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LMECE100: INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS

LABORATORY MANUAL
ECE 100

INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICAL
ELECTRONICS
LMECE100: INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS

Table of contents

Title Page no.

1 Working principle of the Water level indicator circuit 3

2 Working principle of the Touch operated switch 4

3 Working principle of the NOT gate using transistor 5

4 Working principle of the IR switch 6

5 Working principle of the Rain alarm 7

6 Working principle of the Light operated switch 8

7 Working principle of the Soft switch for electrical appliances 9

8 Working principle of the UM-66 base melody generator 10

9 Working principle of the Thermister based heat indicator 11


10 Working principle of the Direction control for DC motor 12

TEXT BOOKS: EFY project books vol 1-5.


LMECE100: INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS

1. Title: Realization of water level indicator on bread board.

Apparatus required:

S. No Apparatus Specifications Qty. Tolerance


1 Transistor BC548 4 NA
2 LED 3 NA
3 Resistor 220 Ohm 6 +/- 5%
4 Buzzer
5 Battery 9v 1

Learning Objective: Application of transistor as an amplifier.


Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
• Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram.
• Empty the water container initially.
• Start increasing the water level slowly.
LMECE100: INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the sequential glowing of LEDs as the water
level increases, also the ringing of Buzzer at overflow.

Cautions:
Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear.
Do not short circuit +ve and –ve terminals of battery at any point in circuit.
Do not give direct supply to LEDs.

2. Title: Realization of Touch operated switch on bread board

Apparatus required:

S. No Apparatus Specifications Qty. Tolerance


1 Resistor 1K,100k,10M 1 +/- 5%
2 IC 555 NE555 1
3 Buzzer 1
4 Capacitor 10uF 1
5 LED 1

Learning Objective : Application of IC 555.

Circuit Diagram:
Procedure:
• Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram.
• Touch the plates with finger.
• The LED will glow.
LMECE100: INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the glow of LED as we touch the plates and the
ringing of Buzzer.

Cautions:
Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear.
Do not short circuit +ve and –ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit.
Do not give direct supply to LEDs.
Give proper supply to IC 555.

3. Title: Realization of NOT gate using transistor.

Apparatus required:

S. No Apparatus Specifications Qty. Tolerance


1 Transistor BC548 1
2 Resistor

Objective: Application of Transistor as switch.

Circuit Diagram:
Procedure:
• Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram.

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the voltage at Base and Collector with
Multimeter.

Cautions:
Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear.
Do not short circuit +ve and –ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit.

4. Title: Realization of the IR switch.

Equipment Required: Wires, Multiple Power Supply, & multimeter.

Material Required: ICs (555, SOTP IR Rx), Capacitor (0.1 F, 4.7 F), Resistors (1K,
22K, 330K, 10K, 100K, variable 20K), Battery (5 V), IR LED and LED.

Objective: Use of IR- transmitter and receiver.

Circuit Diagram:

Figure 1
Procedure:
Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram LED 1 should glow.
Interrupt IR light to reach IR Rx.

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the difference on LED 1 while interrupting the
path. LED 1 glows when there is no interruption and it turns off when there is any
interruption.

Cautions:
Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear.
Do not short circuit +ve and –ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit.

5. Title: Realization of the Rain Alarm circuit.

Apparatus required:

S. No Apparatus Specifications Qty. Tolerance


1 IC timer NE 555 1
2 Water sensor 1
3 Capacitor 0.01uF(2),1uF 3
4 Resistor 10K 1
5 Var resistor 500k 1

Objective: Application of IC 555.

Circuit Diagram:
Procedure:
• Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram.
• Wet the water sensor.
• The speaker will produce sound.
LMECE100: INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICAL ELECTRONICS

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the sound of speaker as we wet water sensor.

Cautions:
Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear.
Do not short circuit +ve and –ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit.
Give proper supply to IC 555.

6. Title: Realization of the Light Operated switch on bread board.

Apparatus required:

S. No Apparatus Specifications Qty. Tolerance


1 Transistor BC548 1
2 Var Resistor 100K 1
3 Relay 1
4 LDR 1
5 Bulb 60 W 1
6 Bulb holder 1

Objective: Application of LDR.


Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
• Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram.

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the Bulb which turns on when light falls on
LDR as Relay switches on the supply to bulb.

Cautions:
Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear.
Do not short circuit +ve and –ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit.
Be very careful of AC supply, do not touch bare wires.

7. Title: Realization of Soft switch for Electrical appliances.

Equipment Required: Wires, Multiple Power Supply & multimeter.


Material Required: Bulb holder,2-ON/OFF switch, IC-CD4027,
Capacitor(0.47uF), Transistor(SL100), Relay, LDR, Bulb(60 W) &
resistor(47K & 8.2K ).

Learning Objective: Application of IC-CD4027.


Procedure:
Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram.
Press the ON/OFF button and turn on the electrical
device.
Circuit Diagram:

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the electrical appliance which


turns on when we press soft ON/OFF switch as Relay switches on the supply to
appliance.

Cautions:
Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear.
Do not short circuit +ve and –ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit.
8. Title: Realization of the UM-66 base melody generator on bread board.

Apparatus required:

S. No Apparatus Specifications Qty. Tolerance


1 IC UM 66 1
2 Resistor 0.1uF 1
3 Capacitor 4.7K 1
4 Battery 4.5 v 1
5 Speaker 1
6 Transistor HE8050S 1

Objective: Application of IC-UM66.

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
• Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram.

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the melodious sound from speaker when we
switch on the supply.
9. Title: Realization of Thermister based heat indicator.

Equipment Required: Wires, Multiple Power Supply & multimeter.


Material Required: Thermister (DC95Y103W ), preset resistor, LED
Darlington Transistor (BC-618), Hair Drier.

Learning Objective: Application of Thermister.

Procedure:

Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram.


Switch on Drier and see the LED glowing.

Circuit Diagram

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the melodious sound from


speaker when we switch on the supply.

Cautions:
Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear.
Do not short circuit +ve and –ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit..
10. Title: Realization of the Direction control for DC motor circuit.

Apparatus required:

S. No Apparatus Specifications Qty. Tolerance


1 Resistor 10K,2.2K 2 each +/- 5%
2 Diodes IN4007 5
3 Transistor Bc 548 4
4 DC motor 12v

Objective: Application of TRANSISTOR as switch.

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
• Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram.

Scope of result to be reported: Observe the direction of rotation of motor as we turn on


the switches S1 and S2 alternately.
Cautions:
Connect circuit very carefully with all connections tight and clear.
Do not short circuit +ve and –ve terminals of supply at any point in circuit.