Anda di halaman 1dari 23

Jumat, 04 Maret 2011

Kesuburan Biologi (Mikrobiologi)

Tanah dikatakan subur bila mempunyai kandungan dan keragaman biologi yang tinggi

Table 1. Maximum number and biomass (live weight) of soil organisms in a highly fertile
grassland soil

Kind of organism Abundance


(no/m2) Biomass
(g/m2)
Bacteria 3 x 1014 300
Fungi 400
Protozoa 5 x 108 38
Nematodes 107 12
Earthworms and related forms 105 132
Mites 2 x 105 3
Springtails 5 x 104 5
Other invertebrates (snails, millipedes, etc) 2 x 103 36
From: B.N. Richards (1974) Introduction to the Soil Ecosystem

Organisme (mikroorganisme) tanah penting dalam kesuburan tanah karena


1. berperan dalam siklus energi
2. berperan dalam siklus hara
3. berperan dalam pembentukan agregat tanah
4. menentukan kesehatan tanah (suppressive / conducive terhadap munculnya penyakit terutama
penyakit tular tanah-soil borne pathogen)

1. Siklus energi
- Sumber energi utama adalah matahari yang diubah oleh tanaman melalui proses fotosintesis
menjadi bahan organik
- Beberapa mikroorganisme mampu melakukan fotosinthesis (menangkap energi matahari:
algae)
- Sumber energi yang lain adalah hasil oksidasi-reduksi mineral anorganik: S dan Fe
- Energi dalam bahan organik dimanfaatkan oleh organisme/mikroorganisme
- Organisme dekomposer: milipede dll.
- Mikroorganisme dekomposer: jamur dan bakteri
- Mikroorganisme yang tumbuh di rhizosfer memanfaatkan energi dalam eksudat akar: bakteri
Azotobacter

2. Siklus hara
Mikroorganisme mempunyai peran yang sangat penting dalam siklus hara karena:
1. ukurannya yang kecil sehingga mempunyai rasio permukaan:volume yang sangat besar
memungkinkan pertukaran material (hara) dari sel ke lingkungannya dengan sangat cepat⇒
2. reproduksi yang sangat cepat (dalam hitungan menit)
3. distribusi keberadaan yang sangat luas

Macam-macam siklus hara penting


a. Siklus Nitrogen
- Pool N terbesar di udara sebagai gas N2
- N menjadi tersedia melalui proses fiksasi (kimia maupun mikrobiologis)
(nitrogen fixer: rhizobium dll)
- N organik (dalam jaringan mahluk hidup - bentuk protein, asam amino dan asam nukleat)
menjadi N anorganik melalui proses mineralisasi NH4+ (ammonium) == MO dekomposer
- NH4+ mengalami Nitrifikasi oleh Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus dan Nitrosovibrio
- NO2- menjadi NO3- oleh Nitrobacter dan Nitrococcus
- NO3- mengalami Denitrifikasi menjadi NO2- oleh Pseudomonas, Bacillus dan Alcaligenes
- N anorganik dapat diasimilasi oleh mikroorganisme == Imobilisasi

b. Siklus Sulfur
- Oksidasi sulfur menjadi sulfat oleh Thiobacillus, Arthrobacter dan Bacillus
2H2S + O2 2S + 2H2O→
2S + 2H2O + 3O2 → 2SO42- + 4H+
S2O32- + H2O + 2O2 → 2SO42- + 2H+

- Reduksi Sulfat menjadi sulfida (S2-) oleh Desulphovibrio desulphuricans


2SO42- + 4H2 → S2- + 4H2O
c. Siklus fosfor
- Fosfor di alam dalam bentuk terikat sebagai Ca-fosfat, Fe- atau Al-fosfat, fitat atau protein
- Mikroorganisme (Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Aerobacter aerogenes) dapat
melarutkan P menjadi tersedia bagi tanaman

3. Pembentukan agregat tanah


- organisme tanah menghasilkan polimer organik (misal humic dan fulvic acids) yang mengikat
partikel lempung menjadi mikro agregat
- pembentukan mikroagregat menjadi makro agregat dimediasi oleh bahan organik dan berbagai
jenis mikro dan makroorganisme (bakteri, jamur-terutama jamur VAM, algae, cacing, semut,
serangga dsb.).

4. Kesehatan tanah
- tanah suppressive terhadap patogen tular tanah umumnya mempunyai total mikroorganisme
yang lebih besar dari tanah yang kondusif
- kompetisi nutrisi
- Amuba memakan jamur
- populasi Pseudomonas spp (antagonistic bakteria) atau Trichoderma tinggi
Soil Fungi Trichoderma
Fort Collins (condusive)(clay loam) 2 x 103 1 x 102
Colombia (suppressive)(organic) 1 x 108 8 x 105
PENILAIAN KESUBURAN TANAH
Penilaian kesuburan tanah merupakan proses yg mendiagnosis permasalahan unsure hara dan
menerapkan anjuran dlm hal pemupukan.
Proses mendiagnosis msl unsur hara tnm dan menetapkan anjuran pupuk di wil tropika
didasarkan pd pendekatan yg berbeda pd tahap kecanggihan yg berlainan
Program penilaian kesuburan tanah dpt dipilahkan menjadi: uji-tanah, analisis tanaman, omission
element di rumah kaca, uji coba pupuk sederhana

1. Berdasarkan pada uji-tanah


- Salah satu pendekatan yg terpopuler
- Dikembangkan oleh International Soil Fertility Evaluation and Improvement Program, ISFEIP.
- Kesuburan tanah terutama bersangkut dg unsure hara tnm dan kead tanah
- Penilaian menyangkut tk ketersediaan & kesetimbangan hara di dalam tanah, termasuk cara yg
tepat untuk menaksir seluruh faktor tsb (uji-tanah, analisis tnm, sigi tanah, kead iklim)
- Perbaikan meliputi penamb pupuk buatan, gamping, pupuk alam, dan tambahan lain pd tanah
dlm jml, waktu & cara ttt, shg dpt memberi lingkungan hara yg optimum utk memperoleh hsl
panen
- Program penilaian & perbaikan tanah adl khas-tempat & khas keadaan.
- Penggunaan informasi yg bijaksana mencakup pertimb thd bbrp faktor yg pengaruhi prod, tng
kerja, ekonomi & ekologi
- Hanya uji-tanah saja tidak dianggap sbg cara pendekatan yg memuaskan
- Nilai yg diperoleh dlm analisis tanah adl angka empiris yg hanya berarti bila dikorelasikan dg
tanggapan hasil
- Menurut Fitts (1974) melibatkan :
a. pengambilan contoh (tanah dan tanaman), CT hrs benar2 mewakili tapak, krn hanya diuji
sepermilyarnya
b. analisis laboratorium (tanah dan tanaman), perlu metode yg sesuai dan benar
c. hubungan antara analisis dan tanggapan hasil, di rumah kaca & uji coba lapangan
d. penafsiran dan anjuran, berdasarkan hasil
e. memanfaatkan informasi
f. penelitian

2. Berdasarkan analisis tanaman


- berkembang di daerah tanpa system uji-tanah efektif
- untuk tanaman tahunan dan jangka panjang
- Keuntungannya: merangkumkan pengaruh peubah tanah, tanaman, iklim & pengelolaan
- merup ukuran terakhir ketersediaan unsur hara
- kerugiannya: terlambat untuk memperbaiki kondisi hara tanpa menderita kerugian hasil
- Tujuan:
a. Untuk mengenali masalah keharaan dan menetapkan jumlah perbaikannya melalui penentuan
tingkat gawat
b. Menghitung nilai penyerapan unsur hara sbg kunci utk penggunaan pupuk
c. Memantau unsur hara tnm tahunan

3. Berdasarkan pemantauan unsur hara yang hilang


- Termsk menanam tnm penunjuk di dlm rumah kaca atau di lap pd tanah yg diberi pupuk scr
omission element
- Mnrt Chaminade (1972), informasi yg diperoleh adl:
a. unsur hara yang kahat
b. kepentingan nisbi kekahatan itu
c. tingkat yg tunjukkan terkurasnya kesuburan akibat pemotongan/penebangan

4. Uji coba pupuk scr sederhana di ladang petani


- dikembangakan oleh Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
- bertujuan utk memperkenalkan pupuk sbg sarana utk menaikkan hsl panen di tropika
- mengesampingkan keaneka ragaman tanah setempat
- tidak dapat dibuat anjuran khas-tempat

5. Hubungan antara kesuburan tanah dan penggolongan tanah


- anjuran penggunaan pupuk adalah khas-tempat
- perbedaan sifat tanah merup salah satu penyebab utama utk kekhasan menurut tempat
- program penilaian kesuburan tanah hrs berhub erat dg program penyigian dan penggolongan
tanah
Diposkan oleh Azier Mapper di 11:47
http://petaniaceh.blogspot.com/2011/03/kesuburan-biologi-mikrobiologi-tanah.html

azier mapper

Penelitian Populasi Bakteri Tanah di Bukit Siam Sungailiat Kabupaten Bangka Kepulauan
Bangka Belitung

Tanah adalah lapisan luar dari permukaan bumi yang mengalami pelapukan dan terpisah-pisah
dimana proses awal terbentuknya melalui disintegrasi dan dekomposisi dari batuan oleh proses
fisika dan kimia dan dipengaruhi oleh aktivitas dan akumulasi endapan sisa-sisa spesies
mikroskopis dan makroskopis tanaman dan hewan ( Daniel Hillel 1996 ). Tanah merupakan
bahan dasar bagi semua kehidupan di bumi yang merupakan campuran kompleks dan subur
sebagai penyusun tanah yang berperan memberikan kehidupan yang selain sebagai media tumbuh
tanaman juga sebagai kegiatan mikrobiologi.

Ciri-ciri lingkungan tanah bervariasi menurut letak dan iklimnya dan juga memiliki tanah yaitu :
partikel mineral, bahan organik, air, gas, dan jasad ( Koes Irianto 2006 ). Sifat kedalaman tanah,
sebagai contoh, beragam dari satu lokasi ke lokasi lainnya. Tanah-tanah didaerah lembab
umumnya lebih dalam dibandingkan dengan tanah didaerah pegunungan, dan kedalaman tanah
didaerah pegunungan tergantung pada suhu lereng (Daniel Hillel 1996 ).

Keadaan alam Provinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung sebagian besar merupakan dataran rendah,
lembah dan sebagian kecil pegunungan dan perbukitan. Ketinggian dataran rendah rata-rata
sekitar 50 meter di atas permukaan laut dan ketinggian daerah pegunungan antara lain untuk
Gunung Maras mencapai 699 meter di Kecamatan Belinyu (P.Bangka), Gunung Tajam Kaki
ketinggiannya kurang lebih 500 meter diatas permukaan laut di Pulau Belitung. Sedangkan untuk
daerah perbukitan seperti Bukit Menumbing ketinggiannya mencapai kurang lebih 445 meter di
Kecamatan Mentok dan Bukit Mangkol dengan ketinggian sekitar 395 meter di atas permukaan
laut di Kecamatan Pangkalan Baru (Annonim 2010).

Mikrobia tanah adalah bakteri tanah. Bakteri tanah mempunyai banyak sekali manfaatnya antara
lain penyedia unsur hara, terutama unsur nitrogen, penghasil zat pengatur tumbuh seperti
sitokinin, giberelin dan indol asam asetat (IAA), dan mampu melarutkan unsur fosfat yang dalam
bentuk terikat menjadi tersedia, serta sebagai agen biokontrol dan lain-lain (Alexander 1977).

Tingkat kesuburan tanah dipengaruhi beberapa faktor antara lain keanekaragaman mikroba tanah;
faktor iklim seperti suhu, curah hujan, kelembaban; faktor nutrisi dan lingkungan, serta populasi
mikroba yang merupakan indikator tingkat kesuburan tanah (Allen dan Allen 1981).

Jumlah, jenis, dan aktivitas mikrobia dalam tanah dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, antara lain
tersedianya energi dan sumber hara, kondisi fisik, kimia, serta biologi tanah. Sebaliknya aktivitas
mikrobia tanah sangat membantu tersedianya unsur hara yang diperlukan oleh tanaman. Sebagai
upaya untuk mengetahui keberadaan bakteri dari tanah tersebut diatas, maka dilakukan isolasi
bakteri dari tanah tersebut dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui populasi bakteri dari tanah dari
berbagai lokasi dengan kedalaman dan ketinggian yang berbeda-beda di bukit Siam juga faktor
lainnya yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan koloni bakteri tersebut dengan membandingkannya
dengan jumlah koloni bakteri yang ada di daerah bukit Maras dengan harapan didapatkan koleksi
bakteri dari tanah yang selanjutnya dapat digunakan sebagai inokulan (pupuk hayati) pada daerah
tersebut.
Berikut hasil penelitian yang kami lakuka :

A. Hasil

Tabel 2. Hasil perhitungan jumlah koloni bakteri tanah di bukit Siam, Sungailiat
a. Total bakteri pada lokasi I (ketinggian 27 meter)
= 250000+1000000
=1,25 x 106 cfu/g
= 1 x 106 cfu/g

b. Total bakteri pada lokasi I (ketinggian 48 meter)


=100000 + 1000000
=1,1 x 106 cfu/g
=1x 106 cfu/g

c. Total bakteri pada lokasi 2 (ketinggian 126 meter)


=394000 + 1000000
=1,394 x 106 cfu/g
=1x 106 cfu/g

d. Total bakteri pada lokasi I (ketinggian 267 meter)


= 100000 + 1000000
=1,1x 106 cfu/g
= 1x 106 cfu/g

Pada praktikum kali ini digunakan medium PCA, karena untuk praktikum dalam menghitung
jumlah koloni media ini jauh lebih baik sebagaimana yang diuangkapkan dengan Li Partic 2008.
Media PCA ini baik untuk pertumbuhan total mikroba (semua jenis mikroba) karena di dalamnya
mengandung komposisi casein enzymic hydrolisate yang menyediakan asam amino dan substansi
nitrogen komplek lainnya serta ekstrak yeast mensuplai vitamin B kompleks.
Sumber isolat umumnya berasal dari tanah. Hal ini dimungkinkan karena tanah mengandung
berbagai unsur hara yang sangat kompleks sehingga berbagai isolat mungkin dapat diisolasi (Nur
Hidayat 2006). Allen 1981 menyatakan bahwa tingkat kesuburan tanah dipengaruhi beberapa
faktor antara lain keanekaragaman mikroba tanah; faktor iklim seperti suhu, curah hujan,
kelembaban; faktor nutrisi dan lingkungan, serta populasi mikroba yang merupakan indikator
tingkat kesuburan tanah. Kami beranggapan bahwa semakin banyak suatu mikroba yang
diketemukan di tanah maka semakin subur tanah tersebut karena salah satu peran bakteri yakni
bisa menyuburkan tanah.

Penghuni tanah dapat berupa hewan tingkat rendah sampai hewan tingkat tinggi. Kepadatan
tertinggi makhluk hidup dalam tanah ditemui pada horison A, B dan C dan yang paling banyak
terdapat di horison A. Pada kedalaman ribuan meter di dalam tanah pun ditemukan kehidupan
mikroorganisme (McNabb dan Dunlap 1975). Tanah merupakan lingkungan yang baik bagi
mikroorganisme, terutama pada horison A, B dan C. Keberadaan seperti bakteri dan jamur di
dalam tanah paling dominan terdapat pada horison A dan B, walaupun pada kedalaman 900 meter
dibawah permukaan tanah aktivitas mikroorganisme masih ditemukan (Bower 1978).

Pada praktikum ini pengambilan sampel di lakukan pada tiga lokasi berbeda dengan anggapan
bahwa di masing masing lokasi pasti mempunyai jumlah mikroorganisme berbeda pula,
Kemungkinan kandungan organik antara lokasi satu dengan lokasi lainnya mempunyai
kandungan yang tidak sama seperti yang diungkapkan oleh Chrysantee 2009, terdapat korelasi
yang kuat bahwa semakin banyak kandungan organik tanah dan oksigen, maka jumlah dan jenis
mikroorganismenya juga semakin tinggi.

Hasil Penelitian

Hasil praktikum ini menunjukkan bahwa pH rata-rata sampel tanah di masing-masing lokasi
mempunyai kisaran sekitar 6,8. Riesama 2008 juga menyatakan bahwa mikroba umumnya
menyukai pH netral (pH 7). Beberapa bakteri dapat hidup pada pH tinggi (medium alkalin).
Seperti pH pada praktikum kali ini yang kami dapati yakni mendekati pH netral yaitu 7.
Ketidakakuratan dan ketidaktelitian praktikan yang kemungkinan juga menyebabkan
ketidakserasian hasil pengukuran pH dengan literature yang kami dapati dan pengaruh peralatan
yang kurang memadai yang menurut kami juga bisa menjadi kesalahan dalam pengukuran pH.

Hasil praktikum menunjukkan setiap lokasi jumlah koloni bakteri berbeda. Perbedaan tersebut
terjadi diduga salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi adalah kondisi tanah. Pada lokasi pertama
dengan karakter tanah yang berwarna coklat kekuningan dan diduga tanah tersebut adalah jenis
tanah padsolik yang merupakan tanah khas di daerah perbukitan seperti bukit siam ini. Hal ini
sesuai dengan pernyataan dari anonim 2010 yang menyatakan bahwa keadaan tanah di kepulauan
Bangka Belitung ini salah satunya terdiri dari tanah Podsolik dan Litosol yang warnanya coklat
kekuning-kuningan berasal dari batu plutonik masam yang terdapat di daerah perbukitan dan
pegunungan, kuarsa, batu granit, kaolin, tanah liat,dan lain-lain.

Pada lokasi kedua khususnya dilihat dari pengenceran 10 -5 rata-rata jumlah koloninya jauh lebih
tinggi, kami berasumsi bahwa pada lokasi kedua tersebut dengan karakter tanah yang berwarna
coklat kehitaman agak lembab kemungkinan mempunyai bahan organik yang jauh lebih tinggi
dibandingkan dengan kedua lokasi lainnya. Sehingga bakteri dapat melakukan perannya untuk
menguraikan senyawa organik menjadi senyawa anorganik yang akan membuat tanah tersebut
subur dan bisa dimanfaatkan oleh tanaman sebagaimana diungkapkan oleh Chrysantee 2009,
terdapat korelasi yang kuat bahwa semakin banyak kandungan organik tanah dan oksigen, maka
jumlah dan jenis mikroorganismenya juga semakin tinggi. Dan kemungkinan daerahnya yang
lembab sehingga tempat tersebut disukai oleh bakteri.

Pada lokasi ketiga karakteristik sampel tanah yaitu berwarna coklat kehitaman didominasi oleh
perakaran tanaman. Sumarasih 2008 menyatakan bahwa akar tanaman merupakan habitat yang
baik bagi pertumbuhan mikroba. Interaksi antara bakteri dan akar tanaman akan meningkatkan
ketersediaan nutrisi bagi keduanya. Permukaan akar tanaman disebut rhizoplane. Sedangkan
rhizosfer adalah selapis tanah yang menyelimuti permukaan akar tanaman yang masih
dipengaruhi oleh aktivitas akar. Tebal tipisnya lapisan rhizosfer antar setiap tanaman berbeda.
Rhizosfer merupakan habitat yang sangat baik bagi pertumbuhan mikroba oleh karena akar
tanaman menyediakan berbagai bahan organik yang umumnya menstimulir pertumbuhan
mikroba. Kemungkinan koloni bakteri tersebut adalah bakteri yang bersimbiosis dari akar
tanaman, karena sebagaimana hasil yang diketahui bahwa di lokasi ini bayak terdapat perakaran
dari tanaman.

Dibawah ini adalah Tabel Populasi bakteri tanah gunung Maras pada media PCA.

Tabel 3. Populasi bakteri tanah gunung Maras pada media PCA


Pengenceran 10-4
I : 80 x 104 cfu/gram
II : 44,5 x 104 cfu/gram

Pengenceran 10-5
I : 46 x 105 cfu/gram
II : 30 x 105 cfu/gram

Pengenceran 10-6
I : 75 x 106 cfu/gram
II : 37,5 x 106 cfu/gram

Total bakteri I
= 800000 + 4600000 + 75000000
= 80,40 x 106 cfu/gram
= 80 x 106 cfu/gram

Total bakteri II
= 445000 + 3000000 + 37500000
= 40,945 x 106 cfu/gram
= 41 x 106 cfu/gram

Bila dibandingkan populasi bakteri tanah antara di Bukit Siam (Tabel 2) dan Bukit Maras (Tabel
3), jumlah koloni bakteri di bukit Maras jauh lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan jumlah koloni di
bukit Siam. Asumsi kami kemungkinan daerah di sekitar bukit Maras jauh lebih subur
dibandingkan dengan daeran bukit siam, dan kemungkinan nutrisi dan lingkungan di bukit Maras
jauh lebih baik untuk pertumbuhan bakteri sebagaimna yang diungkapkan oleh Allen 1981
menyatakan bahwa tingkat kesuburan tanah dipengaruhi beberapa faktor antara lain
keanekaragaman mikroba tanah; faktor iklim seperti suhu, curah hujan, kelembaban; faktor
nutrisi dan lingkungan, serta populasi mikroba yang merupakan indikator tingkat kesuburan
tanah. Kemungkinan juga kandungan organik pada tanah di bukit Maras jauh lebih tinggi
dibandingkan dengan kandungan organik pada tanah di bukit Siam . Sebagaimana diungkapkan
oleh Chrysantee 2009 , terdapat korelasi yang kuat bahwa semakin banyak kandungan organik
tanah dan oksigen, maka jumlah dan jenis mikroorganismenya juga semakin tinggi.

Kesimpulan

Kesimpulan dari praktikum ini diantara lain yaitu: total bakteri tanah yang ada di bukit siam rata-
rata 1 x 10 6 cfu/g, total bakteri tanah di bukit Maras jauh lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan total
bakteri tanah di bukit Siam dikarenakan kandungan organik pada tanah di bukit Maras jauh lebih
baik sehingga kesuburan tanahnya jauh lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kandungan organik
pada tanah di bukit Siam, dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan koloni bakteri di
Bukit Siam antara lain pH, senyawa organik, jenis lapisan tanah , Oksigen dan sebagainya karena
terdapat korelasi yang kuat bahwa semakin banyak kandungan organik tanah dan oksigen, maka
jumlah dan jenis mikroorganismenya juga semakin tinggi. ***

Foto-foto Hasil Praktikum Bakteri Tanah dari Sampel Tanah di Bukit Siam pada hari Rabu 06
Mei 2010. Penampakan bakteri pada sampel tanah pada ketinggian 27 meter pengenceran 10-5
dan Penampakan bakteri pada sampel tanah pada ketinggian 48 meter pengenceran 10-5.

Proses penimbangan sampel tanah


Proses pembuatan media dan Isolasi Bakteri di Laboratorium Biologi FPPB

Written By :

• Eka Sari (2030811002)


• Ririn Mega Puspita (2030811004)
• Nur Hidayah (2030811010)
• Iis Noveria (2030811017)
• Siltya Virgianty (2030811018)

Para Penulis adalah Mahasiswi untuk Program Studi Biologi Semester IV (Empat) FPPB

Dikirim oleh Admin


Tanggal 2010-05-26
Jam 14:18:20

Baca Juga Artikel Tentang Biologi dan Bakteri Penelitian Sungailiat Mahasiswi
Mahasiswa UBB Lainnya :

• 10 Faktor Genetika (Genetic Factor) yang Membawa Sifat Keturunan


• Sejarah Perkembangan Mikrobiologi
• Keanekaragaman Burung di Vegetasi Padang Dusun Pejem Desa Gunung Pelawan
Kecamatan Belinyu Kabupaten Bangka
• Anatomi Daun Sapu-Sapu di Padang Vegetasi Desa Gunung Pelawan Kecamatan Belinyu
Kabupaten Bangka
• Isolasi Cendawan Tanah Padang Vegetation dusun Pejem Kecamatan Belinyu
• Identifikasi Keanekaragaman Jenis Rayap di desa Pejem Kecamatan Belinyu Kabupaten
Bangka
• Adakah Mamalia di Dusun Pejem desa Gunung Pelawan ?
• Keberadaan Infeksi & Peranan Cendawan Mikoriza Arbuskula (CMA) pada Tanaman
Sapu-Sapu
• Penelitian Populasi Bakteri Tanah di Bukit Siam Sungailiat Kabupaten Bangka
Kepulauan Bangka Belitung
• Struktur dan Komposisi Vegetasi Bukit Siam Bangka
• Isolasi Cendawan Tanah Sebagai Organisme Dekomposer Di Kawasan Hutan Bukit
Siam, Bangka
• Adaptasi Tanaman di Lahan Terganggu dan Tidak Terganggu
• Mie Instant, Enak Tapi Berbahaya (kah)?
• Keanekaragaman Rayap Di Lahan Terganggu Dan Tidak Terganggu (Kontrol)
Kabupaten Bangka
• Pengukuran Roots Shoots Tanaman Ubak di lahan Terganggu dan Tidak Terganggu
• Perbandingan Populasi Colembolla Pada Lahan Terganggu (TB 1.9 Riding Panjang) dan
Lahan Tidak Terganggu

Silahkan Ketik Keyword untuk mencari Artikel, Feature, atau berita yang diinginkan
http://www.ubb.ac.id/menulengkap.php?
judul=Penelitian+Populasi+Bakteri+Tanah+di+Bukit+Siam+Sungailiat+Kabupaten
+Bangka+Kepulauan+Bangka+Belitung&&nomorurut_artikel=429

ANTIBIOTIK BAKTERI
Di lingkungan tanah yang mendapat aerasi cukup, bakteri dan fungi akan
dominan. Sedangkan lingkungan yang mengandung sedikit atau tanpa oksigen,
bakteri berperanan terhadap hampir semua perubahan biologis dan kimia
lingkungan tanah. Bakteri menonjol karena kemampuannya tumbuh dengan cepat
dan mendekomposisi berbagai substrat alam.

Ada berbagai macam pengelompokan bakteri, salah satu penggolongan dilakukan


oleh Winogradsky, membagi bakteri
menjadi 2 kelompok .

1)Autochthonous atau indigenous.


Populasi bakteri ini tidak berfluktiiasi. Nutrien didapat dari zat-zat organik tanah dan
tidak memerlukan sumber nutrien eksternal.

2)Zymogenous atau organisme yang melakukan fermentasi;


populasi golongan ini paling aktif melakukan transformasi kimia. Populasinya
biasanya jarang, tetapi akan tumbuh subur bila ditambah nutrien organik.
Organisme ini melakukan fermentasi dengan cepat dan persediaan makanan cepat
habis. Populasi organisme ini tetap besar bila persediaan nutrien masih ada dan
cepat turun bila sumber makanan berkurang.
Kepadatan dan komposisi bakteri sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi lingkungan, antar
lain kelembaban, aerasi, temperatur, zat organik, keasaman dan anorganik.
Kebanyakan bakteri bacilli dapat bertahan dalam kondisi yang tidak baik
dengan cara membentuk endospora. Endospora dapat bertahan karena
esistensinya terhadap desikasi yang lama dan temperatur tinggi.

Bakteri yang aktif secara biokimia dapat diperiksa dan diisolasi dengan metode
selective culture. Bakteri penghasil antibiotik terutama dari spesies Bacillus
(basitrasin, polimiksin, sirkulin), selain itu juga dari spesies Pseudornonas (Pyocya-
nine), chromobacterium (Iodinin) dan sebagainya. Isolasi bakteri diarahkan pada
jenis yang lebih potensiil misalnyaBacillus. Isolasi Bacillus dapat dilakukan dengan
pasteurisasi suspensi tanah 80°C selama 10 -- 20 menit sehingga sel-sel vegetatif
akan mati Sedangkan endospora akan bertahan. Keinudian inkubasi aerob akan
mengeliminasi jenis organisme
pembentuk spora lainnya (klostridia).

Aktinomisetes

Aktinomisetes merupakan mikroorganisme uniseluler, menghasilkan miselium


bercabang dan biasanya mengalami fragmentasi atau pembelahan untuk
membentuk spora. Mikroorganisme ini tersebar luas tidak hanya di tanah tetapi
juga di kompos, lumpur, dasar danau dan sungai. Pada mulanya organisme ini
diabaikan karena pertumbuhannya pada plate agar sangat lambat. Sekarang
banyak diteliti dalam hubungannya dengan antibiotik.

Jenis organisme ini merupakan penghasil antibiotik yang paling besar di antara
kelompok penghasil antibiotik, terutama dari jenis streptomyces (Bleomisin,
Eritromisin, Josamisin, Kanamisin, Neomisin, Tetrasiklin dan masih banyak lagi). Di
samping itu,anibiotik juga dihasilkan dari aktinomisetes jenis Mikro-
monospora (Gentamisin, Fortimisin, Sisomisin); Nocardia (Rifamisin, Mikomisin) dan
lain-lain.

Di alam, aktinomisetes dapat ditemui sebagai konidia atau bentuk vegetatif.


Populasi di alam dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor seperti kandungan organik, pH,
kelembaban, tempe- ratur, musim, kedalaman dan sebagainya. Di daerah iklim
panas populasinya lebih besar dari pada daerah dingin.
Mikro-
organisme ini tidak toleran terhadap pH rendah. Kebanyakan streptomises gagal
berproliferasi dan aktivitasnya sangat rendah pada pH 5,0. Pada lingkungan pH
tinggi, aktinomisetes mendominasi pertumbuhan mikroorganisme. Di daerah yang
diolah dan masih belum dibuka, 70 -- 90% populasi aktinomisetes adalah
streptomises dan 3/4 isolat streptomises merupakan penghasil antibiotik. Sebagai
organisme heterotrop, aktinomisetes memerlukan substrat organik. Beterapa strain
mampu mendegradasi pati, inulin dan chitin.
Hidrolisis chitin merupakan karakter aktinomisetes. Bahkan Nocardia Sp
mampu memetabolisir molekul organik yang tak lazim seperti
parafin, fenol, steroid & pirimidin. Strain Mikromonospora
mampu mendekomposisi chitin, selulosa, glukosida, pentosan
dan mungkin lignin.

Fungi
Kebanyakan spesies fungi dapat tumbuh dalam rentang pH yang lebih lebar, dari
sangat asam sampai sangat alkali. Populasi fungi biasanya mendominasi daerah
asam, karena
mikroba lain seperti bakteri dan aktinomisetes tidak lazim dalam habitat asam.
Dalam biakan, bahkan fungi dapat tumbuh pada pH 2 -- 3 dan beberapa strain
masih aktif pada
pH 9 atau lebih. Sebagai salah satu organisme penghasil anti-biotik yang terkenaf
yaitu : Penicilium (penisilin, griseoful- vin), Cephalosporium (sefalosporin) serta
beberapa fungi
lain seperti Aspergillus (fumigasin); Chaetomium (chetomin); Fusarium (javanisin),
Trichoderma (gliotoxin) dan lain-lain. Isolasi fungi sering menggunakan plate count.
Pada prinsip-
nya, suspensi contoh tanah dalam air steril, diinokulasikan pada medium agar
spesifik. Untuk menekan pertumbuhan bakteri dan aktinomisetes yaitu dapat
dengan mengasamkan
media sampai pH 4,0. Ini bukan berarti fungi mempunyai pertumbuhan optimum
pada kondisi asam, tetapi untuk mengurangi kompetitor. Selain itu juga dapat
menggunakan
bakteriostatik seperti penisilin, novobiosin dan sebagainya. Sedangkan pada isolasi
yeast, untuk menekan pertumbuhan bakteri dan jamur dapat digunakan sodium
propionat. Populasi
fungi dipengaruhi banyak faktor antara lain oleh zat organik, anorganik, pH,
kelembaban, aerasi, temperatur, musim dan komposisi vegetasi. Komposisi
vegetasi sangat mempengaruhi
populasi misalnya di daerah yang ditanami gandum (oat) fungi yang menonjol
adalah aspergillus, sedangkan penisilium paling banyak di daerah yang ditanami
jagung (corn).

http://wawan-junaidi.blogspot.com/2009/07/mikroorganisme-penghasil-
antibiotik.html

Monday, July 27, 2009


« Buku Kesuburan Tanah
Situs Kesuburan Tanah »
Jurnal Kesuburan Tanah
Posted by nasih pada 19 Februari 2011

JURNAL

1. Agronomy Journal Impact factor: 1.532. Articles relating to original research in soil-plant
relationships; crop science; soil science; biometry; crop, soil, pasture, and range
management; crop, forage, and pasture production and utilization; turfgrass;
agroclimatology; agronomic modeling; statistics; production agriculture; and computer
software are published in Agronomy Journal subsequent to review and approval by the
editorial board. Articles should make a significant contribution to the advancement of
knowledge or toward a better understanding of existing agronomic concepts. The study
reported must be of potential interest to a significant number of scientists and, if specific
to a local situation, must be relevant to a wide body of knowledge in agronomy.
Additional details on requirements for articles are published in Agronomy Journal each
year. https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj (05/12/10)
2. Applied GeochemistryImpact factor: 1.961. Applied Geochemistry is an international
journal devoted to publication of original research papers, rapid research communications
and selected review papers in geochemistry and cosmochemistry which have some
practical application to an aspect of human endeavour, such as the preservation of the
environment, environmental monitoring, agriculture, health, waste disposal and the
search for resources. Papers on applications of inorganic, organic and isotope
geochemistry are therefore welcome provided they meet the main criterion. Topics
covered include: (1) environmental geochemistry (including natural and anthropogenic
aspects, and protection and remediation strategies); (2) hydrogeochemistry, surface and
groundwater; (3) medical geochemistry; (4) agricultural geochemistry; (5) the search for
energy resources (oil, gas, coal, uranium and geothermal energy); (6) the search for
mineral deposits (metalliferous and non metalliferous); (7) upgrading of energy and
mineral resources where there is a direct geochemical application; (8) waste disposal
including the specific topic of nuclear waste disposal.
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/768/description
(05/12/10)
3. Applied Soil Ecology Impact Factor: 2.122. Applied Soil Ecology addresses the role of
soil organisms and their interactions in relation to: agricultural productivity, nutrient
cycling and other soil processes, the maintenance of soil structure and fertility, the impact
of human activities and xenobiotics on soil ecosystems and bio(techno)logical control of
soil-inhabiting pests, diseases and weeds.
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/524518/description
(05/12/10)
4. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science An established journal, in publication for over
thirty years, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science publishes papers over the entire
range of agronomy and soil science: plant nutrition, fertilizers, manure, soil tillage, soil
biotechnology and ecophysiology, amelioration, irrigation and drainag, plant production
on arable and grass land, agroclimatolog, landscape formation and environmental
management in rural region, management of natural and created wetland ecosystem, bio-
geochemical processe, soil-plant-microbe interactions and rhizosphere processe, soil
morphology, classification, monitoring, heterogeneity and scales, reuse of waste waters
and biosolids of agri-industrial origin in soil.
http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/03650340.html (05/12/10)
5. Arid Land Research and Management Impact Factor: 0.612. Arid Land Research and
Management is a common outlet and a valuable source of information for fundamental
and applied research on soils affected by aridity. This journal covers land ecology,
including flora and fauna, as well as soil chemistry, biology, physics, and other edaphic
aspects. The journal emphasizes recovery of degraded lands and practical, appropriate
uses of soils. Reports of biotechnological applications to land use and recovery are
included. Full papers and short notes, as well as review articles and book and meeting
reviews are published. All manuscripts are peer-reviewed for quality and acceptability
before publication. Arid Land Research and Management is a cooperating journal of the
International Union of Soil Sciences. http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/tf/15324982.html
(05/12/10)
6. Australian Journal of Soil Research Impact Factor: 1.007. The Australian Journal of Soil
Research is an international journal for the publication of soil research relating to primary
production, land and water management, environmental pollution, and site remediation.
The journal has a particular, but not exclusive, focus on research that promotes
understanding of soils in Australia, New Zealand, Asia, and the Pacific, as well as those
in other tropical and Mediterranean environments. The primary factor determining
suitability for publication is that the research present new and significant findings on an
issue relevant to soil science. http://www.publish.csiro.au/?nid=84 (05/12/10)
7. Biology and Fertility of Soils Impact Factor: 1.757. Biology and Fertility of Soils
publishes in English original papers, reviews and short communications on all
fundamental and applied aspects of biology ? microflora and microfauna – and fertility of
soils. It offers a forum for research aimed at broadening the understanding of biological
functions, processes and interactions in soils, particularly concerning the increasing
demands of agriculture, deforestation and industrialization. The journal includes articles
on techniques and methods that evaluate processes, biogeochemical interactions and
ecological stresses, and sometimes presents special issues on relevant
topics.http://www.springerlink.com/content/100400/ (05/12/10)
8. Canadian Journal of Soil Science The Canadian Journal of Soil Science is an
international peer-reviewed journal published in cooperation with the Canadian Society
of Soil Science. The journal publishes original research on the use, management,
structure and development of soils and draws from the disciplines of soil science,
agrometeorology, ecology, agricultural engineering, environmental science, hydrology,
forestry, geology, geography and climatology. Research is published in a number of topic
sections including:agrometeorology; ecology, biological processes and plant interactions;
composition and chemical processes; physical processes and interfaces; genesis,
landscape processes and relationships; contamination and environmental stewardship;
and management for agricultural, forestry and urban uses. Reviews, letters to the Editor,
and conference proceedings may also be published, subject to the approval of the Editor.
Special issues, or special sections within regular issues dealing with specific topics, are
published with the approval of the Special Issues Editor. Contributions are published in
English or French with abstracts in both languages. A page charge is payable on
publication. http://pubservices.nrc-cnrc.ca/rp-ps/journalDetail.jsp?jcode=cjss&lang=eng
(05/12/10)
9. Catena Impact factor: 1.933. Catena publishes papers describing original field and
laboratory investigations and reviews on geoecology and landscape evolution with
emphasis on interdisplinary aspects of soil science, hydrology and geomorphology. It
aims to disseminate new knowledge and foster better understanding of the physical
environment, of evolutionary sequences that have resulted in past and current landscapes,
and of the natural processes that are likely to determine the fate of our terrestrial
environment. Papers within any one of the above topics are welcome provided they are of
sufficiently wide interest and relevance.
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/524609/description
(05/12/10)
10. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis Impact factor 0.397. International in
coverage, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis presents recent advances in
soil science and crop production, with particular reference to elemental content of soils
and plants and plant nutrition. Topics include soil chemistry, mineralogy, fertility and
testing of soils, soil-crop nutrition, plant analysis, interpretation of soil tests and plant
analysis, liming and fertilization of soils, and techniques for correcting
deficiencieshttp://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/00103624.asp (05/12/10)
11. Crop Science Crop Science, published bimonthly, is the official publication of the Crop
Science Society of America. The publication is prepared by an editorial board consisting
of an editor and editor-in-chief, technical editors, associate editors, publications director
and managing editor, and the executive vice president. Crop Science publishes original
research in crop breeding and genetics; crop physiology and metabolism; crop ecology,
production, and management; seed physiology, production, and technology; turfgrass
science; crop ecology, management, and quality; genomics, molecular genetics, and
biotechnology; plant genetics resources; and pest management.
https://www.crops.org/publications/cs (05/12/10)
12. Eurasian Soil Science Impact factor: 0.222. The journal publishes original papers on
global and regional theoretical and experimental studies on the problems of the genesis,
geography, physics, chemistry, biology, fertility, management, conservation, and
remediation of soils. Special sections are devoted to current news in the life of the
International and Russian soil science societies and to the history of soil science.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/1064-2293 (05/12/10)
13. European Journal of Soil Biology Impact factor: 1.247. The European Journal of Soil
Biology covers all aspects of soil biology which deal with microbial and faunal ecology
and activity in soils, as well as natural ecosystems or biomes connected to ecological
interests: biodiversity, biological conservation, adaptation, impact of global changes on
soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and effects and fate of pollutants as
influenced by soil organisms. Different levels in ecosystem structure are taken into
account: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems themselves. At each
level, different disciplinary approaches are welcomed: molecular biology, genetics,
ecophysiology, ecology, biogeography and landscape ecology.
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/600777/description
(05/12/10)
14. European Journal of Soil Science Our understanding of soil continues to advance. Better
instruments and new techniques allow us to penetrate its structure and monitor its
behaviour. Developments in statistical theory backed by sound programming and more
powerful computers are leading to more effective survey and spatial prediction. Long-
term experiments continue to provide new insight into the soil’s response to management.
The knowledge and understanding gained are essential for managing land without its
deteriorating, and for protecting and restoring it. They should also underlie sound policies
in land use regionally and nationally. The European Journal of Soil Science, as one of the
premier journals in the field, fosters that understanding by publishing the latest
significant findings of research, the description of new techniques, and up-to-date
authoritative and critical reviews over the whole field of soil science and its applications.
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1351-0754&site=1 (05/12/10)
15. Field Crops Research Impact factor: 2.336. Field Crops Research is an international
research journal publishing scientific articles on experimental research at the field, farm
and landscape level on temperate and tropical crops and cropping systems, with a focus
on crop ecology and physiology, agronomy, plant breeding, and crop management
practices. Studies on soil fertility, nutrient and water use efficiency and management, in
relation to crops and cropping systems are also considered. An economic analysis may be
included if appropriate. The journal will consider submissions on all non-horticultural
crops, including forages and biofuel crops. Research on crop modeling in the above
described areas falls within the scope of the journal. Authors are required to present the
results of field studies and show important new ideas, concepts or principles that have a
more general application. Reviews covering the various subject areas will also be
considered. Authors should contact the Editors-in-Chief before submission. Research
findings of only local significance will not be considered. Articles on horticultural and
non-cultivated crops, crop storage, transportation and usage, and social studies on crops
and cropping systems, are outside the scope of the
journal.http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503308/descripti
on (05/12/10)
16. Geoderma Impact factor: 2.461. Geoderma – a global journal of soil science – welcomes
authors, readers and soil research from all parts of the world, encourages worldwide soil
studies, and embraces all aspects of soil science. The Journal particularly welcomes
interdisciplinary work focusing on dynamic soil processes and their occurrence in space
and time.
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503332/description
(05/12/10)
17. Journal of Crop ProductionThe Journal of Crop Improvement provides an international
forum to evaluate and review latest advancements in basic and applied aspects of crop
production on a global basis. The journal directly addresses emerging issues, new
strategies for new needs, and future challenges of crop production, epscially those leading
to a secure world food supply and resource conservation using environmentally-benign
technologies. The Journal of Crop Improvement intends to create a unique niche in the
crop production literaure-by developing a series of thematic issues on cutting-edge topics
or research fronts in the field-following charter issue. The journal promises to be a
welcome and respected source of unparalleled, preeminent knowledge from articles that
reveal novel concepts; achieve a new symthesis based on multifaceted, multilevel, and
multidisciplinary approaches; identify key gaps in the knowledge that m ight be
addressed by further research; and offer technical solutions to critical global problems in
crop production. Articles are presented in an understandable format which can be directly
utilized by students, teachers, researchers, practitioners, and advisors in the fields of
agronomy, soil science, genetics and plant preeding, molecular biology and
biotechnology, crop physiology and biochemistry, ecology, agroclimatology, plant
pathology, integrated pest management, seed science and technology, agrobiodiversity
and other cognate sciences that are of prime interest to crop production.
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t904099284~db=all (05/12/10)
18. Journal of Environmental Quality Impact factor: 2.098. The Journal of Environmental
Quality (JEQ) is published by ASA, CSSA, and SSSA. Since 1994 it has been published
bimonthly; before that (1972-1993) it was published quarterly. The JEQ editorial board
consists of the editor; associate editors; the managing editor; the Headquarters associate
or assistant editor or editors working on the journal; the editors-in-chief of ASA, CSSA,
and SSSA; the executive vice president; and the director of publications. The journal
publishes contributions under the headings of (i) Technical Reports, (ii) Reviews and
Analyses, (iii) Environmental Issues, (iv) Short Communications, (v) Letters to the
Editor, and (vi) Book Reviews. Papers in JEQ cover various aspects of anthropogenic
impacts on the environment, including terrestrial, atmospheric, and aquatic systems.
Emphasis is given to the understanding of underlying processes rather than to monitoring.
Technical reports published in JEQ are grouped by subject matter. These subject areas are
periodically reviewed by the JEQ editorial board and are subject to change. The subject
matter areas are: atmospheric pollutants and trace gases, biodegredation and
bioremediation, ecological risk assessment, ecosystem restoration, ground water quality,
heavy metals in the environment, landscape and watershed processes, organic compounds
in the environment, plant and environmental interactions, remote sensing and
environmental degredation, surface water quality, urban pollutants, vadose zone
processes and chemical transport, waste management, wetland and aquatic processes.
https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq (05/12/10)
19. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation Impact factor: 2.438. The Journal of Plant Growth
Regulation is an international journal publishing original articles on all aspects of plant
growth and development. Published manuscripts report question-based research using
hormonal, physiological, environmental, genetical, biophysical, developmental or
molecular approaches to the study of plant growth regulation. The journal offers reviews
on highly relevant areas in plant growth and development, including interdisciplinary
studies with an emphasis on plant growth and plant pathology or abiotic stress.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/101567/ (05/12/10)
20. Journal of Plant Nutrition Impact factor: 0.808. This authoritative journal serves as a
comprehensive, convenient source of new and important findings exploring the influence
of currently known essential and nonessential elements on plant physiology and growth.
In addition to offering prompt publication of outstanding original research and review
papers in this vital area of plant and soil science, the journal includes special symposium
issues that focus on essential nutrients, heavy metals, and trace elements. Refereed by an
internationally renowned editorial board ensuring the high level of scholarship, the
Journal of Plant Nutrition provides insightful coverage of nutritional topics, such as:
hydroponics, nutrient requirements for greenhouse crops, container production, media
analysis of pine bark, peat, and artificial media, floriculture production, vegetable crop
production, fruit crop production, ornamental production, tropical crops, foliage
plants,http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/01904167.asp (05/12/10)
21. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science Impact factor: 1.284. A journal that offers
more than soil science: With its focus on soil-plant interactions, the Journal of Plant
Nutrition and Soil Science is one of the leading publications on this topic in Europe and
worldwide. It publishes reviews, high-standard original papers, and short
communications covering the entire spectrum of plant nutrition and soil science. In
addition, book reviews and discussions on current literature are provided, as well as news
from German Soil Science Society (DBG) and the German Society for Plant Nutrition
(DGP). http://www.wiley-vch.de/publish/en/journals/alphabeticIndex/2045/ (05/12/10)
22. Journal of Vegetable Crop ProductionThe International Journal of Vegetable Science
features innovative articles on all aspects of vegetable production, including growth
regulation, pest management, sustainable production, harvesting, handling, storage,
shipping, and final consumption. Researchers, practitioners, and academics present
current findings on new crops and protected culture as well as traditional crops, examine
marketing trends in the commercial vegetable industry, and address vital issues of
concern to breeders, production managers, and processors working in all continents
where vegetables are grown.
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t904385182~db=all (05/12/10)
23. Land Degradation & Development Land Degradation & Development is an international
journal which seeks to promote rational study of the recognition, monitoring, control and
rehabilitation of degradation in terrestrial environments. The journal focuses on: what
land degradation is; what causes land degradation; the impacts of land degradation, the
scale of land degradation; the history, current status or future trends of land degradation;
avoidance, mitigation and control of land degradation; remedial actions to rehabilitate or
restore degraded land; sustainable land management. Land degradation may be defined as
the loss of utility or potential utility through the reduction of or damage to physical,
social, cultural or economic features, and/or reduction of ecosystem diversity. There may
be a single cause or a complex mix of causes, some may be biogeophysical (‘natural’),
some socioeconomic (‘human’) and it is quite possible that cause(s) will be indirect,
perhaps cumulative and difficult to identify. A major challenge is to learn how
interactions between development and environment can be better managed to increase
prospects for ecologically and socially sustainable improvements to human well-being.
Development means attempts to improve human well-being or environmental quality in
rich and poor nations on a sustained basis (sustainable development). Papers are invited
on scientific, social, economic, political and historical aspects of terrestrial environmental
degradation. Also welcome are analyses presenting forecasts of trends, case studies and
discussion on management, planning and policy-making relating to the promotion of
ecological sustainability and the counteraction of land degradation. In addition to original
research papers, regional and thematic reviews, both invited and submitted, will be
included, as will short communications, book reviews and applications of remote sensing
and computer techniques. The members of the Editorial Board are drawn from a
comprehensive range of disciplines and nationalities. Together with a strict refereeing
procedure this will ensure Land Degradation & Development maintains a high standard
and presents material from a wide range of disciplines, from interdisciplinary study and
with an international coverage. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/%28ISSN
%291099-145X (05/12/10)
24. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems Impact factor: 1.350. Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosystems (formerly Fertilizer Research) publishes peer-reviewed papers and short
communications based on original research results of interest to an international
readership. Coverage extends to all aspects of carbon and nutrient cycling as well as
management, their effect in ecological, agronomic, environmental and economic terms.
The range of topics includes agronomic, agro-forestry and fallow systems or system
components such as plants and the fertility, chemistry or microbiology of soils, as well as
system inputs and losses. http://www.springerlink.com/content/100322/ (05/12/10)
25. Pedobiologia Impact factor: 2.414. Soil biology is a rapidly developing field in ecology
and ecosystem studies. Analysis of biological structures, interactions, functions, and
processes in soil is fundamental for understanding natural and managed terrestrial
ecosystems. Such an understanding is a prerequisite for appropriate soil management.
Pedobiologia publishes papers in the field of soil biology (soil zoology and soil
microbiology). The scope of this journal consists in fundamental and applied aspects of
soil biology. Structural characteristics of the community of soil biota, interactions of soil
organisms and the effect of organisms on soil processes are key focal points.
Preferentially experimental work is published but more theoretical, descriptive or
methodological studies and review articles are also included.
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/701792/description
(05/12/10)
26. Plant and Soil Impact factor: 2.519. Plant and Soil publishes original papers and review
articles exploring the interface of plant biology and soil sciences, and offering a clear
mechanistic component. This includes both fundamental and applied aspects of mineral
nutrition, plant-water relations, symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions, root
anatomy and morphology, soil biology, ecology, agrochemistry and agrophysics. Articles
discussing a major molecular or mathematical component also fall within the scope of the
journal. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0032-079X (05/12/10)
27. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo The Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo is a
scientific journal published by the Brazilian Society for Soil Science (SBCS), founded in
1947, and is responsible for the propagation of original and inedited technical-scientific
work of interest for Soil Science. Contributions must not have been previously published
or submit to other periodicals, with the only exception of articles presented in
summarized form at professional meetings.
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php/script_sci_serial/pid_0100-0683/lng_en/nrm_iso
(05/12/10)
28. Scientia AgricolaScientia Agricola is a bimonthly journal edited by the University of São
Paulo, Campus “Luiz de Queiroz”, Piracicaba, with the objective of publishing original
articles prepared by national and international experts which contribute to the scientific
development of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issues&pid=0103-9016&lng=en&nrm=iso
(05/12/10)
29. Soil & Sediment Contamination Impact factor: 0.899. When it comes to assessing and
mitigating contaminated soils and sediments, there is no substitute for having the very
latest tools, techniques and methodologies at your fingertips to help you deal with these
issues efficiently and cost-effectively. This is just the kind of essential expertise you’ll
only find in Soil and Sediment Contamination. This bimonthly, internationally peer-
reviewed publication focuses on soil and sediment contamination from: Sludges,
Petroleum, Petrochemicals, Chlorinated hydrocarbons, Pesticides, Lead and other heavy
metals. Get detailed descriptions of all the latest and most efficient offsite and in situ
remediation techniques, strategies for assessing health effects and hazards, and tips for
dealing with everyday regulatory and legal issues. With the state-of-the-art tools that Soil
and Sediment Contamination provides, you can successfully assess, mitigate, and solve
both rural and urban soil contamination problems as efficiently and economically as
possible. Receive scientific and technical information, data, and critical analysis in:
Analytical chemistry, Site assessment, Risk assessment issues, Environmental fate, Risk
management, Environmental modeling, Regulatory programs and policies, Remediation
technologies/Corrective actions, Legal consideration.
http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/10588337.asp (05/12/10)
30. Soil & Tillage Research Impact factor: 2.883. This ISTRO-affiliated journal examines the
physical, chemical and biological changes in the soil caused by tillage and field traffic.
Manuscripts will be considered on aspects of soil science, physics, technology,
mechanization and applied engineering for a sustainable balance among productivity,
environmental quality and profitability. The following are examples of suitable topics
within the scope of the journal of Soil and Tillage Research:- The agricultural and
biosystems engineering associated with tillage (including no-tillage, reduced-tillage and
direct drilling), irrigation and drainage, crops and crop rotations, fertilization,
rehabilitation of mine spoils and processes used to modify soils. Soil change effects on
establishment and yield of crops, growth of plants and roots, structure and erosion of soil,
cycling of carbon and nutrients, greenhouse gas emissions, leaching, runoff and other
processes that affect environmental quality. Characterization or modeling of tillage and
field traffic responses, soil, climate, or topographic effects, soil deformation processes,
tillage tools, traction devices, energy requirements, economics, surface and subsurface
water quality effects, tillage effects on weed, pest and disease control, and their
interactions.
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503318/description
(05/12/10)
31. Soil Biology & Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.978. Soil Biology & Biochemistry
publishes original and scientifically challenging research articles and short
communications that present new findings and their possible applications. The ecology
and biochemical activities of soil organisms and their effects on the environment and
plant growth are major topics. The journal also publishes state-of-the-art reviews of
current research that provide significant and novel hypotheses as well as comments and
arguments about specific and often controversial aspects of life in the soil. The scope of
Soil Biology & Biochemistry is wide and embraces accounts of recent original research
on any aspect of the biology and biochemistry of soils. Some of the subjects that are
receiving increasing attention are: modelling of soil biological and biochemical
processes; the influence of climate change; effects of the introduction of genetically
modified organisms; application and outcomes of biotechnology on the soil environment
and its biological functions; novel molecular approaches to explore community dynamics
and processes; microbial and plant signalling mechanisms; effects of invasive species;
soil structure-biota interactions; and relationships between the biota and soil physico-
chemical
properties.http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/332/descriptio
n (05/12/10)
32. Soil Science Impact factor : 0.974. Soil Science publishes manuscripts that describe
original investigations of soils processes including examination of soil-plant
relationships, the role of soil in ecological processes, and evaluation of reclamation and
soil management. Critical analyses of soils issues of current concern to the general soil
science community are also considered.
http://journals.lww.com/soilsci/pages/default.aspx(05/12/10)
33. Soil Science Society of America Journal The Soil Science Society of America Journal
(SSSA Journal), published bimonthly, is the official publication of the Soil Science
Society of America. The editorial board consists of an editor-in-chief, technical editors,
associate editors (including at least one representative for each division of SSSA), a
managing editor, the Chief Executive Officer, and the Director of Publications. The
SSSA Journal publishes papers on original research, issue papers, reviews, comments and
letters to the editor, and book reviews. Papers of appropriate subject matter usually less
than two printed pages may be submitted as notes. Invitational papers may be published
in the journal if accepted by the editorial board. https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj
(05/12/10)
34. Soil Use and Management Impact factor: 2.027. Soil Use and Management publishes
research papers, reviews, short communications and informed comment on the wide
range of applications of soil science and provides an international forum for those
applying scientific principles to understand and solve important soil problems as they
affect crop production and environmental issues. Soil Use and Management provides an
international forum for those applying scientific principles to understand and solve
important soil problems as they affect crop production and environmental issues.
Published four times a year on behalf of British Society of Soil Science, Soil Use and
Management contains highly relevant, original research and aims to communicate an
understanding of management techniques for the sustainable use of land. Papers taking a
broad view of ‘use’ and ‘management’ covering agriculture, forestry and amenity
provision are accepted. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN
%291475-2743 (05/12/10)

http://nasih.wordpress.com/2011/02/19/jurnal-kesuburan-tanah/