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INDEX

INTRODUCTION OF SHUTTER SPEED 1-2

WORKING OF SHUTTER SPEED 2-3

RELATIONSHIP WITH APARTURE 4-8

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Shutter Speeds
INTRODUCTION:

The aperture diaphragm of a lens (bigger or smaller values) AND timing (open and
close) of the camera's shutter curtain - BOTH perform the tasks of regulating the amount
of light entering the camera and expose onto the film. The shutter speed scales
engraved on the shutter speed dial of conventional camera bodies with a shutter speed
ring OR via some flickering digital numerals on the LCD screen like: 1/8000, 1/4000,
1/1000, 1/500, 1/250, 1/125, 1/60, 1/30, 1/15, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1 or -1, -2 etc. are essentially
indicators of the duration (timing) at which the shutter curtain opens up and closes
during an exposure process. A 1/125 setting means the shutter curtain open and close
within one hundred and twenty five of a second while 1 means an one full-second the
shutter opens up during exposure to absorb the available light source onto the film to
form an exposure .

The shutter speed dial provide the selection of shutter speeds, and indicates the timing
of the shutter open and closes. A fast shutter speed as 1/500 sec will close faster than,
say 1/2 sec exposure time. In this case the shutter curtain will close very fast and thus
resulting in less light entering the film. Illustration used here is a older horizontal shutter
design, more info is available by Most conventional SLRs have a shutter speed dial (or
ring) on the top panel of the camera body to adjust shutter speed. But it evolves with the
development of modern electronic SLRs

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Before the advent of LCD, multi-modes electronic SLRs such as Canon A-1 has a dual
input dial for shutter speed (B) and aperture control (Green). But again it depends a lot
on camera design. For an instance, ALL Olympus and mechanical Nikkormat SLRs have
their shutter speed scales located just next to the lens mount, you have to make use of a
grip designed to turn the scales

Again, NOT all SLR cameras have shutter speed selected visible from the top or the
front, instead, changes and selection can only be viewed inside the viewfinder. A good
example is this Pentax push button that controls (C) the shutter speed But ALL these
may not be applicable to a new wave of modern AF SLRs which use a different kind of
input to control shutter speed in the camera.

WORKING OF SHUTTER SPEED:


In principle, shutter speeds, like aperture value detailed on earlier section, contributing
as the next half of the main components for any exposure process - the interval at which
the shutter opens to allow a specific amount of light (also depends on the opening of the
lens diaphragm) to pass through and expose the film inside.. Different selection of
shutter speeds will yield different kind of visual effect on a final photograph. Generally, a
fast shutter speed can freeze action while slow speed can blur your image. I am
not indicating these are fixed rules. If you understand the nature of how various shutter
speed(s) will affect an exposure, you may put them to creative use to enhance the effect
- like other than freezing a fast action scene, a slow shutter speed can also put to good
use in portraying movement. You can try on to "PAN" a moving subject by following its
direction or simply generates a sense flow of movement.

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But MOST people relates SLOW means BLURRING AN IMAGE which leave little for
them to select this alternative to try them out. photographer, slower shutter speed
sometimes may create a more powerful visual impact than images taken with
action-freeze high shutter speed(s), say, a free flowing river, traffic, a flock of birds
taking off or even speed-demons on a race track.. etc

basic mechanical SLR camera body like the Nikon F2S of the mid-seventies only offers
manual exposure control. AE may require accessory such as DS-1 to transform it into an
shutter priority AE camera.

A camera operating in manual mode or a mechanical camera requires you to set the
shutter speed and aperture value on the lens manually. In an automatic camera, there is
usually at least one type of automatic exposure mode is available. Because of
complication of mechanism involves, most camera manufacturers offer only Aperture
Priority AE or Programmed AE modes on their EARLY electronic camera models. A
good example is Minolta and Canon with their MD and FD mount cameras and lenses
while in some exceptional case, such automation was made possible using a
mechanical device such as Nikon's F2 with their EE Aperture Control Unit.

However, by early '80 with development and refinement made on both cameras and
lenses (Most would require a new series of optics), majority of them started to offer
"Shutter Priority AE" and "Intelligent Programmed AE" as well.

FAST SHUTTER SPEED SLOW SHUTTER SPEED

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHUTTER SPEED AND APERTURE:

With just a twist of a button, you can convert your camera into either shutter or aperture
priority mode or a more sophisticated multi-programs AE. Such complexity in the
exposure control also demands a new method of display essential exposure information
and/or other camera functions.

The Nikon FE semi-automatic SLR


camera has manual shutter speeds
ranging from 1/1000 to 8 seconds, as
well as B and auto (electronic) shutter
control. The B mode does not use
battery power, unlike most modern
SLR cameras. This camera has just
about everything you need for weather
photography, and lacks everything you
don't need or want. The only thing it
doesn't have, which would be handy, is
spot-metering.

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The main function of a camera lens is to collect light. The APERTURE of a lens is the
diameter of the lens opening and is usually controlled by an iris. The larger the diameter
of the aperture, the more light reaches the film / image sensor
Aperture is expressed as F-stop, e.g. F2.8 or f/2.8. The smaller the F-stop number (or
f/value), the larger the lens opening (aperture). WHERE ELSE

The aperture diaphragm of a lens (bigger or smaller values) AND timing (open and
close) of the camera's shutter curtain - perform the tasks of regulating the amount of
light entering the camera and
expose onto the film. The SHUTTER SPEED scales engraved on the shutter speed
dial of conventional camera bodies with a shutter speed ring OR via some flickering
digital numerals on the LCD screen like: 1/8000, 1/4000, 1/1000, 1/500, 1/250, 1/125,
1/60, 1/30, 1/15, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1 or -1, -2 etc. are essentially indicators of the duration
(timing) at which the shutter curtain opens up and closes during an exposure process.
APERTURE It is usually not too difficult to figure out that a stated range deals with
maximum apertures and not max and min apertures: the mimimum aperture should be
quite small at F8, F11, F16 or F22.
A "fast" lens is one that has a large maximum aperture (F2.4, F2.0 for current digital
cameras; F1.4, F1.2 for 35mm film cameras) WHERE ELSE
The SHUTTER SPEED dial provide the selection of shutter speeds, and indicates the
timing of the shutter open and closes. A fast shutter speed as 1/500 sec will close faster
than, say 1/2 sec exposure time. In this case the shutter curtain will close very fast and
thus resulting in less light entering the film. Illustration used here is a older horizontal
shutter design.

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The Shutter: The shutter blocks all light from exposing the film UNTIL you press the button.
Then it quickly opens and closes, giving the film a brief flash of light.

You can control the length of time the shutter remains open by setting the SHUTTER SPEED.

Longer shutter speeds = more light


shorter shutter speeds = less light

Canon Rebel 35mm shutter in closed position.

The Aperture: Before light reaches film, it must pass through an opening called an "Aperture".
The aperture is like a pupil. You can control the aperture by setting the "Aperture Opening", also
known as an F-Stop.

Smaller F-stops numbers = larger openings

larger openings = more light brightness is reduced as light passes through an aperture.

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Shutter Speed:
Determines HOW LONG the shutter stays open The longer exposures ( like 1 second ) give much
more light to the film than a 1/1000 of a second exposure. So even though the number may look
bigger, don't be deceived!

Examples:

A half second exposure is ONE STOP darker than a one second exposure.

A 1/125 exposure is TWO STOPS brighter than a 1/500 exposure.

A 1/1000 exposure is THREE STOPS darker than a 1/125 exposure.

Every step in this table


represents a ONE STOP change in light

Like the pupil in a human eye, the aperture on a camera controls light.

It does so by closing up to restrict light, and opening up to let it through.

Examples:

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moving from f16 to f8 is:
TWO STOPS brighter.

moving from f5.6 to f8 is:


ONE STOP darker

moving from f4 to f2.8 is:


ONE STOP brighter