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# Chapter Outline Introduction

## Mechanical Properties of Metals To understand and describe how materials deform

(elongate, compress, twist) or break as a function of
How do metals respond to external loads?
applied load, time, temperature, and other conditions we
need first to discuss standard test methods and standard
 Stress and Strain
language for mechanical properties of materials.
¾ Tension
¾ Compression
¾ Shear
¾ Torsion
 Elastic deformation
 Plastic Deformation
¾ Yield Strength
¾ Tensile Strength

Stress, σ (MPa)
¾ Ductility
¾ Toughness
¾ Hardness

## Optional reading (not tested): details of the different types

of hardness tests, variability of material properties
Strain, ε (mm / mm)
(starting from the middle of page 174)
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(tension and compression)
Tensile
Compressive To compare specimens of different sizes, the load is
calculated per unit area.

Engineering stress: σ = F / Ao
F is load applied perpendicular to speciment cross-
section; A0 is cross-sectional area (perpendicular to
the force) before application of the load.

## Engineering strain: ε = Δl / lo (× 100 %)

Δl is change in length, lo is the original length.
Shear

## Torsion These definitions of stress and strain allow one to

compare test results for specimens of different cross-
sectional area A0 and of different length l0.

## Stress and strain are positive for tensile loads, negative

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Concepts of Stress and Strain Stress-Strain Behavior
(shear and torsion)

## Shear stress: τ = F / Ao Elastic Plastic

Elastic deformation

F is load applied parallel to the upper and lower faces Reversible: when the stress
is removed, the material
each of which has an area A0.
returns to the dimensions it
Shear strain: γ = tgθ (× 100 %)
Usually strains are small
θ is strain angle

Stress
(except for the case of some
plastics, e.g. rubber).
Torsion is variation of pure shear. The shear stress in
this case is a function of applied torque T, shear strain
is related to the angle of twist, φ. Plastic deformation
Irreversible: when the stress
Shear Ao Torsion
is removed, the material
F dimensions.
Strain

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## Stress-Strain Behavior: Elastic Deformation Elastic Deformation: Nonlinear Elastic Behavior

In tensile tests, if the deformation is elastic, the stress- In some materials (many polymers, concrete...), elastic
strain relationship is called Hooke's law: deformation is not linear, but it is still reversible.
σ = Eε
E is Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity, has the
same units as σ, N/m2 or Pa

## Δσ/Δε = tangent modulus at σ2

Definitions of E
Stress

Slope = modulus of
elasticity E
Δσ/Δε = secant modulus
between origin and σ1

Strain

## Higher E → higher “stiffness”

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Elastic Deformation: Atomic scale picture Elastic Deformation: Anelasticity
(time dependence of elastic deformation)

0.005
• So far we have assumed that elastic deformation is
Energy, eV, Force, eV/Å
Force
Chapter 2: time independent (i.e. applied stress produces
force-separation 0
instantaneous elastic strain)
curve for
interacting atoms -0.005
Energy
• However, in reality elastic deformation takes time
(finite rate of atomic/molecular deformation
-0.01
2 4 6 8 load release. This time dependent elastic behavior
Distance between atoms, rij, Å
is known as anelasticity.
• The effect is normally small for metals but can be
significant for polymers (“visco-elastic behavior”).

E ~ (dF/dr) at ro
(r0 – equilibrium separation)

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## Elastic Deformation: Poisson’s ratio Elastic Deformation: Shear Modulus

Zo

εx εy τ
ν=− =−
εz εz
Relationship of shear stress to shear strain:

## Materials subject to tension shrink laterally. Those τ = G γ, where: γ = tgθ = Δy / zo

subject to compression, bulge. The ratio of lateral and G is Shear Modulus (Units: N/m2 or Pa)
axial strains is called the Poisson's ratio υ. Sign in For isotropic material:
the above equations shows that lateral strain is in E = 2G(1+υ) → G ~ 0.4E
opposite sense to longitudinal strain
(Note: single crystals are usually elastically
υ is dimensionless anisotropic: the elastic behavior varies with
Theoretical value for isotropic material: 0.25 crystallographic direction, see Chapter 3)
Maximum value: 0.50, Typical value: 0.24 - 0.30

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Stress-Strain Behavior: Plastic deformation Tensile Properties: Yielding

Elastic Plastic
engineering stress

σy
Yield strength σy - is chosen as
that causing a permanent strain
of 0.002

Stress
Yield point P - the strain deviates
from being proportional to the stress
(the proportional limit)

## engineering strain The yield stress is a measure of

resistance to plastic deformation
Plastic deformation:
¾ stress and strain are not proportional to each other
Strain
¾ the deformation is not reversible
¾ deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of
atomic bonds (in crystalline materials primarily by
motion of dislocations, Chapter 7)

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## If stress = tensile strength is maintained

Stress
then specimen will eventually break

fracture
strength
Stress, σ

“Necking”

## Strain Tensile strength: maximum

stress (~ 100 - 1000 MPa)
In some materials (e.g. low-carbon steel), the stress
vs. strain curve includes two yield points (upper and Strain, ε
lower). The yield strength is defined in this case as
the average stress at the lower yield point. For structural applications, the yield stress is usually a
more important property than the tensile strength, since
once the yield stress has passed, the structure has deformed
beyond acceptable limits.

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Tensile properties: Ductility Typical mechanical properties of metals

Ao
Lo Af Lf

## The yield strength and tensile strength vary with prior

thermal and mechanical treatment, impurity levels,
Ductility is a measure of the deformation at fracture
etc. This variability is related to the behavior of
⎛l −l ⎞ dislocations in the material, Chapter 7. But elastic
Defined by percent elongation %EL = ⎜⎜ f 0 ⎟⎟ × 100
moduli are relatively insensitive to these effects.
(plastic tensile strain at failure) ⎝ l0 ⎠
The yield and tensile strengths and modulus of
⎛ A − Af ⎞
or percent reduction in area %RA = ⎜⎜ 0 ⎟⎟ ×100 elasticity decrease with increasing temperature,
⎝ A0 ⎠ ductility increases with temperature.

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## Toughness True Stress and Strain

True stress = load divided by
actual area in the necked-down
region (Ai): σ = F/A T i
Sometimes it is convenient to use
true strain defined as
εT = ln(li/lo)
True stress continues to rise to the point of fracture, in
contrast to the engineering stress.

σT = F/Ai εT = ln(li/lo)

εf If no volume change

∫ σdε
Toughness = the ability to absorb energy up to occurs during deformation,
fracture = the total area under the strain-stress Aili = A0l0 and the true and
curve up to fracture engineering stress and
0
stress are related as
σ = F/Ao ε = (li-lo/lo) σT = σ(1 + ε)
Units: the energy per unit volume, e.g. J/m3
Can be measured by an impact test (Chapter 8). εT = ln(1 + ε)

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Elastic Recovery During Plastic Deformation Hardness (I)

## Hardness is a measure of the material’s resistance

to localized plastic deformation (e.g. dent or scratch)
A qualitative Moh’s scale, determined by the ability of
a material to scratch another material: from 1 (softest
= talc) to 10 (hardest = diamond).

## Different types of quantitative

hardness test has been designed
(Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers, etc.).
Usually a small indenter (sphere,
cone, or pyramid) is forced into the
surface of a material under
conditions of controlled magnitude
If a material is deformed plastically and the stress is then and rate of loading. The depth or
released, the material ends up with a permanent strain. size of indentation is measured.
If the stress is reapplied, the material again responds The tests somewhat approximate,
elastically at the beginning up to a new yield point that is but popular because they are easy
higher than the original yield point. and non-destructive (except for the
The amount of elastic strain that it will take before small dent).
reaching the yield point is called elastic strain recovery.

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## Hardness (II) What are the limits of “safe” deformation?

Tensile strength (103 psi)
Tensile strength (MPa)

Stress

## For practical engineering design,

the yield strength is usually the
important parameter

Strain

## Design stress: σd = N’σc where σc = maximum

Brinell hardness number anticipated stress, N’ is the “design factor” > 1. Want to
make sure that σd < σy
Both tensile strength and hardness may be regarded as
degree of resistance to plastic deformation. Safe or working stress: σw = σy/N where N is “factor of
Hardness is proportional to the tensile strength - but safety” > 1.
note that the proportionality constant is different for
different materials.

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Summary Summary
Make sure you understand language and concepts:
¾ Stress and strain: Size-independent measures of load
and displacement, respectively. ¾ Anelasticity
¾ Elastic behavior: Reversible mechanical deformation, ¾ Ductility
often shows a linear relation between stress and strain. ¾ Elastic deformation
¾ Elastic recovery
¾ Elastic deformation is characterized by elastic moduli
¾ Engineering strain and stress
(E or G). To minimize deformation, select a material
with a large elastic moduli (E or G). ¾ Engineering stress
¾ Hardness
¾ Plastic behavior: Permanent deformation, occurs ¾ Modulus of elasticity
when the tensile (or compressive) uniaxial stress
¾ Plastic deformation
reaches the yield strength σy.
¾ Poisson’s ratio
¾ Tensile strength: maximum stress supported by the ¾ Shear
material. ¾ Tensile strength
¾ Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit ¾ True strain and stress
volume of material. ¾ Toughness
¾ Ductility: The plastic strain at failure. ¾ Yielding
¾ Yield strength

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## ¾ Dislocations and Plastic Deformation

9 Motion of dislocations in response to stress
9 Slip Systems
9 Plastic deformation in
 single crystals
 polycrystalline materials
¾ Strengthening mechanisms
9 Grain Size Reduction
9 Solid Solution Strengthening
9 Strain Hardening
¾ Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth
Optional reading (Part that is not covered / not tested):
7.7 Deformation by twinning
In our discussion of slip systems, §7.4, we will not get into
direction and plane nomenclature