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PRE SPM QUICK REVISION 4.

Hypertonic / hypotonic:- Water molecules


diffuses out / into the cell sap (plant cell) /
CHAPTER 3 cytoplasma (animal cell) through the plasma
membrane by osmosis
1. Type of substances moving through the
diff.parts of the plasma membrane.

a) Phospoholipids bilayer – small lipid 5. Hypertonic:- Plant cell becomes flaccid due
soluble molecules, charged ions, to plasmolysis / animal cell -crenates.
gases Hypotonic:- Plant cell becomes turgid /
animal cell – burst (haemolysis)
Process involved : simple diffusion

b) Carrier protein – large water soluble


molecules e.g glucose, amino acids 6. When you draw flaccid cell, make sure the
cell still has two layers (cell wall), the
Process involved : facilitated diffusion vacuole is smaller, the plasma
membrane is pulled away from the cell
c) Carrier protein – ions wall. Turgid cell – the vacuole must be
bigger than normal
Process involved: active transport

(When explain any process, make sure


to mention the 7. Movement of water into root hair cells:-
Soil water is hypotonic towards …. //
diff. in concentration and end up the
Excess fertilizers causes soil water to
sentence with
become hypertonic towards…
the process involved)

(When discuss any process, do not


CHAPTER 4
write like this : e.g facilitated
diffusion moves from high
1. DNA - Structure: Made up of two
concentration area to low
polynucleotides. Double helix.
concentration area, but always write ,
Function: Carries / stores all genetic
in facilitated diffusion substances
information
move from high concentration area to
low concentration area.) RNA – Structure: Made up of one
polynucleotide. Single chain. Function:
Carries genetic information on protein
synthesis
2. Metabolic / respiratory poison inhibits
the production of ATP energy, therefore,
inhibits active transport. Denaturing of
protein can cause destruction to the carrier 2. DNA /RNA :- Elements:- Carbon,
and pore protein, therefore, inhibits Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus,
facilitated and active transport. Nitrogen. Components:- Phosphate
group, pentose sugar, nitrogenous
base. Basic Unit:- Nucleotide
3. 30% sucrose solution is hypertonic / Distilled
water is hypotonic towards the cell sap
(plant cell) / cytoplasma (animal cell) 3.
First Class protein Second Class
protein
Contain all Fats
Saturated Does not contain
Unsaturated all
Fats
essential
Solid a.a
in room essential
Liquid a.a
in room
4. Points to remember in explaining the Animal protein
temp. Plant protein
temp.
formation of extracellular enzymes:- NoEssential
double bondA.A Non essential
Double bond isA.A
Can’t carbon
btwn be atom. Can presence
still be synthesized
a) DNA unwinds, exposing the codes synthesized by body
on protein synthesis cells
substrate molecules to come into
b) Protein from the ribosomes move to contact with enzymes molecules.
the membrane of RER. The
membrane buds off forming
transport vesicles which moves
7. Relating pH and enzyme activity:-
towards Golgi Apparatus and fuses
with the membrane of GA. Changes in pH, changes the charges on
the active site and surface of substrate.
c) GA modifies, sorts and packages Active sites and subtrates must have diff.
the proteins and the membrane buds charges. Low pH causes more H+
off forming secretory vescicles attach to the active sites. High pH
which moves towards Plasma causes more OH- attach to the active
membrane and fuses with the site.
membrane to release the enzymes.

CHAPTER 5

1. Cell cycle:- the period from the time


a cell is produced until the time the cell
completes a division

5. Lock and Key Hypothesis:- When 2. G1:- Proteins and new organelles
produce. S phase:- DNA
name of enzyme is given, make sure
undergoes replication forming identical
to specify the explanation. E.g If
sister chromatids. G2:- More proteins
Lactase is given.
and organelles produced
a) Lactose binds at the active site of
Lactase to form Lactose- lactase
complex. Hydrolysis occurs which 3. Chromosomal Behaviour
breaks lactose into glucose and
galactose which later live the active
site living lactase unchanged.
Metaphase :- Anaphase:-
Align at Move to
equator / opposite poles
6. Relating temp. and enzyme metaphase
activity:- plate
Mitos Sister Centromere
Any increase towards optimum – more heat is chromatids divides.
align ….. Sister
which increases kinetic energy of both
chromatids
enzyme and substrate molecules, increases separate
the collision so more chances of the Daughter
chromosomes a) Somatic cells from desirable animal
move…. removed
Meios Bivalent Centromere
is 1 align does not b) Unfertilised ovum from a donor is
randomly divide
removed and its nucleus is also
Bivalents
separate removed
Sister
chromatids c) Fusion between the somatic cell and
move …. the ovum without nucleus

Meios Sister Centromere d) The embryo is implanted to the


is 11 chromatids divides.
surrogate mother.
align ….. Sister
chromatids
separate
Daughter
chromosomes CHAPTER 6
move….

4. Points to remember in explaining 1. Balanced diet:- a diet containing all


Tissue Culture: the seven

a) Remove meristematic tissues classes of food in the correct


(explants) from a desirable plant proportion

b) Place it in sterile cultures medium


2. Diet for different groups:-
c) Incubate at 37 C for 3 weeks until
callus is formed Pregnant ladies More protein-fetus
tissue formation
d) Cut callus into smaller pieces and put More caliums and
every cut into sterile growth phosphorus – bone
hormones to form embryo and dev. Of fetus
later plantlets More folic acid
and ferum – more
e) Plantlets taken to soil fetus RBC formation
Infants and children More calcium and
phosphorus- teeth
and bone formation
5. Tissue Culture
More protein –
enhance growth
Advantage Disadvantage
Atheletes More
Inherit desirable No variation carbohydrates
characteristics More protein-
Having the same muscle formation
Large quantity resistance towards More sodium - to
produced in shorter certain disease- prevent muscle
time shorter life span cramp
More vitamins and
minerals- maintain
healthy
6. Points to remember in explaining
animal cloning
3. Symptoms of kwashiorkor:- in duodenum are produced by
distended stomach due pancreas

to water retention

8. If any enzyme failed to be produced,


remember
4. Explaining digestion, e.g:-
that digestion still occurs but at
In the mouth, starch is digested / slower rate//
hydrolysed into maltose by maltase in
the presence of water molecules incompletely. So, don’t write, no
digestion takes

place.
5. Digestion along the alimentary canal.

Organ Digestion Enzyme


9. Structural adaptation of ileum
Mouth Starch into Salivary
maltose amylase a) Long and forms folded structure-
increase surface area for more
Stomach Protein into Pepsin absorption and digestion
polypeptide
b) Contains numerous number of villi-
Duodenu Polypeptide into Trypsin
increase surface area for amore
m peptide
Pancrea absorption of nutrients
Starch into tic
maltose amylase
10. Structural adaptation of villi
Tiny droplets of Lipase
lipids into fatty
a) Long projection- increase surface area-
acids and glycerol
more absorption of nutrients
Ileum Peptide into Erepsin
b) Have numerous of microvilli ot the
amino acids
Maltase surface- increase surface area
Maltose into
glucose Sucrase c) Wall –thin-one cell thick- rapid
absorption of nutrients
Sucrose into Lactase
glucose d) Contain (not covered) network of
blood capillaries – more transport of
Lactose into glucose, a.a, water soluble vit. And
Glucose minerals

e) Contain a lacteal - transport of lipid


soluble vitamins and fatty acids and
6. Bile produced by liver and stored in glycerol
gall bladder. Is used to emulsify lipids
into tiny droplets of lipids.

11. Glucose, a.a, water soluble vitamins and


minerals are transported to liver
7. No enzyme produced by duodenum. through HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN.
The enzymes
REMEMBER:- Therefore, this vein
contains higher concentration of those
nutrients than other veins. 15. Points to remember rin explaining
digestion in RUMINANTS

12. Fatty acids , glycerol and lipid soluble


vitamins are transported out from the villi a) Partially chewed food is taken to
by lymphatic vessels to thoracic duct rumen
and is drained into left subclavian
vein. b) Cellulose is digested by cellulose
which is produced by symbiotic
microorganisms ( WHY SYMBIOTIC
????) - The microbes use a part
13. Assimilation in the liver of digested food.

c) Partially digested food enters the


reticulum for further digestion
Glucose Excess – converted by insulin ( similar to the one in the rumen) and
into glycogen cud is formed
Used by the liver cells for
cellular respiration d) The cud is regurgitated into the
mouth.
Amino Excess- converted into urea
acids (deamination) to be e) The cud is reswallowed and taken to
transported to kidney for the omasum where large particles
excretion. of food is broken into smaller parts.
Water from the food is removed here
Used by liver cells to
produce new protoplasm f) The food particles move to the
Synthesis plasma protein abomasums – true stomach .
(WHY ???? - It contains gastric
juices like our stomach – to digest
proteins and other substances.)

g) The digested food then taken to small


intestine to be absorbed
14. Assimilation in other body cells

16. Points to remember rin explaining


Glucose Excess – converted by insulin
digestion in RODENTS
into glycogen and stored in
muscles
Used by the cells for cellular
respiration a) Cellulose is digested in its large
Amino Used by cells to produce new caecum
acids protoplasm
, repair injured tissues, b) Soft faeces are produced at night
synthesize enzymes and and are eaten to enable the animal to
hormones and plasma absorb the products of digestion -
membrane causing the second faeces to
Lipids Phospholipids – used by cells to become harder.
produce plasma membrane
17. COMPARING THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF m poor growth
HUMAN, RUMINANTS AND RODENTS

19. Structural adaptation of a LEAF for


Similarities optimum rate of photosynthesis

All the three have stomach where Waxy layer on top Prevent higher rate
digestion of protein occurs of epidermal of transpiration
tissues
All the three cannot produce their own
cellulase Leaves are Leaves are spread
arranged in an out for optimum
arrangement called exposure to sunlight
leaf mosaic
Human Rumina Rodent
nt Thin lamina Allows rapid
diffusion of gases
No.of 1 4 1 involved in
stomach photosynthesis
chambers
No chloroplast in Allow penetration of
Cellulase No Presenc Presenc epidermal tissue maximum sunlight
producing e e (transparent)
bacteria

Place for None Rumen Caecum


digestion & Contains vascular Transport of water
of reticulu tissues-xylem and and products of
cellulose m phloem photosynthesis

Regurgitat None Occurs None Pallisade Maximum amount


ion mesophyll cells of light receive
are closely
Size of Small Small Large packed and
caecum contain abundant
of chloroplasts

Spongy Allow the presence


mesophyll cells of large air space
are loosely for exchange of
packed and gases to occur
contain abundant
18. Nutrient deficiency in plants
of chloroplast
Nitrogen Chlorosis - synthesized of
chlorophyll is inhibited
Stunted growth 20. Adaptation of plants in different
Magnesiu Chlorosis habitats
m

Phosphor Poor growth


us Land plants More stomata at the
lower epidermal
Potassiu Reduce protein synthesis-
tissues- to 22. Points to remember in explaining
prevent excessive dark reaction
lost of water

Floating plants More stomata on


the upper a) Occurs in stroma
epidermis
b) Hydrogen atom binds with carbon
Aquatic plants Chloroplasts found dioxide to form glucose (reduction)
all over the surface
(therefore, the
whole leaves and
stem is green) as 23. Comparing light and dark reaction
low intensity of light
in water Light reaction Dark reaction

Desert plant Very few stomata Grana Stroma


and some are
Requires light Requires carbon
sunken stomata-
energy, water dioxide
embedded in the
leaves –to reduce Does not require
water lost light energy
Produces water and Produces glucose
Chloroplasts found
oxygen and water
mostly on stems
Forms hydrogen Uses hydrogen
atoms atoms

Occurs only in the Occurs with and


presence on light without light

21. Points to remember in explaining


light reaction
24. How Greenhouse aids in ensuring crop
production takes place throughout the
year

a) Occurs in Grana Controlling Carbon Burning paraffin


dioxide to ensure
concentration continuous supply
b) Chlorophyll captures light energy
of CO2
which excites the electron in the
chlorophyll to leave the chlorophyll Light intensity The use of glass
allows penetration
c) Light energy splits water molecules of light. When light
into H+ and OH- (photolysis) intensity is low- use
artificial
d) H+ receive electron to form H atoms
lighting.When light
intensity is too high
e) OH- releases electron to form hydroxyl
- use shades or
group
light reflector
f) Hydroxyl group binds with other
hydroxyl group to form water
molecules and oxygen Temperature Always warm inside
as heat can’t
escape through the produces ethanol –
glass. If too hot, inhibit the
use heat regulator, activity of
shades and microbes
ventilation

Water Automatic sprinkler

25. REMEMBER: In highly industrial areas,


photosynthesis might be affected due to
dust and smoke covering the stomata ,
CHAPTER 7
hence inhibits diffusion of carbon
dioxide.

1. Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration

26. The importance of photosynthesis is to Aerobic Anaerobic


ensure continuous existence of life
on earth as photosynthesis supplies Definati Oxidation Breakdown of
oxygen to living organisms on of glucose glucose
completely incompletely

Substrat Glucose & Glucose


27. Food preservation es oxygen

Product Carbon Human:-


s dioxide,
Drying Food placed under water, 38 Lactic acid, 2
hot sun – water in ATP ATP
the food
evaporated – food Yeast:-
dehydrated- inhibit
Ethanol, CO2
growth of microbes
Sites Mitochondri Cytoplasma
Pickling – sugar and The solution is
a
salt solution hypertonic
towards ……, water
diffuses out by
osmosis. Food 2. Respiratory surface of different
dehydrated- inhibit organisms
growth of microbes
Vinegar
Human Alveli
Vinegar- acid
medium – not Frogs Lungs, Skin
suitable for
Fish Lamella
microbes to live
Insect Tracheol
Pasteurisation Milk is heated:-63 C
for 30 minutes// Ameoba Plasma membrane
72 C for 15
seconds followed
by rapid cooling

Fermentation Use yeast which


3. General Adaptation of Respiratory 7. Oxygen is transported to body tissues by
surface binding with haemoglobin in RBC to
form oxyhaemoglobin.
Moist surface Allow oxygen to
dissolve before
diffusion occurs
8. Carbon dioxide is transported in three
Thin wall Allow rapid ways:-
diffusion of gases
a) In a form of carbonic acid by
Numerous in Large surface area
dissolving in blood plasma.
number- alveoli, for more exchange
tracheal and lamella of gases to occur
b) In a form of carbaminohaemoglobin
Alveoli and frog Allow more by binding with haemoglobin
lungs – covered transport of gases
with network of c) In a form of bicarbonate ions
blood capillaries

Gills – contain
numerous blood 9. J-tube experiment:-
capillaries
a) The tube is immersed in potassium
hydroxide first as the solution only
absorb carbon dioxide.

b) Later the tube is immersed in


4. REMEMBER:- Tracheols are embedded potassium pyrogallate solution to
in body absorb oxygen
tissues. Therefore, no transport of
c) Do not immerse the tube in
gases required
potassium pyrogallate first, as it
can absorb both carbon dioxide
and oxygen. Therefore, unable to
5. NOTE:- Frog lungs : Unlike human determine the concentration of both
lungs , there is gases.

no alveolus. Exchange of gases


occurs through the wall of the lungs.
Therefore, the wall is moist, thin and 10. Points to remember in explaining
covered with blood capillaries regulatory mechanism of blood pH

6. COUNTERCURRENT EXCHANGE :- to a) During vigorous exercise, more


allow efficiency of the gases exchange at CO2 produced,
the respiratory surface of fish. The
thus blood pH becomes lower
mechanism MAXIMIZES THE OXYGEN
than normal
TRANSFER BECAUSE AS WATER
FLOWS OVER THE GILLS IN ONE
b) Detected by peripheral
DIRECTION, THE BLOOD FLOWS IN
chemoreceptor ( at the
THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION.
carotid arteries and arch of aorta)
and central
chemoreceptor ( at the medulla
oblongata)
12. COMPENSATION POINT: The rate of
c) Receptors generate impulses which carbon dioxide production is equal to the
are sent to rate of carbon dioxide consumption. The
rate of photosynthesis is equal to the
the breathing center at the rate of respiration.
medulla oblongata

d) Breathing centre interprate the


information 13. REMEMBER:- For plants to grow, the
rate of photosynthesis must always
and produces appropriate be HIGHER than the rate of
responses respiration as excess sugar can be
used for growth and other important
living processes.

e) Impulses are then sent to


respiratory
CHAPTER 8.
muscles(intercostals and diaphragm
muscles) 1. Problems faced by mangrove plants

and cardiac muscles. a) Muddy soft soil (water logged


condition) – easy to collapse
f) Increase the contraction of the b) Exposed to strong winds – easy to
three muscles collapse
c) Exposed to high intensities of sunlight –
g) Increase breathing , ventilation higher
and heart beat rate of transpiration
d) Surrounded by sea water – high
rate
concentration of
salt
h) Remove excess carbon dioxide,
return the 2. Structural adaptation of mangrove plants
and therefore no other plants can grow in
blood pH to normal
mangrove swamp

a) Long cable root – provide


support
b) Aerial roots (pneumatophores)-
11. Points to remember in explaining the allowing gases exchange during low
intake of oxygen by plants for tide
respiration c) Small leaves with sunken
stomata – reduce transpiration
d) Hydathodes (pores on the
lower epidermis) – remove excess salt
a) When stomata opens, oxygen e) Cell sap of the root hair cell is
diffuses in and dissolves in water always hypertonic towards
found in the air spaces surrounding water
f) Viviparous seeds – germinate
b) As oxygen in the air space is higher in
while still attaching to the mother
concentration than in the cells,
plants – increase the chances of
oxygen diffuses into the cells,
survival
8. REMEMBER ALL THE FORMULA IN
DETERMINING A POPULATION USING
3. REMEMBER THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF THE TECHNIQUE – CAPTURE, MARK,
ROOT BELONG TO DIFFERENT RELEASE, RECAPTURE.
MANGROVE SPESIES.

4. REMEMBER THE ZONING AND BE ABLE


TO IDENTIFY THE ZONE IN WHICH 9. Why Nitrogen cycyle is important ???
DIFFERENT MANGROVE SPESIES
BELONG TO Plants cannot absorbed atmospheric
nitrogen directly. But they need nitrogen
5. Point to remember in explaining to synthesize protein. Therefore,
nitrogen need to be converted in a
colonization and succession in a
form of ammonium, nitrites or
mangrove swamp
nitrates as only these three can be
a) The physical changes that cause absorbed by plants
succession to occur are:-
10. Nitrogen Cycle
i) Soil becomes more compact and
firmer , and the river bank
a) Nitrogen fixation:-
becomes higher – due to
- Lightning
accumulation of silt and mud which
are trapped by the root of the - Nitrogen fixing bacteria
mangrove plants
- Rhizobium sp.– living in the root nodules of
ii) The shore extends further to
leguminous plants . It fixes atmospheric
the sea – as more sediments
nitrogen into ammonium
deposited

6. Point to remember in explaining - Nostoc sp. – live freely in soil – fixes


colonization and succession in an atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium
abandoned pond
b) Decomposition
a) The physical changes that cause
Dead plants and animals are
succession to occur are:-
decomposed by microorganisms to
form ammonium compound
i) The pond becomes shallower
due to :-
c) Nitrification
- soil erosion form the
sides of the pond
- Oxidation of ammonium
- The decomposition of
compound into nitrites – by
dead plants
Nitrosomans sp.
which forms organic
matters. The
- Oxidation of nitrites into nitrates
organic matters settled at
– by Nitrobacter sp.
the bottom
of the pond. d) Denitrification

Denitrifying bacteria breaks down


7. REMEMBER ALL THE THREE nitrates into gases nitrogen
FORMULAE IN DETERMINING A
POPULATION USING QUADRAT 11. WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF DESTROYING
SAMPLING ANY OF THE MICROBES INVOLVED IN
NITROGEN CYCLE ON THE GROWTH
OF HERBIVORES ?????

a) If nitrogen fixing bacteria or


decomposer is killed – no ammonium
can be produced, therefore, no nitrites,
no nitrates to be absorbed by plants.
REMEMBER, NITRATES IS
ABSORBED TO OBTAIN NITROGEN
TO SYNTHESIZE PROTEINS IN
PLANTS. IF PLANTS ARE LACKING
OF PROTEINS, LESS PROTEIN
TRANSFERRED TO HERBIVORS-
LESS PROTEIN FOR THE
HERBIVORES TO GROW.

12.