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DESKRIPSI

 Mata kuliah ini membahas persoalan warga negara Indonesia dalam kehidupan berbangsa
dan bernegara.
 Pokok bahasannya mencakup :
1. Hak asasi manusia hak & kwjb WNI
2. Nilai-nilai kebangsaan & bela negara,
3. Demokrasi,
4. Wawasan Nusantara,
5. Ketahanan Nasional.
PENDAHULUAN
Tujuan mata kuliah :
* Agar mhs memiliki penget ttg nilai-nilai kemanusiaan, kebangsaan, hak dan kewajiban
warganegara.
* Agar mhs memiliki peran dan kemampuan untuk membela negara scr benar dan kritis. (Patriotik)
Pendahuluan . . .
 Istilah/ kata kunci :
 Warganegara (citizen, civics)
 Penduduk (inhabitant, population)
 Bangsa (nation)
 Rakyat (people)
 Negara/ (state, country)
Warganegara & Penduduk
 Warganegara Indonesia: orang-orang bangsa Indonesia asli dan bangsa lain yg disahkan dg
UU. (UUD 45, psl 26 ayat 1)
 Kewarganegaraan (citizenship)
- sejak lahir: asas ius-soli dan atau ius-sanguinis
- perkawinan
- naturalisasi
Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan (Civic Education)
 Penduduk : warga negara Indonesia dan orang asing yg bertempat tinggal di Indonesia. (UUD
45, psl 26 ayat 2)

WHAT IS NATION?
 Makna antropologis : bangsa adalah sekelompok manusia yang memiliki keterikatan karena
adanya kesamaan fisik, bahasa, dan adat budaya.
 Makna politis : bangsa adalah sekelompok manusia yang terikat oleh kesamaan nasib dan
tujuan.
 Ernest Renan (1882) : bangsa adalah persoalan kejiwaan; suatu asas rohani; yang berpijak
pada nilai-nilai warisan masa lampau dan persetujuan sekarang untuk hidup bersama (le desir
d’etre ensemble).
Renungkan Sumpah Pemuda
28 Oktober 1928

 Berbangsa satu, bangsa Indonesia.


 Bertanah air satu, tanah air Indonesia.
 Menjunjung bahasa persatuan, bahasa Indonesia.

Rakyat
 Camkan istilah-istilah sbb : kedaulatan rakyat; kerakyatan; MPR; DPR; ekonomi kerakyatan;
“dari rakyat, oleh rakyat, dan untuk rakyat”; dll !
 Bandingkan istilah “rakyat” dan “bangsa” !
HUMAN RIGHT

 PENGERTIAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA (HAM)


Hak-hak dasar yg melekat pd diri manusia sebagai karunia Tuhan secara kodrati, universal dan
abadi.
 MACAM-MACAM HAM :
 1. Hak asasi pribadi : hak hidup, kebebasan
berpendapat, beragama dan bergerak.
 2. Hak asasi ekonomi : memiliki sst, membeli &
menjual, medapatkan pekerjaan, berdagang.
 3. Hak asasi politik : hak pilih, hak dlm
pemerintahan, ikut Parpol
 4. Hak asasi sosial budaya : pendidikan,
kesehatan, adat-budaya, berkeluarga.
 5. Hak asasi hukum & peradilan : perlindungan
hukum, prosedur peradilan.
 6. Hak asasi Hankam: membela negara, rasa aman.
Perkembangan HAM (Umum)
*. Piagam Agung (Magna Charta, 1215) di Inggris.
* Petition of Rights, 1628, Raja Charles I di Inggris.
* Habeas Corpus Act , 1679, Raja Charles II di Inggris.
* The Glorious Revolution yg menghasilkan Bill of Rights pd th 1689.

* Pemikiran para filsuf :


1. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) : Homo homini lupus; bellum omnium
contra omnes.
2. John Locke (1632-1714) : Right of life; right of liberty; right of
property.
3. Rousseau (1712-1778): Du Contract Social.
4. Montesquieu (1689-1755 ) : Trias Politica.

* Revolusi Amerika dg Declaration of Independence (4 Juli 1776) :


persamaan derajat manusia, hak hidup, hak merdeka, dan kebebasan untuk bahagia.
* Revolusi Perancis dg semboyan Liberte, egalite, fraternite (kemerdekaan, persamaan, persau-
daraan); kemudian melahirkan Declaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen (Pernyataan Hak
Asasi Manusia dan Warga negara) pd 27 Agustus 1789.

* Setelah terjadi Perang Dunia I, Presiden AS, Franklin D. Roosevelt, pd th 1941 menyatakan The
Four Freedoms :
1. Freedom of speech, 3. Freedom from fear,
2. Freedom of religion, 4. Freedom from want.

* Setelah Perang Dunia II, berdirilah Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa yg di dalamnya ada Komisi Hak
Asasi Manusia yg merumuskan Universal Declaration of Human Rights, sebanyak 30 pasal.
Deklarasi ini diterima secara bulat oleh sidang Majelis Umum PBB pd 10 Desember 1948.

HAM DALAM PERKEMBANGAN KONSTITUSI DI INDONESIA


 UUD 1945 : pasal 27 s/d pasal 34.
 Konstitusi RIS 1949 : pasal 7 s/d pasal 41.
 UUDS 1950 : pasal 7 s/d pasal 43.
 UUD 1945 setelah diamandemen ke-2 th 2000 : pasal 27 s/d 34 dg tambahan BAB X-A
tentang HAM (pasal 28A s/d 28J =10 pasal).

HAK & KEWAJIBAN


Pandangan bangsa Indonesia :
 Keseimbangan antara HAM & KAM (Hak Asasi Manusia & Kewajiban Asasi Manusia)
 Pemenuhan hak & kewajiban yg seimbang  KEADILAN
Problem / kasus HAM
 Hukuman pidana mati
 Euthanasia (mercy killing)
 Aborsi
 Pembunuhan dan Bunuh diri
 KDRT
 Perdagangan wanita dan anak
IDENTITAS BANGSA :
• Weltanschauung; Way of life (Pandangan Hidup)
• Puncak-puncak budaya Nusantara (local genius)
• Kenyataan multikultural  Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
• Karakter positif bangsa : ramah, gotong-royong, kekeluargaan, cinta damai, dll.
• Integrasi nilai religius, moral, dan kultural

Identitas Negara
. Berdasarkan unsur-unsur negara :
* Wilayah,Rakyat/ penduduk, Pemerintahan, Kedaulatan, Pengakuan (eksternal& tentatif)
 Dasar Negara : Pancasila
 Konstitusi
 Lambang / simbol kenegaraan

Unsur-Unsur Negara
* Wilayah : Kepulauan Nusantara (>17500)
* Rakyat/ penduduk : +240 juta jiwa
* Pemerintahan : Republik & Presidensial
* Kedaulatan Rakyat (Demokrasi)
* Pengakuan (eksternal & tentatif)

Mereka yang membela :


* Identitas bangsa dan negara
* Integritas bangsa dan negara
* Kelangsungan eksistensi bangsa dan
negara
* Membela kebenaran dan kebaikan

Alasan Bela Negara


 Kemerdekaan sbg hasil perjuangan para pahlawan bangsa
 Hak & kewajiban warga negara
 Letak wilayah strategis – di jalur perdagangan dunia
 Kekayaan alam melimpah
 Jumlah penduduk besar
 Ketegangan dunia meningkat
 Masih terjadi perlombaan senjata
Hargailah Jasa Pahlawan
Beberapa dokter yang pahlawan :
 - dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo
 - dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo
 - dr. Sutomo
 - dr. Gunawan
 - dr. Radjiman Widyodiningrat
 - dr. Setiabudi Danudirdjo (E.F.E. Douwes
Dekker)
 - dr. Sardjito

PAHLAWAN KEMERDEKAAN
1. Ir. Soekarno 7. Fatmawati
2. Drs. Moh. Hatta 8. MH Thamrin
3. Mr. Moh Yamin 9. Jend Gatot S
4. Mr. Soepomo 10. Abd Kahar M
5. KH. Wahid Hasyim 11. dll.
6. Jendral Sudirman
DEMOCRACY

 Pengertian demokrasi
 Ciri-ciri demokrasi dan perbandingannya dengan monarkhi
 Kelebihan dan kekurangan demokrasi
 Problematika demokrasi di Indonesia

Pengertian Demokrasi
 Etimologis :
demos =rakyat; kratein/kratos = pemerintahan/ kekuasaan.
demokrasi = rakyat berkuasa
(government of rule by the people)
 Terminologis :
Demokrasi adalah pemerintahan atau kekuasaan dari rakyat, oleh rakyat, dan untuk rakyat.

Tujuan Utama Demokrasi


 1. Menyelesaikan konflik secara damai dan melembaga.
 2. Menjamin perubahan masyarakat secara damai.
 3. Melaksanakan pergantian pimpinan (suksesi) secara
teratur.
 4. Menekan tindak kekerasan sampai minimum.
 5. Mengakui keanekaragaman (toleransi).
 6. Menjamin penegakan keadilan.

(Henry B. Mayo, 1960, An Introduction to Democratic Theory.)


Syarat / Ciri Pemerintahan Demokratik
 1. Ada perlindungan HAM secara konstitu-
sional.
 2. Ada badan kehakiman yang bebas dan
tidak memihak.
 3. Ada PEMILU yang bebas.
 4. Ada kebebasan menyatakan pendapat.
 5. Ada kebebasan berserikat dan beroposisi.
 6. Ada pendidikan kewarganegaraan.
(Komisi Internasional Ahli Hukum, 1965)
Kelemahan Demokrasi
 Proses pengambilan keputusan lama dan banyak biaya.
 Cenderung mementingkan segi kuantitas suara; dan kurang mementingkan kualitas
 Mayoritas yg berkuasa cenderung menindas minoritas (tirani mayoritas).
 Jika menemui jalan buntu dapat menimbulkan anarkhi.
Catatan : Bandingkan dengan Monarkhi !!!
Problem dlm Demokrasi
 Pemahaman dan kesadaran masyarakat rendah.
 Perilaku money politic.
 Orientasi kursi jabatan dan uang.
 Kecurangan dlm Pemilu & Pilkada.
 Konflik horisontal antar Parpol.
The Basic Structure and Analysis of Medical Terms

By
E. Suryadi
Madarina Julia
GINECOLOGY: Cervix Sarcoma
(Adopted from: Gordon Reeves & Ian Todel. 1996: Lecture Notes on Immunology.pp: 258)
• 1. Abnormal proliferation of the cells of the immune system takes many forms, e.g.
leukaemia, lymphoma, myeloma, macroglobulinemia and heavy chain diseases.

• Cryoglobuminemia and amyloidosis are also associated with the abnormal production of
proteins involved in the immune respons.

History
• a vocabulary from ancient Greek and Latin
• Ancient doctors, e.g. Hippocrates:
epilepsy, dysentery, asthma, diarrhea
• New advances in medical science – new terms derived from everyday vocabulary,
e.g. cyt – kytos (hollow container)-cell
Why do we need to learn medical terminology ?
To speak and to write exactly

Health professional around the world use medical vocabulary to speak and to write exactly

International language
How do we learn medical terminology?
• like learning other languages: memorize the vocabulary!!
• logical language:
→ most terms can be broken down into its basic component parts and understood
→ “basic word structure”

Basic Word Structure


Commonly Used
Roots, Prefix and Suffix
WORD ROOT
• FOUNDATION OF THE WORD
PREFIX
• WORD BEGINNING
SUFFIX
• WORD ENDING
COMPOUND WORD
• TWO OR MORE WORD ROOTS
LEUKOCYTE
SUFFIX or COMPOUND SUFFIX FORM
Correlate an understanding of a word with basic anatomy, physiology, and disease process of the
human body
PANCYTOPENIA
• PAN : all
• CYT : cell
• PENIA : deficiency

LEUKEMIA
• LEUK (root): white
• EM (root): blood
• IA (suffix): state (noun)
• EMIA (compound-suffix form): state of blood
The origin of
a medical term
• Greek noun or adjective
• Greek verb
• Latin noun or adjective
• Latin verb

 Influence how it was used in modern medical term


Greek nouns and adjectives (1)
Root of a noun or an adjective is found by dropping the ending (os, on, e, s, ys)
nephros – nephritis
neuron – neuritis
leukos – leukemia
tachys – tachypnea
glykys -- glycemia
Greek nouns and adjectives (2)
… when a suffix begins with a consonant attached to a root ends with a consonant, a
combining vowel is needed

leukocyte
neurogenic
nephroblast

so…drop the combining vowel before a suffix beginning with a vowel


• GASTRIC, and not GASTROIC
• LEUKEMIA, and not LEUKOEMIA

but… retain the combining vowel between two roots in a word

• GASTROENTERITIS
• ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM
Greek nouns and adjectives (3)
Some words may come in two combining forms:
Greek Verbs
Latin Nouns
Combining form of a noun is found by dropping the ending (a, um)

fistula – fistulectomy
vagina – vaginoplasty
lympha – lymphogen
ileum – ileostomy
cerebrum – cerebrovascular
palatum – palatorrhaphy

Tissue
Tissues may have different terms in normal and diseased states

normal and abnormal


normal and abnormal
Tissue
• ADIPOSE TISSUE
• Fascia adiposa
• LIP/O : FAT
– Lipolysis
– Lipogenesis
– Lipodystrophy
– lipoma

Tissue
• OSSEUS/OS
• Os femur, os radius, os pallatum, medulla osseum
• OSTE/O - : BONE
– Osteogenesis imperfecta
– Osteoblast
– Osteomyelitis

Tissue
• NERVUS
• Nernus ischiadicus, n. axillaris
• NEUR/O : NERVE
– neuralgia
– neuropathy
– neuritis

Tissue
• MUSCULUS
• Musculus pectoralis major, m. rectus abdominis
• MY/O
• MYS/O: MUSCLE
– myopathy
– myositis
– Myoglobin
– Myofibra
– Myocardium
– Myometrium
Tissue
• CARTILAGO
• Cartilago thyreoidea, cartilago septi nasi
• CHONDR/O : CARTILAGE
– chondrodysplasia
– Achondroplasia
– Osteogenesis enchondralis
– Chondrogenesis

Tissue
• CUTIS
• CUTANE/0
Intracutane, subcutane
• DERMIS
• DERMAT/O : SKIN
– dermatitis
– leukoderma
– epidermis
– dermatology
Tissue
• VASA
• VASCUL/O
vascularisation, avascular
• ANGI/O : BLOOD VESSEL
– angiopathy/ vasculopathy
– angiography
– Angiogram
– angioma
– Vasculitis
Tissue
• SANGUIS; SANGUINIS
• HEM/O =HAIMA
• EM
• HEMAT/O: BLOOD
– hematology
– hematopoiesis
– anemia
– cholesterolemia
– hemoglobin

Color= chrom
LEUK/O : ALBUS : WHITE
• ALBINO,
• CORPUS ALBICAN
• LINEA ALBA
• LEUKOCYTE
• LEUKOCYTURIA
• LEUKOCYTOSIS
• LEUKEMIA
• LEUKODERMA
• LEUKODYSTROPHY
• LEUKOPLAKIA
• LEUKORRHEA
• FLUOR ALBUS

Color = chrom
MELAN/O : FUSCUS : BLACK
• MELANOCYTE
• MELANOBLAST
• MELANOMA
• MELANURIA
• MELANIN
• MELENA
Color
ERYTHR/O : RUBRO : RED
CORPUS RUBRUM
NUCLEUS RUBER
• ERYTHROBLAST
• ERYTHROCYTE
• ERYTHROCLAST
• ERYTHEMATOUS
• ERYSIPELAS
• ERYTHREMIA
• ERYTHRODERMA
Color
CYAN/O: BLUE

 CYANOTIC
 CYANOSIS
 CYANOPHIL
 CYANOPSIA
 CYANOLABE
glaucos : bluish green
Griseus : bluish grey
Color
CHLOR/O:CHLOASMA : GREEN

• CHLOROMA
• CHLOROPHYL
• CHLOROPSIA
• CHLOROLABE

COLOR
• GRISEUS = POLIOS = PHAIOS =GREY
Substantia grisea
Poliomyelitis
Color
Body activities
• Audio = acouo = to hear
• Opsia = opia = blepo = to see
• Phagien = to eat
• Dipsa = to drink
• Phrasis = to speech
• Laleo = to talk
• Gradior = to walk
• Halo = pneu = to breathe
• Oureo = to urinate
• Ergo = to work
• Sedeo =sella = to sit
• Osme = bromo =to smell
• Mnena = memory
• Palpo = to touch
• Kineo= moveo = to move
• Gustatus = geuma = to taste
• Hypnos = somnus = sopor= to sleep
• Glutio = to swallow
• Defaecatio= chezo = to defaecate

Qualitative Measurement
• Major= magnus = mega = great
• Minor = parvus = small
• Breve = short

• Longus = long
• Durum = hard
• Mollis = soft
• Bradys = tardus = slow
• Tachys = celer = fast
• Poly = multi = many
• Oligos = few = rare
• Asthenia = weak

prefix – Location
prefix – Location
prefix – Location
• Ante = before
• Meta = behind
• Trans = beyond, to the other side
• Inter = between, among
• Dia = complete = through
• Per = through, over
• Ana = upon, upwards
• Cata = under, downward

prefix – Location
examples:
• ectopic pregnancy
• ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
• encephalitis
• endometrium vs. parametrium
• endotoxin vs. exotoxin
• Periosteum, pericardium
• Circumoral, circumductio
• retroperitoneal
• suprarenal, etc.

prefix - number
• ANEMIA
• APLASTIC ANEMIA
• ANALGESIA
• NULLIPARA

prefix - number
prefix - number
prefix - number
prefix - number
• BICUSPID VALVE
• BICEPS
• BIFURCATIO
• DIPLOCOCCUS
• DIPLOID
prefix - number
• MULTI – MANY :
→ MULTIPARA, MULTINUCLEAR GIANT CELLS, MULTIGRAVIDA
• 3 - TRI :
→ TRICUSPIDALIS, TRI IN DIE
• 4 - TETRA :
→ TETRAPARESES, TETRAPLEGIA
• 5 - PENTA : PENTAMER

negative sense
ANTI (ANT):
CONTRA =
AGAINST, OPPOSED

• MAL = BAD
Malnutrition, malaria
• A, AN = ABSENCE OF SOMETHING,
DEFICIENT
Anaerobe, anemia, anhidrosis
negative sense
dys :
difficult, painful, abnormal
hyper and hypo
• hyper : beyond normal, excessive, over
• hypo: under, deficient, below normal
tachy and brady
• tachy: rapid, fast
• brady: slow
suffix – noun
• dyspnea, rhinorrhea
• anemia, osteomalacia
• hypertrophy
• ectasia
• arteriosclerosis
suffix – noun
Suffix
NOUN - ADJECTIVE
SUFFIXES
• -ALGIA = PAIN
• -CELE = HERNIA
• -CENTESIS = SURGICAL PUNCTURE TO REMOTE
A FLUID
• -PENIA = DECREASE
• -DYNIA = PAIN
• -LYSIS = DESTRUCTION = BREAKDOWN
• -MALACIA = SOFTENING
• -OPSY = TO VIEW
• -POIESIS = FORMATION
• -PLASIA = DEVELOPMENT
SUFFIXES
• -OSIS = ABNORMAL CONDITION
• -PATHY = DISEASE
• -PEXY = FIXATION
• -STASIS = STOPPING. CONTROLING
• -SCOPE = INSTRUMENT FOR
EXAMINATION
• -PTOSIS = DROPPING
What are we going to discuss in this session?
• ABREVIATIONS IN MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
• SINGULAR-PLURAL
• CLINICAL TERMS/ PHRASES
• etc.

Abbreviations
• Measurements
• Chemical
• Diagnoses
• Procedures
• Health Professions
• Charting

Abbreviations
Measurements
Abbreviations
Chemical
• O2 (oxygen)
• CO2 (carbon dioxide)
• NaCl (sodium chloride)
• RL (Ringer Lactate)
• K (potassium, kalium)
Abbreviations
Diagnoses
 CP (cerebral palsy)
 AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
 ALL (acute lymphoblastic leukemia)
 CVA (cerebrovascular accident)
 CVD (cardiovascular disease)
 DHF (Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever)
Abbreviations
Procedures (1)
radiology
• IVP: intravenous pyelography
• ECG: electrocardiography
• USG: ultrasonography
• MRI: magnetic resonance imaging
• CT-SCAN (CAT-SCAN): computerized axial tomography scanning
Abbreviations
Procedures (2)
laboratory
• 2 hr pp (2 hour post prandial blood glucose)
• LDH (lactic dehydrogenase)
• CK (creatine kinase)
• LFT (liver function test)
• RFT (renal function test)

Abbreviations
Health professions
 MD (medical doctor)

 ENT (ear, nose, throat)

 OB (obstetry)

 GYN (gynecology)
Abbreviations
Charting
 ex/ exam (examination)
 Dx (diagnosis)
 Tx (treatment)
 Rx (prescribe)
 BP (blood pressure)
 iv (intravenous)
 OS (oculus sinister, left eye)
 tid (tri in die, thrice a day)
Rules for commonly forming plurals
Examples of plurals
is to es
Examples of plurals
um to a
Examples of plurals
us to i
Examples of plurals
a to ae
Examples of plurals
ix or ex to ices
Clinical Terms/ Phrases
• anamnesis: history of symptoms

• examination: physical examination of signs

• diagnosis

• therapy/ treatment

• prognosis
diagnosis/diseases (1)
related to organ system/ tissue
• inflammation: rhinopharyngitis, cystitis
• tumor/ cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma, osteosarcoma, melanoma maligna,
neurofibromatosis
• condition: mitral stenosis, arteriosclerosis, nephrolithiasis, dysenteri, hemothorax
• syndrome: nephrotic syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome, AIDS

diagnosis/diseases (2)
related to the causing factors
• organism:
– Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF)
– Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS)
– Chikungunya Fever
– Diphteria (C. diphteriae)
– Tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)
• toxin:
– tetanus (tetanin – C. tetani)
– botulism (botulinum – C. botulinum)

diagnosis/diseases (3)
named after the person who found it
• signs:
– Turner syndrome
– Biot respiration
– Spleen Schuffner 1-8
• disease:
– Duchenne muscular dystrophy
– Becker muscular dystrophy
– Hashimoto disease
– Grave’s disease
– Neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen

therapy/ treatment
• Causative/ Curative: address the cause of the disease – aimed at curing the disease

• Symptomatic/Palliative: address the symptoms of the disease – aimed at making the


patients feel better

• Ex juvantivus: a try out


surgical procedures
• tomy (to cut): pyloromyotomi, osteotomi
• stomy (to make an opening): tracheostomy, nephrostomy, ileostomy
• ectomy (resection= to cut out): nephrectomy, splenectomy, gastrectomy
• rraphy (to sew): herniorrhaphy, palatorraphy
• incision vs. excision
prognosis
• dubia ad malam
• dubia ad bonam
• five years survival rate of 80%
• fatality rate
• remission rate
• cure rate

other terms
• acute vs. chronic
• degree of consciousness: compos mentis, lethargy, stupor, sopor, soporocomatous, coma
• shock
• headache/ cephalgia: tension headache, cluster headache, migraine, vertigo

Aware of spelling and pronunciation problem


 pronounced alike – different spelling
 may give wrong diagnosis
Aware of spelling and pronunciation problem
• similar pronunciation

URETER vs. URETHRA


• ureteritis
• urethritis
diminutive suffix (1)
• culus
– venter – ventriculus, ventricle
– vasa – vasculus
– vesica – vesiculus, vesicle
• olus
– arteria – arteriole
– alveus -- alveolus
diminutive suffix (2)
• ulus
– calcis – calculus
– globus – globulus, globule
• illa
– fibril -fibrilla
• ellum
– cerebrum - cerebellum
How do we analyze a medical terms?
• break it down into its component part
• find the meaning of every part
• Read the meaning from the suffix back to the first part of the word
PANCYTOPENIA
• PAN (prefix): all
• CYT (root): cell
• PENIA (suffix-form): deficiency
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
• ELECTR (root): electricity
• CARDI (root): heart
• GRAM (suffix): record

GASTROENTERITIS
• GASTR (root): stomach
• ENTER (root): intestines
• ITIS (suffix): inflammation

Read the meaning of medical terms from the suffix back to the first part of the word
• PANCYTOPENIA
• ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
• GASTROENTERITIS
ASYNERGY
• A (prefix): without
• SYN (prefix): together
• ERG (root): working
• Y (suffix): noun-suffix
OSTEOSARCOMA
• OSTEO (combining form): bone
• SARCOMA (suffix-form): tumor of the tissue
– SARC (root): tissue
– OMA (suffix): tumor
RETROPERITONEAL
• RETRO (prefix): behind
• PERITONEUM (root–peritonaion): to stretch over
• AL (suffix): adjectival suffix
Parts of body
Parts of body
direction
• Proximal
• Distal
• External
• Internal
• Visceral
• Parietal
• Medial
• Lateral
• Dextra
• Sinistra

• Superior
• Inferior
• Anterior
• Posterior
• Cranial
• Caudal
• Dorsal
• Ventral
• Superficial
• Profundal
Term of morphology
• Caput = cephal = skull
• Capitulum = small skull
• Collum = cervix =neck
• Arcus = arch
• Angulus =angle
• Corpus = truncus =body
• Fundus = basis
• Plexus = braid, plait
• Fossa =valey
• Ductus = canal

• Ramus = branch
• Radix = root
• Spatium =space
• Apex = top
• Clivus = a slope
• Discus = quoit = disc
• Ala = wing
• Foramen = hole
• Cavum = room/space
• Processus = protrusion

Further Readings
• Chabner DE. The Language of Medicine. W.B. Saunders Company, 1981
• Dunmore CW, Fleischer RM. Medical Terminology. Exercises in Etymology, 2nd ed.
F.A Davis Company, 1985
• Dennerll JT. Medical Terminology. A Programmed Text, 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., 1988