0/25 1.0/25 1.0/25 1.0/25


Gloss-20 Degrees 98 97 98 97
Gloss-60 Degrees 99 98 98 98
Color Development †
L* 3.57 2.44 3.22 2.95
a* -0.42 -0.48 -0.29 -0.31
b* -0.33 -0.36 0.36 0.05
Mc 244 262 243 249

*DFT = Dry Film Thickness


†Mc: Mc is the Color Dependent Black Value and was developed by K. Lippok-Lohmer (Farbe + Lack, (1986), vol. 92, p. 1024). It is defined by the equation
Mc = 100[log(Xn/X) - log (Zn/Z) + log (Yn/Y)], where X, Y, and Z are measured tristimulus values. The Mc value correlates well with the human perception
of increased jetness. The higher the Mc value, the higher the jettnes of the masstone.
†L* is a measure of the lightness/darkness (lower numbers indicate darker color)
†b* is a measure of blue/yellow (lower numbers indicate bluer color)
†a* is a measure of red/green (lower numbers indicate a greener color)

Page - 6
TINTING COMPARISON (10/90)
Tint formulations were prepared by adding 10 parts of the mill base to 90 parts of a white base (white base composed of
20% titanium dioxide and 80% binder based on volume concentration). The formulations were diluted with Aromatic 100
to 35-40 seconds with a No. 4 Ford cup before spraying out. All panels were sprayed onto cold roll steel, flashed off for
20 minutes, then cured at 140°C for another 20 minutes.

Tinting (10/90) Regal 400 Black Pearls L Competitor 1 Competitor 2

DFT, mil/micron 1.0/25 1.0/25 1.0/25 1.0/25


Gloss-20 Degrees 74 73 73 74
Gloss-60 Degrees 88 85 87 88
Color Development
L* 31.03 29.51 34.32 30.96
a* -0.88 -0.74 -0.75 -0.90
b* -3.68 -2.78 -3.68 -3.78

Page - 7
Results:

CARBON BLACK LOADING COLOR DEVELOPMENT


In both the high solids acrylic and polyester formulations, the • Masstone Properties: Black Pearls L showed far superior
carbon black loading of the millbase was found to be limited jetness versus other grades (lowest L* value with strong
by the type of dispersion agent used. Among those dispersing blue and green undertone). Regal 660 exhibited similar
agents tested, DisperBYK 2000 allowed the highest carbon black darkness to Black Pearls L but was found to have
loading levels in the millbase while maintaining a workable much less blue and green undertone. Regal 400
viscosity. was slightly lighter versus Competitor 1 and 2 but
did exhibit bluer undertone.
VISCOSITY PROFILE
Typically, Regal 400 and Competitor 1 carbon blacks gave • Tinting Strength: Black Pearls L also exhibited superior
the lowest millbase viscosity in the study while Black tinting strength versus the other grades studied (again
Pearls L and Competitor 2 carbon blacks exhibited somewhat having the lowest L* value). Regal 400 showed equal
higher viscosity. Formulations with Regal 660 carbon black strength to Competitor 1 and Competitor 2. In the high
consistently gave the highest millbase viscosity in the study. solids acrylic formulation, Regal 660 demonstrated the
lowest tinting strength of the grades studied.
EASE OF DISPERSION
• Loading Level: Because Black Pearls L delivered higher
Most study grades showed similar dispersibility in terms of
jetness and tinting strength when used at the same loading
length of grinding time, fineness of dispersion and dispersion
level as competitive products, it was possible to match
stability. Regal 660 was found to require longer grinding time
the color properties of the competitive products by using
to achieve the same level of dispersion quality as the other
a significantly lower amount of Black Pearls L in the
carbon blacks.
formulations studied.
GLOSS APPEARANCE
Quite similar gloss properties were exhibited for the various
grades of carbon black studied. Formulating with DisperBYK
2000 consistently resulted in the best gloss in all systems.

CABOT GRADES VERSUS COMPETITOR 1 & 2:


REGAL 400 REGAL 660 BLACK PEARLS L BLACKPEARLS L
(75% loading) (100% loading)

Ease of dispersion Similar Harder Similar Similar


Jetness, masstone Lighter Darker Similar Darker
Undertone Bluer Similar Bluer Bluer
Tinting, (10/90) Similar Lighter Similar Darker

Conclusion
This study has shown that Black Pearls L carbon black is an excellent choice for the pigmentation of industrial coatings. When
compared to other grades of carbon black on an equal loading basis, it provides a combination of outstanding jetness, blue tone
and tinting strength.

Page - 8
Formulation Guide

DISPERSION AGENT
To realize the optimum performance of carbon black, the use of a dispersing agent is required in the formulation.
A dispersion agent will improve gloss, color development and stability of the system. The following dispersants are
suggested for systems described in this brochure.

Dispersant Amount (based on solids)

DisperBYK 2000 0.10-0.20/1.0 part of carbon black


DisperBYK 161 0.15-0.30/1.0 part of carbon black
EFKA® 4050 0.15-0.30/1.0 part of carbon black

Also, a combination of Solsperse® 32500 (0.07-0.14/1.0 part of carbon black) and Solsperse® 5000 (0.03-0.06/1.0
part of carbon black) may be used.

SOLVENT
A solvent is needed for bringing down viscosity to ease processing step such as milling, mixing, and spraying.
The following solvents are suggested with these systems.

Solvent Percent (based on total formulation)

Butyl Acetate 10-25%


Xylene 1-10%
Aromatic 100 10-25%

CROSSLINKER
An amino resin can be used for the purpose of crosslinking in these systems. The following amino resins
are suggested:

Crosslinker Percent (based on solids of binder)

Cymel 325 20-25%


Cymel 202 20-25%

DISPERSION
It is important to wet-out the pigment before milling, so a premix of solvents, dispersion agent, pigment, and small
amount of resin is required before milling. This step is accomplished typically using a high speed disperser. A final
milling step using media milling equipment is required to ensure optimal dispersion of the carbon black.

®EFKA is a registered trademark of EFKA Additives.


®Solsperse is a registered trademark of Avecia.

Page - 9
Raw Material Suppliers*

ARYLAMAC HS 232-2980 MACRYNAL 516


MCWHORTER SOLUTIA (VIANOVA RESINS)
847.428.2657 800.964.5224
WWW.EASTMAN.COM WWW.VIANOVA-RESINS.COM

CYMEL 325 POLYMAC 57-5776


CYMEL 202 MCWHORTER
CYTEC
847.428.2657
847.652.6013 WWW.EASTMAN.COM
WWW.CYTEC.COM
DISPERBYK 161 SETAL 26-1035
DISPERBYK 2000 SETALUX 17-1445
BYK CHEMIE
AKZO NOBEL
203.265.2086
800.292.2308
WWW.BYK-CHEMIE.COM
WWW.AKZONOBEL.COM
EFKA 4050
SOLSPERSE 32500
EFKA ADDITIVES
SOLSPERSE 5000
330.920.4 420 AVECIA (ZENECA)
WWW.EFKA.COM
704.561.7340
WWW.AVECIAADDITIVES.COM

Notice and disclaimer. The data and conclusions contained herein are based on work believed to be reliable; however, CABOT
cannot and does not guarantee that similar results and/or conclusions will be obtained by others. This information is provided
as a convenience and for informational purposes only. No guarantee or warranty as to this information, or any product to
which it relates, is given or implied. CABOT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AS TO (i) SUCH INFORMATION, (ii) ANY PRODUCT
OR (iii) INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INFRINGEMENT. In no event is CABOT responsible for, and CABOT does not accept
and hereby disclaims liability for, any damages whatsoever in connection with the use of or reliance on this information or any
product to which it relates.
* All raw materials used were North American versions.
Technical Service Report
Industrial Coating Applications Comparison Study
July 2001

Page - 10
CABOT Corporation Special Blacks Division

NORTH AMERICA EUROPE


Headquarters: Billerica Business and Technical Center Netherlands: CABOT B.V.
157 Concord Road, P.O. Box 7001 P.O. Box 1009
Billerica, Massachusetts 01821-7001 U.S.A. 3180 AA Rozenburg, The Netherlands
Tel: 1-978-663-3455 Tel: (31-181) 291 888
Fax: (31-181) 291 679
Technical Service: Tel: 1-800-462-2313
Fax: 1-978-670-7035 CABOT Leiden Technical Center
P.O. Box 127
Customer Service: Tel: 1-800-526-7591 2300 AC Leiden, The Netherlands
1-678-297-1473 Tel: (31-71) 5600300
Fax: 1-678-297-1498 Fax: (31-71) 5227129

Spain: CABOT S.A.


LATIN AMERICA Delegacion de Ventas
C/Valencia N° 307, 2° 4a
Brazil: CABOT Brasil Industria e Comè rcio 08009 Barcelona, Spain
Ltda. Tel: (3493) 458-7172
~ o Castaldi, 88
Av. Joa Fax: (3493) 458-5848
04517-900 Sa~ o Paulo, SP-Brazil
Tel: (55-11) 5536-0388
Fax: (55-11) 5542-6037

Argentina: CABOT Argentina S.A.I.C. ASIA-PACIFIC


Av. Larrabure, 203 Malaysia: CABOT Specialty Chemicals Inc.
Casilla de Correo 15 Level 14, MNI Tower 2
2804 Campana, Argentina 11, Jalan Pinang
Tel: (54-3489) 420110 50450 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Fax: (54-3489) 420110 Tel: (60-3) 2164-8352
Fax: (60-3) 2162-0253

EUROPE Japan: CABOT Specialty Chemicals Inc.


Shiba Boat Bldg. 5F
France: CABOT France S.A. 3-1-15 Shiba, Minato-ku
Le Nobel 4B Tokyo 105-0014, Japan
2 rue Marcel Monge Tel: 81-3-3457-7561
F-92158 Suresnes Cedex, France Fax: 81-3-3457-7658
Tel: (33-1) 46-97-58-00
Fax: (33-1) 47-72-66-47 Australia: CABOT Australia Pty. Ltd.
P.O. Box 19
Germany: CABOT GmbH 300 Millers Road
Postfach 90 11 20 Altona, Victoria 3018, Australia
D-63420 Hanau, Germany Tel: (61-3) 9391-1622
Tel: (49-6181) 5050 Fax: (61-3) 9391-9370
Fax: (49-6181) 571751
China: CABOT Shanghai Liaison Office
Italy: CABOT Italiana SPA Rm 606-617, Shanghai Central Plaza
Via Baiona 190 381 Huai Hai Road (M.)
48100 Ravenna, Italy Shanghai, China 200020
Tel: (39-0544) 519 511 Tel: (86-21) 5382-0534
Fax: (39-0544) 45 19 46 Fax: (86-21) 5382-7782

England: CABOT Carbon Limited India: CABOT India Limited


Lees Lane NKM International House
Stanlow, Ellesmere Port 178 Backbay Reclamation
South Wirral L65 4HT, England Mumbai 400 020, India
Tel: (44-151) 355-3677 Tel: (91-22) 202-1914
Fax: (44-151) 356-0712 Fax: (91-22) 285-0406

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