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Leadership Styles:

Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans and
motivating people. There are a number of different approaches, or 'styles' to leadership and
management that are based on different assumptions and theories. The style that individuals use
will be based on a combination of their beliefs, values and preferences, as well as the
organizational culture and norms which will encourage some styles and discourage others.

• Charismatic Leadership: The Charismatic Leader gathers followers through dint of

personality and charm, rather than any form of external power or authority. It is
interesting to watch a Charismatic Leader 'working the room' as they move from person
to person.
• Michigan theory: Michigan theory conducted after world war two. It is one dimensional
and identifies tow basic leadership styles- Production oriented and Employee oriented.
• Ohio theory: Ohio theory of leadership conducted after world war two. It is two
dimensional and a leader could possess varying amount of both dimensions. Two
dimensions are- Consideration and Initiating Structure.
• Path-goal theory: Path goal theory contains two groups of contingency variables: (1)
Employee characteristics (locus of control, need for achievement), (2) Environmental
factors (employee’s task, authority influence). It based on expectancy theory; here
followers are motivated to follow -- to do whatever is requested of them by the leader --
if they are in a position to satisfy their own, dominant needs.
• Iowa theory: In the 1930s, before behavioral theory became popular, Kurt Lewin and
associates conducted studies at the University of Iowa that concentrated on the leadership
style of the manager. Their studies identified two basic leadership styles: 1. Autocratic
leadership style, 2. Democratic leadership style
• Trait theory:
• Group-exchange theory
• Contingency theory
• Participative Leadership: A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions,
seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers,
superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is within the managers' whim to
give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the
immediate team.
• Situational Leadership: The leaders' perception of the follower and the situation will
affect what they do rather than the truth of the situation. The leader's perception of
themselves and other factors such as stress and mood will also modify the leaders'
• Transactional Leadership: The transactional leader works through creating clear
structures whereby it is clear what is required of their subordinates, and the rewards that
they get for following orders. Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also
well-understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place.
• Transformational Leadership: Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful
and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about
you and want you to succeed. Transformational Leadership starts with the development
of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers.
• The Quiet Leader
• Servant Leadership

Mr. Jafor is self- confident; he has the complete confidence in his judgment and ability. He also
has the vision of idealized goal and also has the ability to articulate that vision. He is perceived
as being strongly committed and willing to take on high personal risk, and engage in self-
sacrifice to achieve his vision. His behavior is out of the ordinary; perceived as being novel,
unconventional, and counter to norms. Mr. Jafor is also able to make realistic assessments of the
environmental constraints and resources needed to. So, from the leadership point of view, Mr.
Jafor possesses charismatic leadership.