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Chapter Outline Introduction

Mechanical Properties of Metals To understand and describe how materials deform


(elongate, compress, twist) or break as a function of
How do metals respond to external loads?
applied load, time, temperature, and other conditions we
need first to discuss standard test methods and standard
ƒ Stress and Strain
language for mechanical properties of materials.
¾ Tension
¾ Compression
¾ Shear
¾ Torsion
ƒ Elastic deformation
ƒ Plastic Deformation
¾ Yield Strength
¾ Tensile Strength

Stress, σ (MPa)
¾ Ductility
¾ Toughness
¾ Hardness

Optional reading (not tested): details of the different types


of hardness tests, variability of material properties
Strain, ε (mm / mm)
(starting from the middle of page 174)
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Types of Loading Concepts of Stress and Strain


(tension and compression)
Tensile
Compressive To compare specimens of different sizes, the load is
calculated per unit area.

Engineering stress: σ = F / Ao
F is load applied perpendicular to speciment cross-
section; A0 is cross-sectional area (perpendicular to
the force) before application of the load.

Engineering strain: ε = Δl / lo (× 100 %)


Δl is change in length, lo is the original length.
Shear

Torsion These definitions of stress and strain allow one to


compare test results for specimens of different cross-
sectional area A0 and of different length l0.

Stress and strain are positive for tensile loads, negative


for compressive loads

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Concepts of Stress and Strain Stress-Strain Behavior
(shear and torsion)

Shear stress: τ = F / Ao Elastic Plastic


Elastic deformation

F is load applied parallel to the upper and lower faces Reversible: when the stress
is removed, the material
each of which has an area A0.
returns to the dimensions it
had before the loading.
Shear strain: γ = tgθ (× 100 %)
Usually strains are small
θ is strain angle

Stress
(except for the case of some
plastics, e.g. rubber).
Torsion is variation of pure shear. The shear stress in
this case is a function of applied torque T, shear strain
is related to the angle of twist, φ. Plastic deformation
Irreversible: when the stress
Shear Ao Torsion
is removed, the material
does not return to its original
F dimensions.
Strain

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Stress-Strain Behavior: Elastic Deformation Elastic Deformation: Nonlinear Elastic Behavior


In tensile tests, if the deformation is elastic, the stress- In some materials (many polymers, concrete...), elastic
strain relationship is called Hooke's law: deformation is not linear, but it is still reversible.
σ = Eε
E is Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity, has the
same units as σ, N/m2 or Pa

Δσ/Δε = tangent modulus at σ2

Unload
Definitions of E
Stress

Slope = modulus of
elasticity E
Δσ/Δε = secant modulus
between origin and σ1

Load
Strain

Higher E → higher “stiffness”

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Elastic Deformation: Atomic scale picture Elastic Deformation: Anelasticity
(time dependence of elastic deformation)

0.005
• So far we have assumed that elastic deformation is
Energy, eV, Force, eV/Å
Force
Chapter 2: time independent (i.e. applied stress produces
force-separation 0
instantaneous elastic strain)
curve for
interacting atoms -0.005
Energy
• However, in reality elastic deformation takes time
(finite rate of atomic/molecular deformation
-0.01
processes) - continues after initial loading, and after
2 4 6 8 load release. This time dependent elastic behavior
Distance between atoms, rij, Å
is known as anelasticity.
• The effect is normally small for metals but can be
significant for polymers (“visco-elastic behavior”).

E ~ (dF/dr) at ro
(r0 – equilibrium separation)

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Elastic Deformation: Poisson’s ratio Elastic Deformation: Shear Modulus

Unloaded Loaded Δy

Zo

Unloaded

Loaded
εx εy τ
ν=− =−
εz εz
Relationship of shear stress to shear strain:

Materials subject to tension shrink laterally. Those τ = G γ, where: γ = tgθ = Δy / zo


subject to compression, bulge. The ratio of lateral and G is Shear Modulus (Units: N/m2 or Pa)
axial strains is called the Poisson's ratio υ. Sign in For isotropic material:
the above equations shows that lateral strain is in E = 2G(1+υ) → G ~ 0.4E
opposite sense to longitudinal strain
(Note: single crystals are usually elastically
υ is dimensionless anisotropic: the elastic behavior varies with
Theoretical value for isotropic material: 0.25 crystallographic direction, see Chapter 3)
Maximum value: 0.50, Typical value: 0.24 - 0.30

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Stress-Strain Behavior: Plastic deformation Tensile Properties: Yielding

Elastic Plastic
engineering stress

σy
Yield strength σy - is chosen as
that causing a permanent strain
of 0.002

Stress
Yield point P - the strain deviates
from being proportional to the stress
(the proportional limit)

engineering strain The yield stress is a measure of


resistance to plastic deformation
Plastic deformation:
¾ stress and strain are not proportional to each other
Strain
¾ the deformation is not reversible
¾ deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of
atomic bonds (in crystalline materials primarily by
motion of dislocations, Chapter 7)

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Tensile Properties: Yielding Tensile Strength

If stress = tensile strength is maintained


Stress
then specimen will eventually break

fracture
strength
Stress, σ

“Necking”

Strain Tensile strength: maximum


stress (~ 100 - 1000 MPa)
In some materials (e.g. low-carbon steel), the stress
vs. strain curve includes two yield points (upper and Strain, ε
lower). The yield strength is defined in this case as
the average stress at the lower yield point. For structural applications, the yield stress is usually a
more important property than the tensile strength, since
once the yield stress has passed, the structure has deformed
beyond acceptable limits.

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Tensile properties: Ductility Typical mechanical properties of metals

Ao
Lo Af Lf

The yield strength and tensile strength vary with prior


thermal and mechanical treatment, impurity levels,
Ductility is a measure of the deformation at fracture
etc. This variability is related to the behavior of
⎛l −l ⎞ dislocations in the material, Chapter 7. But elastic
Defined by percent elongation %EL = ⎜⎜ f 0 ⎟⎟ × 100
moduli are relatively insensitive to these effects.
(plastic tensile strain at failure) ⎝ l0 ⎠
The yield and tensile strengths and modulus of
⎛ A − Af ⎞
or percent reduction in area %RA = ⎜⎜ 0 ⎟⎟ ×100 elasticity decrease with increasing temperature,
⎝ A0 ⎠ ductility increases with temperature.

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Toughness True Stress and Strain


True stress = load divided by
actual area in the necked-down
region (Ai): σ = F/A T i
Sometimes it is convenient to use
true strain defined as
εT = ln(li/lo)
True stress continues to rise to the point of fracture, in
contrast to the engineering stress.

σT = F/Ai εT = ln(li/lo)

εf If no volume change

∫ σdε
Toughness = the ability to absorb energy up to occurs during deformation,
fracture = the total area under the strain-stress Aili = A0l0 and the true and
curve up to fracture engineering stress and
0
stress are related as
σ = F/Ao ε = (li-lo/lo) σT = σ(1 + ε)
Units: the energy per unit volume, e.g. J/m3
Can be measured by an impact test (Chapter 8). εT = ln(1 + ε)

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Elastic Recovery During Plastic Deformation Hardness (I)

Hardness is a measure of the material’s resistance


to localized plastic deformation (e.g. dent or scratch)
A qualitative Moh’s scale, determined by the ability of
a material to scratch another material: from 1 (softest
= talc) to 10 (hardest = diamond).

Different types of quantitative


hardness test has been designed
(Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers, etc.).
Usually a small indenter (sphere,
cone, or pyramid) is forced into the
surface of a material under
conditions of controlled magnitude
If a material is deformed plastically and the stress is then and rate of loading. The depth or
released, the material ends up with a permanent strain. size of indentation is measured.
If the stress is reapplied, the material again responds The tests somewhat approximate,
elastically at the beginning up to a new yield point that is but popular because they are easy
higher than the original yield point. and non-destructive (except for the
The amount of elastic strain that it will take before small dent).
reaching the yield point is called elastic strain recovery.

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Hardness (II) What are the limits of “safe” deformation?


Tensile strength (103 psi)
Tensile strength (MPa)

Stress

For practical engineering design,


the yield strength is usually the
important parameter

Strain

Design stress: σd = N’σc where σc = maximum


Brinell hardness number anticipated stress, N’ is the “design factor” > 1. Want to
make sure that σd < σy
Both tensile strength and hardness may be regarded as
degree of resistance to plastic deformation. Safe or working stress: σw = σy/N where N is “factor of
Hardness is proportional to the tensile strength - but safety” > 1.
note that the proportionality constant is different for
different materials.

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Summary Summary
Make sure you understand language and concepts:
¾ Stress and strain: Size-independent measures of load
and displacement, respectively. ¾ Anelasticity
¾ Elastic behavior: Reversible mechanical deformation, ¾ Ductility
often shows a linear relation between stress and strain. ¾ Elastic deformation
¾ Elastic recovery
¾ Elastic deformation is characterized by elastic moduli
¾ Engineering strain and stress
(E or G). To minimize deformation, select a material
with a large elastic moduli (E or G). ¾ Engineering stress
¾ Hardness
¾ Plastic behavior: Permanent deformation, occurs ¾ Modulus of elasticity
when the tensile (or compressive) uniaxial stress
¾ Plastic deformation
reaches the yield strength σy.
¾ Poisson’s ratio
¾ Tensile strength: maximum stress supported by the ¾ Shear
material. ¾ Tensile strength
¾ Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit ¾ True strain and stress
volume of material. ¾ Toughness
¾ Ductility: The plastic strain at failure. ¾ Yielding
¾ Yield strength

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Reading for next class:

Chapter 7: Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms

¾ Dislocations and Plastic Deformation


9 Motion of dislocations in response to stress
9 Slip Systems
9 Plastic deformation in
ƒ single crystals
ƒ polycrystalline materials
¾ Strengthening mechanisms
9 Grain Size Reduction
9 Solid Solution Strengthening
9 Strain Hardening
¾ Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth
Optional reading (Part that is not covered / not tested):
7.7 Deformation by twinning
In our discussion of slip systems, §7.4, we will not get into
direction and plane nomenclature

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