Anda di halaman 1dari 71

THE PROBLEMS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF

TEACHING TRANSACTIONAL / INTERPERSONAL


DIALOGUES BASED ON SCHOOL BASED CURRICULUM
(KTSP)

(A CASE STUDY OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TEACHING


2008/2009 SEVENTH STUDENTS IN SEMARANG)

a final project
submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
in English

by

HESTI BUDI ASTUTI


2201906014

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS
SEMARANG STATE UNIVERSITY
2009
PERNYATAAN

Dengan ini saya,


Nama : Hesti Budi Astuti
NIM : 2201906014
Jurusan/Prodi : Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris/Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris S1
Fakultas : Bahasa dan Seni UNNES
Menyatakan dengan ini sesungguhnya bahwa skripsi/tugas akhir/final
project yang berjudul:
THE PROBLEMS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEACHING
TRANSACTIONAL / INTERPERSONAL DIALOGUE BASED ON
SCHOOL BASED CURRICULUM (KTSP) (The Case Study of Junior High
School Teachers in Teaching 2008/2009 Seventh Students in Semarang)
Saya tulis dalam memenuhi salah satu syarat untuk memperoleh gelar
sarjana ini benar-benar merupakan karya sendiri, yang saya hasilkan setelah
melalui penelitian bimbingan, diskusi dan ujian. Semua kutipan yang berwahana
elektronik, wawancara langsung, maupun sumber lainnya telah disertai keterangan
mengenai identitas sumbernya dengan cara sebagaimana yang lazim dalam
penulisan skripsi/tugas akhir/final project ini membubuhkan tanda tangan sebagai
tanda keabsahannya. Seluruh isi karya ilmiah ini tetap memjadi tanggung jawab
saya sendiri. Jika kemudian ditemukannya ketidakberesan, saya bersedia
menerima akibatnya. Demikian harap pernyataan ini dapat digunakan seperlunya.

Semarang, February 2009


Yang Membuat Pernyataan,

Hesti Budi Astuti


NIM. 2201906014
The beautiful life, not depends on how you are
happy, but how happy the others because of you.

To:

My lovely parents

My lovely friends
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to praise Allah the Almighty for the blessing and

mercy given to me during my study and in completing this final project.

In this opportunity, I would like to express my gratitude to the people

who helped me finish my final project.

My sincere gratitude goes to Dr. Dwi Anggani Linggar B., M.Pd, my

first advisor, for her patience in giving guidance as well as encouragement,

indispensable suggestion and advice.

My gratitude goes to Novia Trisanti, S.Pd, M.Pd, my second advisor, for

her patience in giving guidance and supports for the finalization of the final

project.

My thank also goes to the principals and the English teachers of Junior

High School in SMP Negeri 5, SMP Negeri 7, SMP Negeri 11, SMP Negeri 15,

SMP Negeri 16, SMP Negeri 21, SMP Negeri 27, SMP Negeri 30, SMP Negeri

40, SMP Negeri 41, for their cooperation in completing my final project.

I would like to dedicate my deepest gratitude to my beloved family who

gave spiritual and prayers to my success. I am also grateful to my best friends in

the English Department of UNNES for their support during my study, especially

English Transfer 2006 and all people who cannot be mentioned individually here.
ABSTRACT

Astuti, Hesti Budi, 2009. The Problems of the Implementation of Teaching


Transactional/Interpersonal Dialogues Based on School Based
Curriculum (KTSP) (A Case Study of Junior High School Teachers in
Teaching 2008/2009 Seventh Students Semarang). A Final Project.
English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, Semarang Stated
University. Advisor I: Dr. Dwi Anggani LB, MPd, advisor II: Novia
Trisanti SPd, MPd.

Key words: Teachers problems, Implementation Transactional/Interpersonal


Dialogue.

School Curriculum (KTSP), as the latest curriculum, brings new


paradigm in English language teaching in Indonesia. School Based Curriculum is
the revision from previous curriculum that is Competence Based Curriculum
(CBC). In the new curriculum, the materials are now arranged more appropriately
to develop Indonesian student’s ability to understand and to create spoken and
written discourse in four basic skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing.
This study is conducted to find out the kind of transactional/interpersonal
conversation stated in School Based Curriculum for the seventh grade junior high
school students and English teachers problems dealing with the implementation of
the 2006 English Curriculum (KTSP).
In this, study the writer used qualitative method. The respondents of this
research were the English teachers of junior high schools in Semarang. There
were ten public schools from ten districts in Semarang. In this research, the writer
used opened questionnaire and closed questionnaire. The form of this
questionnaire is the combination between multiple choice and essay questioner to
get the data.
Based on the data, it was obtained that the English teachers have less
understanding about 2006 English Curriculum, such as the language feature of
transactional /interpersonal, the literacy to be achieved by junior high school
student, the teaching-learning cycle and the competence to be achieved by seventh
grade student. However, they have practiced 2006 English Curriculum in the
field.
Referring to the data, the writer would like to offer some suggestions for
Indonesian government and especially for the English teachers. First, the
government should provide more funds to socialize the 2006 English Curriculum
to all English teachers and conduct training. Second, government should provide
facilities and supplementary books for the teacher and the students, which are
appropriate with the curriculum. Third, the teacher should be more creative to
make teaching and learning aid in order to make students understand. Fourth, the
teacher should read books related to the curriculum and join the 2006 English
Curriculum training.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………… v

ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………… vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………… viii

LIST OF APPENDIXES …………………………………………………… x

CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION ……….…………………………………………….. 1
1.1 Background of the Study ……………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Reason for Choosing the Topic …………………………………………. 4
1.3 Limitation ………………….…………………………………………… 4
1.4 Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………. 5
1.5 Objective of the Study …………………………………………………. 5
1.6 The Significance of the Study ………………………………………….. 6
1.7 The Out Line of the study …………………………………………….. 6
2. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE ……………….………. 8
2.1 The Definition of Transactional/Interpersonal ………………………… 9
2.2 School Based Curriculum …………………………………………….. 10
2.3 The Implementation ……………… …………………………………. 13
2.4 2006 English Curriculum for Junior High School …… ……………. 18
2.5 Speaking as Skill Based on 2006 English Curriculum ………………. 25
3. METHOD OF INVESTIGATION...…………………………….……… 32
3.1 The Subject of the Study ……………………………………………….. 33
3.2 Data ……………………………………………………………………. 35
3.3 Procedure of Collecting Data …………………………………………… 36
3.4 Procedure of Analyzing Data ………..………………………………….. 37
4. RESULT OF THE STUDY …………………...………..……………….. 38
4.1 Mapping the English Curriculum (Speaking Skill at Seventh Grade of
Junior High School)……………………………………………………… 39
4.2 The Kinds of Transactional/Interpersonal Based on School Based
Curriculum (KTSP) …………….…………………………………… 43
4.3 The English Teachers’ Problem in the Implementation of
School Based Curriculum (KTSP) …………….……………………… 44
4.4 Discussion ………………………………………………………………. 56
5. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ……………….………………. 57
5.1 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………… 57
5.2 Suggestion ………………………………….…………………………… 58
BIBLIOGRAPY ……………………………………………………………... 58
APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………… 62
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Background of the Study

Language as a means of communication has an important role in our daily

life, in case of communicating to another. English as a second language in

Indonesia has been taught from elementary school up to university. For many

years, learners have learnt it, but the facts show that many students who study

English as a foreign language are unable to apply in oral practice and the result of

teaching English is considered “far from satisfactory” (Ramelan 1992:3). The

general description of Indonesian students can be represented as follows:

“Most SMU graduates are still very poor in their reading


comprehension since they can not usually read or understand
articles in English dailies magazines, which are now in
circulation here; let alone there ability in writing which has
mostly been over-looked in our schools. In speaking skills is
another linguistics skill of our student which is least-
developed.”

Trying to catch up and improve the qualities of education especially in the

field of language teaching, the governments of Indonesia and the linguistics have

been doing some researches, but unfortunately, still no satisfactory improvement

can be gained (Huda 1999:ix)

The unsatisfactory result of English teaching is not merely because of the

students or the teachers themselves. There are many factors, which affect the

result of teaching such as time allotment, games, methodology, teaching material,


the use of visual aid and also other aspects like curriculum. All factors mentioned

above work together in affecting the result of teaching.

Now, our government has been applying the newest curriculum, namely

School Based Curriculum (KTSP) as revision of curriculum 2004. It is stated in

Government’s Rule (Peraturan Pemerintah no 19/2005) which is also supported

and issued in National Education Rule (Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional

RI no 24/2006).

The change of curriculum is made with the hope that there will be changes

in the teacher as the doers of curriculum, in the teaching and learning activities

and also the student output to be better than previously. To teach speaking using

the current curriculum proposed by government is not easy since teachers are

accustomed to the old system and not easy to change, not to mention that the

newest curriculum has not been completely fully understood by teachers.

The model of competence in newest curriculum is to be based on the

communicative competence, but it is also stated that teacher may use any kind of

method, approach, and teaching technique. Even so, the learning process must be

directed to the purpose of competence acquisition in which students are able to

use the language in communication. The approach, method and the technique

must be flexible. As a teacher, if one approach seems to be failing, teacher must

readily adopt another strategy.

The purpose of learning based on competence is to get the competence itself,

therefore the approach, method and teaching activities depend on the instructional
manager in line with the capacity and provided resource as long as the basic

competencies can be reached (Depdiknas 2003:9).

The fact says that some aspects like method of teaching, curriculum and

others which have been supporting teaching English skill especially in speaking,

have not been again and again revised. In other word, the success or the failure of

the English teaching depend on the factors involved in. Government as the policy

maker, teacher as the innovator, school principal as the motivator and student as

actors have to prove whether they can implement the curriculum well or not, or

unless it will always be questioned as a product or tradition of changing the

curriculum which not touching its practical order and not giving significant

changes in its speaking practice.

Speaking is human activity using the function of language to make language

in an ordinary, not a singing, to state the view, whispers or an act of spokesperson

(Hornby 1995:473). In this case, when we speak, we are giving reports, giving

advices, agreeing, complaining and apologizing (Judd and Wolfson 1983:19).

Actually, the processes of speaking consist of arranging the set of words

containing a subject talked about and the situation.

The implementation of the new curriculum offers wider opportunities to the

teachers to manage the whole classroom activities. Even so, teacher should be

considered and put into consideration before deciding the learning activities. It is

imperative to remember that activities were never intended to be replaced the

school curriculum, their purpose is that reinforcement and enrichment to the

curriculum itself (Howard 1968:113).


Curriculum is considered on essential main educational component, as a

basic source to carry out the learning process in school. Its function is a reference

in teaching and learning to all subjects and therefore needs serious attention. It is

also an instrument to reach the aim of education, thus its existence from the level

of elementary until university is absolutely important.

1.2 Reason for Choosing the Topic

The School Based Curriculum (KTSP) attracted the writer’s attention as it

still raises many questions among teachers themselves, especially to those who are

used to teaching with their old and conservative methods and to some new

teachers who do not have any proper training about curriculum. The main

questions basically, range from the limited knowledge of the teachers and

prospective teacher, to the problem in implementation and also how to change the

old-fashioned style of teaching in a very short time and the confusion that pops up

in the field for teachers to apply it.

The writer chooses specification in teaching speaking because in the

teaching-learning process, speaking-mastery is often viewed as the most

demanded skill. In another word, the process in teaching and also learning a

foreign language is often seen from the ability to use the target language orally.

Meanwhile, in the regular classroom, sometimes, the time allotment and the

proportion of speaking practice are low.

1.3 Limitation

In this research, the writer limits the problem as follow:


(1) This study only focuses the English Teachers’ problems in implementation

of KTSP for seventh grade.

(2) The writer made research to some public junior high schools in Semarang.

(3) The writer only conducts research on ten English teachers from different

schools.

1.4 Statement of the Problem

The problem of this final project can be stated as follow:

(1) What kinds of Transactional / Interpersonal conversation are stated in

KTSP for seventh grade students?

(2) What are the teachers’ problems in teaching transactional / interpersonal

dialogue based on KTSP for the seventh grade in Semarang?

1.5 Objective of the Study

The objective of the study is stated as follow:

(1) To understand what kind of transactional/interpersonal conversation stated in

KTSP for the seventh grade students, and (2) to know what are the teachers’

problems in teaching transactional/ interpersonal dialogue based on School Based

Curriculum in the seventh grade in Semarang.

1.6 The Significance of the Study


The writer hopes that the study will give a significant input to the school

principal; teachers and prospective teachers who might also find it relevant as
reference to apply the newest curriculum. The writer also has great expectations

for schools and curriculum developers in preparing and making the material more

accurately in various ways as well as supplying any other supporting aspects it

may need. Last, the writer hopes that she can get a more comprehensive and brief

knowledge about curriculum and its complexity and can put into practices to keep

up with most up-to-dated innovations.

1.7 The Outline of the Final Project

This final project is developed into five chapters.

Chapter I presents the introduction of the study. It consists of the general

background of the study, reason for choosing the topic, limitation, problem of the

study, objective of the study, significant of the study, outline of the study.

Chapter II provides the review of the related of literature that discuses things

concerning to the topic. It covers teacher, curriculum, competence standard, the

teaching cycle, the component of curriculum.

Chapter III provides the method of investigation that consists of research

design, the subject of the study, data, procedure of collecting data, and procedures

of analyzing data.

Chapter IV deals with the discussion and the results.

Chapter V contains conclusion and suggestion.


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, the writer wants to present the definitions of

transactional/interpersonal, school base curriculum, and the implementation.

2.1 The Definitions of Transactional/Interpersonal

In the context of education, English is used as instrument to communicate,

in getting information and in daily context, to make interpersonal relationship, to

alternate information, and enjoy language aesthetics in English culture.

According to English Curriculum 2004 (Kurikulum 2004, 2004:78),

transactional dialogue is conversation that have to do and the way to overcome the

communication difficulties. Transactional conversation is used for marketing,

invitation, ordering and so on. Interpersonal dialogue is conversation to make

relationship. It can be used in small talk.

Webster online dictionary states that the act of transacting within or between

groups (as carrying on commercial activities); "no transactions are possible

without him"; "he has always been honest is his dealings with me". Interpersonal

communication is the process of sending and receiving information between two

or more people.

In line with the statement above, Nunan (2005:97) explains transactional

speech involves communicating to get something done, such as the exchange of


goods and/or service. Interpersonal speech is communication for social purpose,

including stabling and maintaining social relationships.

Celce-Murcia (2001:56) comments that transactional language is message

oriented and can be viewed as “business-type” talk with the focus on content and

conveying factual or propositional information. Transactional language is used

for giving instruction, explaining, describing, and giving directions, ordering,

inquiring, relating, and checking on the correctness of details and verifying

understanding. Interpersonal language is “social-types” talk, it is person oriented

more than message oriented. The features of interpersonal language are those of

identifying with the other person’s concerns, being nice to the other person, and

maintaining and respecting “face”.

Jack (1994:87) has explained transactional uses of language are those in

which language is being used primarily for communicating information.

Examples of language being used for a transactional purpose include news

broadcast, lectures, descriptions, and instructions. Interpersonal languages are

those in which the primary purposes for communication are social. The goal for

the participants is to make social interaction comfortable and no threatening and

to communicate good will. Examples of interpersonal language are greeting,

making small talk, telling jokes, giving compliments, making casual “chat” of the

kind used to past time with friends or to make encounters with strangers

comfortable.

The writer may conclude that transactional and interpersonal is important

for daily life. By learning, the transactional and interpersonal dialogue can help
the students to overcome the communication difficulties and make

communication or small talk with others. When we are talking with someone

outside the classroom, we usually do interpersonal or transactional purposes.

2.2 School Based Curriculum

In this sub section, the writer wants to present definition of curriculum and

School Based Curriculum.

2.2.1 The Definition of Curriculum

The term “curriculum” which is derived from Latin or Greek word

“currere”, (see Soetopo et. all. 1993:12) is not found yet in the 1812 Webster

Dictionary and can be found for the first time in 1856 Dictionary. It is originally

used in sport, which means a range as running from start until finish.

In the Webster Dictionary, this term has been given meaning;

(1) A course especially a specified fixed course of study, as in


school or college as one leading to a degree.
(2) The whole body of courses offered in an educational institution,
or department.

At the time, the meaning of term curriculum in education is an educational

expectancy that should be covered by student, purposed to acquire certificate by

learning through a curriculum. Studying through curriculum, students are able to

get certificate (Hamalik 1994:3).

Saylor and William as cited by Nasution write curriculum as “the sum total

of schools effort to influence learning whether in the classroom, on the

playground, or out of school. Harold views the curriculum as ‘all of activities that

are provided for student by the school’, while other experts like B. Othanael
Smith, W. et al saw curriculum as “a sequence of potential experiences set up in

the school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of

thinking and acting (Nasution 1994:4)

The curriculum is what happens to children school because of what teachers

do. William B. Ragon explained that curriculum, traditionally, has meant the

subject taught in school, or the course of the study. This tendency in recent

decades has been used as the term in a broader sense to refer to the whole life and

program of the school. The term is used to include all the experiences of children

for which the school accept responsibilities (Ragon 1960:3).

Rene Ochs as cited by Subandiyah (1996:2) explains definition of

curriculum that is more complex as follows:

“This term often to design equally a program for given


subject matter for the entire cycle or even the whole rang of
cycle. Further, the term of curriculum is sometimes used in
a wider sense to cover the various education activities
through which the content is conveyed as well as material
used and methods employed” (Subandijah 1996:2).

From various interpretations and opinions about curriculum above

mentioned, it can be concluded that the classification of the definition of

curriculum are as follows:

(1) Curriculum can be seen as product, a result created by curriculum

developer, usually in a conference. The result is shaped in book or

curriculum guidance, as an example is filled by sum total of objects that

should be learnt.
(2) Curriculum can be seen as a program, an instrument used and

done by the school to reach the goals.

(3) Curriculum can be seen as things hope to be learnt by the

students like knowledge, attitude, certain skill, etc.

Curriculum also can be seen as students’ experiences, considering curriculum as

what actually have been done, happened, and become reality to every student.

2.2.2 The Definitions of School Based Curriculum

In 2006, our government has new regulation about education in Indonesia.

The change is the curriculum from CBC (Curriculum Based-Competence) to be

School Based Curriculum (KTSP).

Before we talk about School Based Curriculum furthermore, we need to

look the definition from the word of Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan first.

Curriculum is a set of plan and the arrangement of purpose, material and method

as the way to get the purpose it self (Kurikulum 2006:5).

The term Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan refers to the level of education, i.e.

primary school, junior high school, etc. Therefore, School Based Curriculum is

operational of curriculum that is made and to be implemented in every level of

education in Indonesia (Kurikulum 2006:5).

The School Based Curriculum is the operational curriculum which is

arrange by and done by in individual school. We can conclude the meaning about

School Based Curriculum as a set of plan that made by the government in

syllabus. Teachers can make the curriculum plan before they implement the
material in class. Teacher can feel free in choosing the textbook, method, and

media in implementing the curriculum.

2.3 The Implementation

In this sub section, the writer wants to explain about definition of the

implementation, the definition of teacher and teaching speaking.

2.3.1 Definition of Implementation

The word of implementation has many synonyms such as completion,

execution, accomplishment, realization, achievement, discharge, performance. As

in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Implementation, implementation is the realization

of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model,

design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.

In line with wikepedia.org, http://www.wordreference.com explained that

implementation have several meaning such as:

(1) the ach of implanting


(2) the stated of being implanted
(3) Pathology; (a) the movement of cells to a new region and (b)
metastasis, when spontaneous
(4) Medicine/medical, the application of solid medicine underneath the
skin
(5) Embryology, the attachment of the early embryo to the lining of
uterus
Based on http://www.wordreference.com, the synonym of implementation is

effectuation; it is the act of implementing (providing a practical means for

accomplishing something); carrying into effect.

Webster Dictionary explain that implementation is the act of performing; of

doing something successfully; using knowledge as distinguished from merely

possessing it; "they criticized his performance as mayor"; "experience generally

improves performance"

From the explanation above the writer may conclude that implementation is

the carrying out, execution, or practice of a plan, a method, or any design for

doing something. As such, implementation is the action that must follow any

preliminary thinking in order for something happen. In an information technology

context, implementation encompasses all the processes involved in getting new

software or hardware operating properly in its environment, including installation,

configuration , running, testing, and making necessary changes. The word

deployment it is sometimes used to mean the same thing.

2.3.2 Definition of Teacher

Generally, the teacher has been called as the ‘facilitator’ or ‘mediator’ of

learning. The successful teachers are able to create a situation where children like

and respect the teaching-learning process. The function of a teacher in class is to

guide the students, not to mention that, he or she facilities the students to learn

something and help them to gain their learning success. Teachers have duty to do

this job of helping students to learn, require planning aids which are available in

the classroom, materials readily adaptable by the classroom that teacher should
provide for his students. Curriculum guides, textbooks, course of the study,

resources unit, and teaching units are also part of the teaching plan.

The teacher also defined as the most significant factor in determining

success of new syllabus or materials. Past and present educational practices has

enthroned teacher as the final curriculum planners for the classes. Michael Kirst

as quoted by McNeil (1990:26) has shown that the teacher is a crucial maker of

curriculum policy. The teacher is not simply an implementer of policy; most of

the teacher has the opportunity to define instructional objectives within an overall

framework that indicates what is to be taught. Often the teachers can also design

and order learning activities to achieve the teaching-learning purpose.

Saylor, et al (1981:159) state that the teacher is actually the interpreter, the

arbitrator, and the guide in the implementation of the purpose of the institution.

Nasution (2003:330) states several traits that good teachers should possess:

(1) A view of teaching as basically-first and last-a human process.

(2) Feeling good about themselves and they have positive view of others. Thus,

they identify with people rather than withdrawing from them.

(3) Knowledge and well information on wide range of subjects.

(4) The ability to communicate effectively. The teacher must understand that the

communication process includes more than presentations.

To be a good teacher is a difficult work, because it requires a lot of physical

and mental energy. When examining all aspects of good teaching, the teachers

should remember that the student could bring enjoyment to the teaching process.
If the teachers could motivate the students, the students would enjoy studying and

the class would be interesting to their teaching.

2.3.3 Teaching Speaking

Basically, the teaching English materials are divided into two groups. They

are language components and language skills. Language components among

others are structure, spelling, and vocabulary, while language skills are reading,

writing, listening and speaking. From the four language skills mentioned here

only one that was discussed namely speaking.

As one of language skills, speaking is also aimed at enabling the students to

apply their English in real life for communication. Speaking itself cannot be

separated from pronunciation, and pronunciation cannot be separated from stress

and intonation from the context of the utterances. Either a word or a sentence

should meet those criteria in order to be understandable in communication.

Classroom is one of some communication settings. There are teacher,

students and educational media used for the classroom activities. An English

teacher should provide proper activities, which can promote communication

among students in the classroom. A language classroom in which communication

is the objective should include students-centered activities. It means that the

students should be active participants.

Besides providing proper materials, the teacher also creates positive

condition for having a good communication in the classroom. The student should

encourage interaction and communication between the teacher and the students

especially among the student themselves.


To conduct a successful communication activity in the classroom, the

attention should be focused on the four aspect of the classroom interaction that

enhance communication; social climate, variety in the learning activities

opportunity for the student participation, feedback and correction (Murcia,

2001:4).

Harmer (2001:31) mentions some activities that can be done in the speaking
classroom, namely;
(1) Acting from a Script
It is an activity that we can ask from our students, to act from plays, their course

books, or sometimes filming the result. Students will often act out dialogues they

have written themselves. This frequently involves them in coming out to the front

of the class.

(2) Communication Games


Games which are designed to provoke communication between students

frequently depends on an information gap so that one student has to talk to a

partner in order to solve a puzzle, draw picture, put things in the right order or

similarities and differences between picture.

(3) Discussion
One of the reasons that discussion fail is that students are reluctant to give an

opinion in front of the whole class, particularly if they cannot think of everything

to say and are not; anyway, confident of the language they might use to say it.

Many students feel extremely exposed in discussion situations.

(4) Prepared Talk


A popular kind of activity is the prepared talk where students make a presentation

on a topic of their own choice. Prepared talks represent a defined and useful
speaking genre, and if properly organized, can be extremely interesting for both

speaker and listeners.

(5) Simulation and Role-play


Many students derive great benefit from simulation and role-play. Students

stimulate a real-life encounter as if they were doing so in the real world, either as

themselves in that meeting or airplane. Stimulation and role-play can be used to

encourage students.

2.4 2006 English Curriculum for Junior High School

Before talking about 2006 English Curriculum for junior high school, we

need look at the conception of curriculum, the objective of curriculum, and the

component of curriculum.

2.4.1 The Conception of Curriculum

Prevailing conceptions of curriculum can be classified into four major

categories: Humanistic, Social Deconstructionists, Technological, and Academic

(McNeil: 1990:3-93)

(1) Humanistic Curriculum

Those with a humanistic orientation hold that the curriculum should provide

each learner with intrinsically rewarding experiences that contribute to personal

liberation and development. To humanist, the goal of education is dynamic

personal process related to the ideals of personal growth, integrity, and autonomy.
The new humanists are self-actualizers, who view curriculum as a liberating

process related that could meet the need for growth and personal integrity. The

humanistic curriculum increases self-awareness; it allows learners to seek typical

personal pattern in their own responses to a series of activities. Observing one’s

of own feeling believed that self-awareness is to be best attained. A humanistic

curriculum demands the context of an emotional relationship between student and

teacher. The teacher must provide warmth and nurture emotions while continuing

to function as a resource center. He or she should present materials imaginatively

and created challenging situations to facilities learning. Humanistic teachers

motivate their students through mutual trust.

(2) The Social Reconstructions curriculum

Social Reconstruction is interested in the relationship between curriculum

and social, political, and economic development of society. They are also

interested in the effect of the curriculum upon the community. The primary

purpose of the Social Reconstructions curriculum is to confront the learner with

the many serve problems that humankind faces. Social Reconstructions stresses

societal needs over individual interests. They place primary responsibility on the

curriculum to affect social reform and generate a better future for society. They

emphasize the development of social values and their use in the critical thought

process.

Social Reconstruction hold that all teachers are political persons who must

choose either to serve whoever is in power (conservative) or present options to

those in power (social reconstruction). Teachers must relate national, world, and
local purposes to the students’ goals. Students thus use their interest to help find

solutions to the social problems emphasized in their classes. They are expected

also to evaluate their own learning and reflect as a group about the actions they

have taken. Social deconstructionists look at society with the intent of building a

curriculum by which students can improve the real world.

(3) The Technologist curriculum

Technologies view curriculum making as a technological process for

achieving what ever ends policymakers demand. They consider them selves

accountable by producing evidence, which indicates that their curriculum attaints

intended objectives. One weakness in the technologist’ model for curriculum

development is that it does not sufficient attention to implementation of the

products and the dynamics of innovation. Efficiency and accountability are

overriding values to the technologist.

(4) The Academic curriculum

Person with an academic orientation see curriculum as the vehicle by which

learners are introduced to subject matter discipline and to organized fields of

study. They view the organized content of subjects as a curriculum to be

persuaded rather than as source information for dealing with local and personal

problems.

In general, people know there are two kinds of curriculum; formal and

informal curriculum. The formal curriculum includes the plan organizational

structure and the instructional delivery system, which are designed to help
students achieve the learning goals, outcomes and objectives of the institution; the

instructional plan which are integral part of the instructional system of an

institution, and; the evaluation system for determining the degree to which

students achieve the specified outcomes. The informal curriculum (co-curricular

or extra-curricular) is composed of other planned activities which are not directly

related to particular class or subject but which are considered as supplementary to

the formal curriculum. Many curriculum theories consider that the curriculum

include all of the planned activities and events, which take place under the

auspicious of educational institution-both formal and informal.

2.4.2 The Objective of Curriculum

Curriculum is something that schools sell to their customers. Curriculum

can actually describe the qualification and outcome competences of the school

program, and through curriculum, the school can make a plan to achieve those

competence. Therefore, the better curriculum planned by school, the more

customers are interested in that school. It is just similarly like quality assurance

of the school that proposed the customers.

Some general objectives in organizing curriculum are written down in the

Tucson Public School Guidance and Counseling Services. These general

objectives tie together the other phases of the curriculum:

(1) To assist in making the educational process more personal, giving

individual help to each child in accordance with his needs.

(2) To bring about satisfactory mutual adjustment with their selves and

others.
(3) To help students make desirable personal adjustment with their selves

and others.

(4) To assist young people to discover their vocational, physical, educational

and social possibilities.

(5) To help students recognize their moral responsibilities.

(6) To provide the students with experiences in the practices of making

decisions.

(7) To provide the teacher with background information for better

understanding of students.

(8) To provide leadership for in-service education for teachers to help the use

the guidance program effectively.

D.C. Philips as cited by Musgrave (1974:17) explains that curriculum

should achieve something more basic. It should prepare the student in such a way

that he could deal effectively with whatever facts turned up in the future. In

addition, the way to achieve this, is to make the student “at home” in the

discipline he was studying, was for the curriculum to concentrate on structure

(Musgrave, 1974:17).

The need of curriculum is described by Alexander English as quoted

by Wirokuswoyo (1988), which explains six functions of curriculum

(Wiryokusumo, et all, 1988:8-12).

(1) Curriculum must be able to arrange the condition of community in order to be

brought to the school environment and made it as a course object.

(2) The Integrating Function.


Curriculum must be able to prepare learning experiences which can educate

individuals who could do an integration appropriate to the norms of

community.

(3) The Differentiating Function

The function of curriculum here is must be able to serve the development of

individual potency that will live and enter in social environment.

(4) The Prapaedetic Function

Curriculum must be able to prepare learners to continue their study of reach

higher and deeper in knowledge with having more wide range.

(5) The Selective Function

Curriculum must be able to do selection about learning experiences

selectively to get mature programs to support and develop every student.

(6) The Diagnostic Function

Finally, the function of curriculum is to detect results. Curriculum reached

the stage instructing students so they can understand themselves, give an

instruction for their selves, and adapt with their environment and family,

school and or ever their community.

2.4.3 The Component of Curriculum

A component of curriculum means some parts or section of the curriculum,

which work functionally and in an integrated way. Commonly, curriculum has

three components; goals, content and methods.


In the present study, six components are initially formulated; Objectives,

Curriculum Plan, Teaching Methods and Learning Activities, Learning Materials,

Evaluation Procedures, and Curriculum Implementation (Nasution, 2003:8).

(1) Objectives

The curriculum objectives are statements about what the curriculum should

accomplish. Those statements may be made at many levels of inclusiveness, such

as at the national level, for the entire school stage, for different grade level of

schooling or for different subject matter areas. The objective, basically, is the

objective of each educational program that will be given to the students. This

includes the institutional, subject matter (curricular), and instructional objectives.

(2) Curriculum Plan

The curriculum plan is a formal design for implementing the objectives. It

is usually thought of as incorporating two important facets: the first defining

curriculum content and second specifying teaching-learning processes. The

curriculum plan is usually a written document that has emerged from a complex

interactive process.

(3) Teaching Methods and Learning Activities

The manner in which teaching and learning is finally carried out represents

the real implementation of the objectives of the curriculum as mediated by the

curriculum plan. It is obvious that discrepancies can arise between educational

objective themselves, the plans derived from those objectives, and the real events

that occur during the learning process.

(4) Learning Materials


The materials utilized in the learning process include textbooks and exercise

materials as well as a variety of other aids, such as museums and exhibitions.

(5) Evaluation Procedures

Evaluation refers here primarily to pupil assessment, either formal or

informal. Curriculum evaluation aims at improving and completing the students’

education and strategy of implementing the program.

(6) Curriculum Implementation

There are many elements in implementing the curriculum. Among others are;

degree and level of education, learning process, information guidance, supervision

administration, curricular means, and evaluation.

2.5 Speaking as Skill Based on 2006 English Curriculum

Competence standard of English for junior high school is to communicate

orally and written by using appropriated language. In this sub-title the writer may

presents the teaching learning cycle, speaking as skill, elements of speaking, and

speech act theory.

2.5.1 The Teaching Learning Cycle

Classroom programming is based on four stages in a Teaching-Learning

Cycle, which are aimed at providing support for learners as they move from

spoken to written text. They involve the selection and sequencing of classroom

task and activities and are related to the starting point of topic or type of text.

There are four stages in the teaching learning cycle. Each stage, therefore,

is associated with different types of activities.


Diagram: The Four Stages of Teaching Learning Cycle

(Jenny Hammond et, al, 1992:17)

According to Jenny Hammond et al (1992:17-23), as cited in kurikulum

2004 (2004:66) the four stages in the Teaching Learning Cycle are:

Stage One: Building Knowledge of the Field

Building Knowledge of the Field can be assumed as the first stage which

supplies background knowledge to the learners about the topic will be discussed

later on. Its aim is to lead learners’ cognitive aspects to the discourse or topic the

teacher wants to reach. The significance of this stage is based on the held-out

belief that learners have already had particular knowledge gained from experience

and previous learning, which can be called out when they encounter new

information. Therefore, to bring about new information; teacher should facilities

his learners current abilities to understand and learn, thus, to go to the further

stage.

Stage Two: Modeling of the Text

Its title suggests “model” is an excellent example that deserves to be

imitated or something that is copied or use as the basis for a related idea, process
or system. In this stage, learners are overwhelmed by representative model of the

text.

The real example in the classroom is in procedure text-spoken cycle,

teacher demonstrated the step of how to make of coffee in front of the class by

using an instant coffee. Students internalize the step by watching teacher’s

presentation. Another example is by distributed the text of dialogue and read a

loud.

Stage Three: Joint Construction of the Text

The aim of Joint Construction of the Text is to work together for the teacher

and students to construct the text. The emphasis of this stage is on the teacher

providing guidance and support in order to convert and reshape the language from

the spoken to the written mode. The teacher and the students can share their

ideas, as well as negotiate meaning to construct text together, by all means,

discussion, negotiation, and communication are not only the way to promote

cooperation. As long as the purpose is achieved, whatever ways deemed to be

reliable are suggested.

Stage Four: Independent Construction on the Text

Having seen that learners are ready to construct the text independently,

teacher can move on this stage. When learner is ready at this stage, he must be

able to generate the text by himself with assistance neither from the teacher nor

from his friends. The function of Independent Construction on the Text stage is

twofold. It does not only serve as the time for student to perform independently.

Students are able to apply what they have learned previously. By then, teacher can
assess their performance independently to measure to what extent students can

grasp the materials.

2.5.2 Speaking as a Skill

The British linguist, Halliday (Longman Dictionary 1990:116) considers

language as having three main functions:

(1) The ideational function is to organize the speaker or writer’s experience of

real or imaginary world, language refers to real or imagined persons, things,

actions, events, states, etc.

(2) The interpersonal function is to indicate, establish, or maintain social

relationship between people. It includes forms address, speech function, etc.

(3) The textual function is to crate written or spoken texts which cohere within

themselves and which fit the particular situation in which they are used.

English is used to communicate orally or written. In this case, to

communicate is defined as to understand and to give information, thought, feeling,

and to develop science, technology, and culture through language.

The ability in communicate in the intact meaning is said as


Discourse Competence, it means that if someone is good in
communication orally or written, he or she implicate the
discourse. Discourse is a communication event, which is
influenced by the topic that is communicated, the
interpersonal relationship between people who
communicated, and the communication lane, which is used
in one context of culture (Kurikulum 2006, 2004: 277).

When students are learning of foreign language, they need to know the

certain of grammar and vocabulary. The basic problems are to prepare learners to
be able to use grammar and vocabulary themselves. In speaking, our brain is

forced to produce correct grammar and vocabulary faster than in writing.

Since English structure is quite different from Indonesian structure, it is

important to pay attention to some aspect like aim, time, subject, etc. To test

whether the learners can speak, it is necessary to get them to say something. And

to do this they must act on knowledge of grammar and vocabulary. By giving

learners, speaking practice and oral exam we can organize that there is a

difference between knowledge about a language and skill in using it. This

distinction between knowledge and skill is crucial in teaching of speaking (Byget,

1987:3).

2.5.3 Elements of Speaking

The ability to speak fluently presupposes not only knowledge of language

feature, but also the ability to process information and language on the spot.

According to Harmer (2001:269) the elements that are necessary for spoken

production are the following;

(1) Connected Speech

Effective speakers of English need to be able not only to produce the

individual phonemes of English but also to use fluent ‘connected speech’. In

connected speech, sounds are modified, omitted, added or weakened. For this

reason, involving students in activities designed specially to improve their

connected speech is should be done.

(2) Expressive Devices


Native speaker of English changes the pitch and stress of particular part of

utterance vary volume and speed, and shows by the other physical and non-verbal

mean how they are feeling. The use of these devices contributes to convey

meanings. They allow the extra expression of emotion and intensity. Students

should be able to deploy at least some of such super segmental feature and devices

in the same way if they are to be fully effective communicators.

(3) Lexis and Grammar

Spontaneous speed is marked by the use of a number of common lexical

phrases, especially in the performance of certain language function. Teacher

should therefore supply a variety of phrases for different functions such as

agreeing or disagreeing, expressing surprises, shock or approval. Where students

are involved in specific speaking context such as job interview, they can be

primed, in the same way with the certain useful phrases, which they can produce

at various stages of an interaction.

(4) Negotiation Language

Effective speaking benefits from the negotiator language that use to seek

clarification and to show the structure of what we are saying.

2.5.4 Speech Act Theory

Based on Richards, Platt, and Weber (1990:265) statements speech act is a

sentence or utterance that has both propositional meaning and illocutionary force.

(1) Propositional meaning (also known as locutionary meaning). This is the basic

literal meaning of the utterance, which is conveyed by the particular words

and structures, which the utterance contains.


(2) Illocutionary meaning (also known as illocutionary force). This is the effect

the utterance or written text has on the reader or listener.

The essential insight of speech act theory is that language performs

communicative acts. In Searle’s (1969:21) words;

The hypothesis that speech act is the basic unit of


communication, taken together with the principle of
expressibility (whatever can be meant can be said), suggested
that there are the series of analytic connections between the
nation of speech act, what the speaker means, what the speaker
intends, what the hearer understands, and what the rules
governing the linguistic elements are.

Candlin and Widdowson (2001:35) describe speech act theory, which

relates the function of utterances to sets of felicity conditions and the knowledge

of the participants that these conditions exist, may help us to understand the unity

of exchanges in communication.

Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistic (1994:90) illustrated the


classification of speech acts;
(1) Commissive; a speech act that commits the speaker to doing something in

the future, such as a promise or a tread.

(2) Declarative; a speech act which changes the stated of a affairs in the word.

(3) Directive; a speech act that has the function of getting the listener to do

something, such as suggestion, a request or command.

(4) Expressive; a speech act in which the speaker express feelings and

attitudes about something, such as an apology, a complaint, to thank

someone, to congratulate someone.


(5) Representative; a speech act that describe states or event in the world, such

as an assertion, a claim, a report.

From the explanation above, we can summarize that speech act theory is

concerned with what people “do” with language – with the function of language.

The speech act also belief that language that is used to perform an actions.
33

CHAPTER III
METHOD OF INVESTIGATION

This chapter deals with methods adopted for the study. It is crucial in every

research since it can be used to achieve the objective of the study, which has been

studied before hand. In connection with the discussion of the study, in this

chapter the writer would like to discuss the subject of the study, data, procedure of

collecting data, and procedure of analyzing data.

3.1 The Subject of The Study

3.1.1 Population

In encyclopedia of Educational Evaluation as cited by Arikunto (2002:108),

a population is a set (or collection) of all elements possessing one or more

attributes of interest. Population is also defined as any group of individuals that

have one or more characteristics in common that are interest to the researcher

(Best, 1981:8). The term ‘group individuals’ refers not only people, but also

things, animals, vegetables, phenomena and so on. While, ‘one or more

characteristic’ like sexes, the color of skin, figure, or unnatural ones, such as class,

economy, activity, etc.

Based on that statement above, the writer chose the English teachers who

teach the seventh grade students of junior high school in Semarang as the

population of the study.


34

3.1.2 Sample

In order to study a problem more effectively, a researcher has to select a

sample, Best (1981:9) points out that a sample is a small proportion of a

population selected for observation and analysis. This means that sample is only a

part of population. It is a finite part of the population whose properties are studied

to gain information about the whole population. The appropriateness of the

sample determines the generalizability of the result. Therefore, a good sample is

one that is representative of the population from which it is selected.

Since the population in this research was large enough, the writer took some

members of population as the sample. In this study, she selected the English

teachers of private and state junior high school in Semarang. As the writer

thought that the number English teachers of private and state junior high school

Semarang is too big for this purpose, she selected purposive random sampling,

and only ten teachers from ten junior high schools in Semarang.

3.1.3 Sampling Technique

The selection of the examples is very important step in conducting a

study. For studying requires data collection, inevitably a kind of sampling

technique to determine which respondents to be taken as subjects of investigation

has to be clearly described. Arikunto (2006:134) states that samples are not

selected haphazardly, they are chosen randomly in a systematic way so that all

members of the population have the same chance to be selected. In general, there

are several techniques of sampling that the researcher can do her investigation.
35

Those are random sampling and cluster sampling. However, the writer chose the

random sampling technique to take sampling.

3.2 Data

According to Arikunto (2006:129), there are three kinds of data that can

categorized into triple P, that are;

P = person, the data source is person,

P = place, the data source is place,

P = paper, the data source is symbol.

The brief explanations of them are:

(1) Person is a data source that can give data in oral answer through interview or

written answer through questionnaire.

(2) Place is data that serves display in motionless and move things.

Motionless : for examples room, equipment, shape, color, etc.

Move : for examples activities, performance, acceleration,

rhythm, dance, film, etc.

(3) Paper is a data source that serves symbol of letters, numbers, pictures, or the

others. It means the data can be rock, wood, bone, etc that are suitable with

the use of the documentation method.

The data sources in the study are English teachers in seventh grade in

Semarang. The writer chooses ten public schools from ten districts in Semarang.

She uses questionnaire to get the data.


36

3.3 Procedure of Collecting Data

The writer uses questionnaire method to collect data. According to Arikunto

(2006: 151), a questionnaire is a number of written questions that are used to

gather information from the respondents about themselves or other things to

know. She states that a questioner can be distinguished into three kinds they are:

(1) From the way how to answer the question, there are two types of questions;

(a) Opened questionnaire, the respondents can answer the question using their

own sentences.

(b) Closed questionnaire, the respondents can directly choose the appropriate

answer.

(2) From the form questionnaire, there are four types;

(a) Multiple choices, it is similar to closed questionnaire.

(b) An essay questionnaire, it is similar to opened questionnaire

(c) Checklist questionnaire, respondent just put check (V) on the appropriate

column.

(d) Rating scale questionnaire, the statements are followed by rating column,

for example; from “extremely agree to extremely disagree”.

(3) From the given answer, there are two types;

(a) Direct questionnaire, the respondents answer about them selves.

(b) Indirect questionnaire, the respondents answer the question about other

things.

In this research, the writer used opened questionnaire and closed

questionnaire. This questionnaire is included direct questionnaire because the


37

English teachers are answers based on their experience or their condition. The

form of this questionnaire is the combination between multiple choices and essay

questionnaire to get the data completely.

3.4 Procedure of Analyzing Data

According to Patton as cited by Moleong (2000:103), analyzing data is a

process to arrange and organize the data in a certain pattern and category.

Analyzing data in the technical research is executed inductively; it means, this

analysis is started from data reduction, data display, and data verification (Miles

and Huberman, 1992:16).

(1) Data Reduction

Data reduction can be said as the process of choosing, focusing on,

simplifying, abstraction and transformation.

(2) Data Display

Data display is limited as a group of information, which gives possibility

about the presence of drawing conclusion and salutation. Data display helps the

writer to see all or certain parts of the research data. From the data display, the

writer can make a conclusion. To get a clear description from the data display, we

must make the data display in good systematic.

(3) Data Verification

Verification is a slight thinking about information which occurs during the

result. It is recall to the note has been made. From the research data of the
38

questionnaire and interview, the writer tries to find the relation in the research

data. Then the writer made conclusion and then it was verified.

This is the sequence of the procedures above;

Data Collecting

Data Display

Data Reduction

Conclusion / Verification

(Miles and Huberman, 1992:20)


CHAPTER IV
RESULT OF DISCUSSION

4.1 Mapping the English Curriculum (Speaking Skill at Seventh


Grade Student)
To know the types of dialogue whether it is transactional or interpersonal, it
is important to map the standard competence, basic competence and speech
functional expressed in KTSP. Therefore, the following is the mapping of English
Curriculum of seventh grade junior high school in Semarang.
Speech Functional
Smtr Standard Competence Basic competence
Expression
I 3. Uttering purpose in 3.1 Carrying out • Greeting
simple interaction with the
transactional and closest surrounding
interpersonal which involves mode • Self introducing
conversation to of speech action; and others
interact with the greeting
closest stranger/familiar
environment. figure, self- • Making
introduction, also command/prohib
introduction others and ition
making comment and
prohibition.
3.2 Uttering meaning in • Asking and
transactional giving
conversation (to get information
things done) and
interpersonal (to • Expressing
socialize) in using a gratitude
very simple mode of
spoken language
accurately, fluently • Asking
and receivable to forgiveness
interact with the
closest environment,
which involves mode • Expressing
of speech action: manner
asking for, giving
information,
expressing gratitude,
asking forgiveness and
expressing manner and
courtesy.
4. Uttering meaning 4.1 Uttering meaning of • Giving
in very short mode of speech in a instruction
functional spoken very simple mode of
text to interact spoken language
with the closest accurately, fluently • Making shopping
environment. and receivable to list
interact with the
closest environment.
4.2 Uttering meaning of • Greeting
idea and concept in a
very simple mode of
spoken language
accurately, fluently • Making
and receivable to announcement
interact with the
closest environment.
II 9. Uttering purpose in 9.1 Uttering meaning in
simple transactional transactional • Asking and
and interpersonal conversation (to get giving service
conversation to things done) and
interact with the interpersonal (to
closest environment. socialize) in using a
very simple mode of
spoken language
accurately, fluently and • Asking and
receivable to interact giving thing
with the closest
environment which
involves mode of
speech action: asking
for, giving things,
refusing the offering, • Asking and
giving things, refusing giving fact
things, giving
information, denying
information, asking
opinion, giving
opinion, disagreeing
opinion and offering/
accepting/ refusing
things.
9.2 Uttering meaning in
transactional • Asking and
conversation (to get giving
things done) and information
interpersonal (to
socialize) in using a
very simple mode of
spoken language • Asking and
accurately, fluently and giving opinion
receivable to interact
with the closest
environment which • Asking and a
involves mode of agreeing on
speech action: asking something
and agreeing on
something, responding
statement, giving • Asking
attention to the speaker, clarification
starting/exploring/closi
ng conversation on the
phone • Giving attention
to the speaker
10. Uttering meaning 10.1 Uttering meaning in
in functional spoken the very short
text in a very simple functional spoken text • Giving
and short monologue by using mode of instruction orally
in recount and spoken language
narrative to interact accurately, fluently and
with the closest receivable to interact • Mentioning list
environment. with the closest of item
environment.
10.2 Uttering meaning of
spoken language in a
very simple and short
• Giving
monologue of recount
information
and narrative to interact
with the closest
environment. • Giving
congratulation

From the mapping above-mentioned, it can be concluded that Standard

Competence and Basic Competence are the guidance and manual to develop the

basic materials, teaching-learning process and the indicator of the expected

competence achievement at seventh grade of junior high school.

4.2 The Kinds of Transactional/Interpersonal Based on School

Based Curriculum (KTSP)

From the Standard Competence and Basic Competence we could categories

transactional / interpersonal into Speech Functional Expression. They are can be

categories;

No Transactional Interpersonal
1 Making command / prohibition Greeting
2 Giving information Self introducing and others
3 Asking and giving information Expressing gratitude
4 Giving instruction Asking forgiveness
5 Making shopping list Expressing manner
6 Making announcement Giving attention to the speaker
7 Asking and giving service
8 Asking and giving thing
9 Asking and giving fact
10 Asking and giving opinion
11 Asking and a agreeing on something
12 Asking clarification
13 Giving instruction orally

From the table above we can see the kinds of transactional / interpersonal

which seventh grade students of junior high school have to achieve. The speech

functional expressions are the guidance of the teacher to make teaching-learning

process and the expected basic competence achievements.

4.3 The English Teachers’ Problem in the Implementation of

School Based Curriculum (KTSP)

To know the problems in implementation of 2006 English Curriculum in

junior high school, the writer did the research in some junior high schools. As the

result, we got the data as stated below:

(1) SMP Negeri 5 Semarang

The name of English teacher in the seventh grade is Dwi Setyaningsih. She

took KTSP training in Semarang. The trainers in this training were the trainer

from teachers in MGMP. In fact, the teacher still does not understand KTSP

English Curriculum. For example, the teacher does not understand about:

(a) The characteristic of spoken language

(b) The teaching learning cycle

(c) Theoretical background of the 2006 English Curriculum

(d) The main purpose of English lesson

(e) Literacy level to be achieved for Junior High School graduated


Therefore, teacher’s less understanding about the 2006 English Curriculum

becomes a problem in implementation of the 2006 English Curriculum. Besides

that problem, the other problems in the teaching learning process are:

(a) The number of the student is too big so that makes the teacher difficult

when explaining Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(b) The students lack of vocabulary

(c) The teacher does not understand about the materials of Transactional /

Interpersonal Dialogue.

Related to the newest method, the teacher’s problem is about the limited

time to make evaluation of the student’s achievement in this method.

(2) SMP Negeri 7 Semarang

The name of English teacher in the seventh grade is Kurnia Setyono. He

had not taken yet KTSP training, but he studied by himself. In fact, the teacher

still does not understand KTSP English Curriculum. For example, the teacher

does not understand about:

(a) The characteristics of the spoken language

(b) The teaching learning cycle

(c) The competence to be achieve by language education

(d) The literacy level to be achieved for Junior High School

Therefore, teacher’s less understanding about the 2006 English Curriculum

becomes a problem in implementation of the 2006 English Curriculum. Besides

that problem, the other problems in the teaching learning process are:
(a) The number of the student is too big so that it makes the teacher difficult

when explaining Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(b) The student is no much interest to the Transactional / Interpersonal

Dialogue

(c) The student feels difficult to understand the language feature related to

Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue

(d) The teacher does not understand about the materials of Transactional /

Interpersonal Dialogue.

Related to the newest method, the teacher’s problem is about the limited

time to make evaluated in this method. The teacher should give more motivation

to the student in order to make them feel comfortable in the teaching learning

process.

(3) SMP Negeri 11 Semarang

The name of English teacher in the seventh grade is Suparmi. She took

KTSP training in Semarang. The trainers in this training were the trainer from

teachers in MGMP. In fact, the teacher still does not understand KTSP English

Curriculum. For example, the teacher does not understand about:

(a) The characteristics of the spoken language

(b) The teaching learning cycle

(c) The literacy level to be achieved for Junior High School

(d) The competence to be achieve by language education

(e) The language feature of Transactional / Interpersonal


Therefore, teacher’s less understanding about the 2006 English Curriculum

becomes a problem in implementation of the 2006 English Curriculum. Besides

that problem, the other problems in the teaching learning process are:

(a) The lack of teaching learning facilities that the teacher uses when it is

compared to the ideal facilities that the 2006 English Curriculum requires.

(b) The number of the student is too big, it makes the teacher difficult to

controll the student.

(c) The student lack of language feature in Transactional / Interpersonal

Dialogue.

(d) The students are lack of vocabulary, it makes students are not responsive

in Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

Related to the newest method, the teacher faces a problem for limited time

to make scoring to the all students in Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(4) SMP Negeri 15 Semarang

The name of English teacher in the seventh grade is Primanica Siswanto,

S.Pd. She took KTSP training in Semarang. The trainers in this training were the

trainer from National Education Department. In fact, the teacher still does not

understand KTSP English Curriculum. For example, the teacher does not

understand about:

(a) The competence to be achieved by language education

(b) The characteristics of the spoken language

(c) The literacy level to be achieved for Junior High School

(d) The characteristics of the expressing language


Therefore, teacher’s less understanding about the 2006 English Curriculum

becomes a problem in implementation of the 2006 English Curriculum. Besides

that problem, the other problems in the teaching learning process are:

(a) The number of the student is too big so that it makes the teacher difficult

when explaining Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(b) The lack of student vocabulary

(c) The student does not understand in using the language expression

(d) The students less understand in responding the language expression, when

the teacher used it in the dialogue

(e) The students get difficulties in grammatical features

Related to the newest method, the teacher faces a problem for limited time

to make scoring to the all student in Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(5) SMP Negeri 16 Semarang

The name of English teacher in the seventh grade is Dra. Sri Hartati. She

took KTSP training in Semarang. The trainers in this training were the trainer

from National Education Department. In fact, the teacher still does not

understand KTSP English Curriculum. For example, the teacher does not

understand about:

(a) The characteristics of the spoken language

(b) The teaching learning cycle

(c) The literacy level to be achieved for Junior High School

(d) The competence to be achieve by language education

(e) Theoretical background of the 2006 English Curriculum


Therefore, teacher’s less understanding about the 2006 English Curriculum

becomes a problem in implementation of the 2006 English Curriculum. Beside

that problem, the other problems in the teaching learning process are:

(a) The number of the student is too big so that it makes the teacher difficult

when explaining Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(b) The teacher less understands about Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(c) The lack of teaching learning facilities that the teacher uses when it is

compared to the ideal facilities that the 2006 English Curriculum requires.

Related to the newest method, the teacher faces problems for limited time to

make scoring to the all students and make the students understand in

Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(6) SMP Negeri 21 Semarang

The name of English teacher in the seventh grade is Solichah. She took

KTSP training in Semarang. The trainers in this training were the trainer from

lecture from UNNES. The teacher understands less about theoretical background

of the 2006 English Curriculum and literacy level to be achieved for Junior High

School graduated.

In the implementation of the 2006 English Curriculum at SMP 21 Semarang

result no much difficulties. The students at this school are students with good

achievement. In addition, the school also has complete facilities as one of the

national standard. SMP 21 will be international school in Semarang.

(7) SMP Negeri 27 Semarang


The name of English teacher in the seventh grade is FX. Kun Artomo. He

took KTSP training in Semarang. The trainers in this training were the trainer

from National Education Department. In fact, the teacher still does not

understand KTSP English Curriculum. For example, the teacher does not

understand about:

(a) The characteristics of the spoken language

(b) The teaching learning cycle

(c) Theoretical background of the 2006 English Curriculum

(d) The literacy level to be achieved for Junior High School

So that, teacher’s less understanding about the 2006 English Curriculum

becomes a problem in implementation of the 2006 English Curriculum. Besides

that problem, the other problems in the teaching learning process are:

(a) The lack of student vocabulary and grammatically

(b) The student gets difficulties in using language feature of Transactional /

Interpersonal materiel.

(c) The student just focuses on translation word per word.

(d) The students are not interested in the Transactional / Interpersonal

Dialogue.

Related to the newest method, the teacher faces problems for limited time to

make scoring to the all students and give motivation to the students to join in

Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(8) SMP Negeri 30 Semarang


The name of English teacher in the seventh grade is Sri Rahayu. She took

KTSP training in Semarang. The trainers in this training were the trainer from

National Education Department. In fact, the teacher still does not understand

KTSP English Curriculum. For example, the teacher does not understand about:

(a) The main competence to be achieved by language education

(b) The characteristic of spoken language

(c) The teaching learning cycle

(d) Theoretical background of the 2006 English Curriculum

Therefore, teacher’s less understanding about the 2006 English

Curriculum becomes a problem in implementation of the 2006 English

Curriculum. Beside that problem, the other problems in the teaching learning

process are:

(a) The lack of the students understanding related to the Transactional /

Interpersonal Dialogue.

(b) The student does not confident when they responded the Transactional /

Interpersonal Dialogue.

(c) The lack of students vocabulary and pronunciation

(d) Some of supplementary books are not available

Related to the newest method, the teacher’s problem is about the limited

time to make evaluation of the student’s achievement in this method.

(9) SMP Negeri 40 Semarang

The name of English teacher in the seventh grade is M. Hadi Utomo. He

took KTSP training in Semarang. The trainers in this training were the trainer
from National Education Department. In fact, the teacher still does not

understand KTSP English Curriculum. For example, the teacher does not

understand about:

(a) The characteristic of spoken language

(b) The teaching learning cycle

(c) The literacy level to be achieved for Junior High School

Therefore, teacher’s less understanding about the 2006 English Curriculum

becomes a problem in implementation of the 2006 English Curriculum. Besides

that problem, the other problems in the teaching learning process are:

(a) The students lack of vocabulary since the students of SMP 40 are the

students with low achievement.

(b) The students cannot follow the teacher’s explanation well, so that the

teacher works more actively.

(c) The teacher understands less related to the material of Transactional /

Interpersonal Dialogue.

(d) The teacher gets difficulties to explain to the students related to the culture

between Indonesia and English.

Related to the newest assessment method, the teacher’s problem is about too

much aspect to evaluated and limited time to score from those aspects in this

method.

(10) SMP Negeri 41 Semarang

The name of English teacher in the seventh grade is Atri Martanti. She took

KTSP training in Semarang. The trainers in this training were the Curriculum
vice headmaster. In fact, the teacher still does not understand KTSP English

Curriculum. For example, the teacher does not understand about:

(a) The characteristics of the spoken language

(b) The language feature of Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue

(c) The competence to be achieve by language education

(d) The literacy level to be achieved for Junior High School

Therefore, teacher’s less understanding about the 2006 English Curriculum

becomes a problem in implementation of the 2006 English Curriculum. Besides

that problem, the other problems in the teaching learning process are:

(a) The number of the student is too big so that it makes the teacher difficult

when explaining Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(b) The students lack of vocabulary since the students of SMP 40 are the

students with low achievement.

(c) The students’ lees understand in language feature that is used in

Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

(d) The lack of teaching learning facilities including the teaching and learning

aids that helps the teacher.

Related to the newest method, the teacher faces a problem for limited time

to make scoring to the all student in Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue.

Teacher also has difficulties in explained the materials because of the facilities

and teaching and learning aids.


4.4 Discussion

Based on finding above, we can see that government had been trying to

make guidance for teachers in teaching-learning process by making revision the

curriculum from Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) to School Based

Curriculum (KTSP). In the School Based Curriculum, government hopes that the

English lesson can help the students to communicate with others in the real life.

Moreover, the common problems that are faced by the English teachers of

seventh grade of Junior High School in Semarang are:

(1) The English teachers in Semarang still do not understand the 2006 English

Curriculum , especially (a) the main competence to be achieved by

language education; (b) the characteristic of spoken language; (c) the

teaching learning cycle; (d) theoretical background of 2006 English

Curriculum; (e) the language feature of Transactional / Interpersonal

Dialogue; (f) the literacy level to be achieve by junior high school; (g) the

competence to be achieve by language education.

This problem appears because the teachers do not have the 2006 English

Curriculum training well and clearly. This problem almost happens in most of

school in Semarang. The teacher should have more training about this

curriculum.

(2) The lack of supplementary books that can be used by the teacher and students

that are appropriate for the 2006 English Curriculum.


There are many books published by publisher which are not exactly

appropriate for curriculum. Almost all the teachers in Semarang are using LKS to

support the teaching learning process, because it is economically.

(3) Schools that are lack of teaching learning facilities, aid that support, and help

the teacher and student activities in English lesson.

Not all schools in Semarang have enough funds to complete themselves with

good teaching and learning facilities. Therefore, they only have very limited

facilities to support the teaching and learning process. As a result, the students’

achievement might be less satisfactory when it is completed to school with good

facilities.

(4) The students still find difficulties to deal with vocabulary, grammar, and

pronunciation.

This becomes a problem in teaching learning process because they get

difficulties when they join the English class. The teacher does not get response or

feedback from student, it makes teaching and learning process is stuck. Teacher

has to work more actively because the students are lack of language feature.

(5) The number of the students in a class is too big so that it gives the difficulties

to the teacher in explaining and makes scoring in transactional / interpersonal

material.

An ideal number of students for each class are suggested that is around 20 to

25 students. The school cannot reduce the number of the students for each class

by placing them in other classes, because the school has limitation of facilities,

including the classroom and the teacher.


39

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusion

From this study, the writer can conclude that the kind of

transactional/interpersonal in KTSP is the way for students to communicate with

others in the real life. Government gives Standard Competence and Basic

Competence to be the guidance and manual to develop the basic materials,

teaching-learning process and the indicator of the expected competence

achievement.

Moreover, the teachers’ problems in the implementation the 2006 English

curriculum for the junior high school at seventh grade students in Semarang are:

(1) The English teachers in Semarang still do not understand the 2006 English

Curriculum, especially; (a) the main competence to be achieved by language

education; (b) the characteristic of spoken language; (c) the teaching learning

cycle; (d) theoretical background of the 2006 English Curriculum; (e) the

language feature of Transactional / Interpersonal Dialogue; (f) the literacy

level to be achieve by Junior High School; (g) the competence to be achieve

by language education.

(2) The lack of supplementary books that can be used by the teacher and students

that are appropriate for the 2006 English Curriculum.


40

(3) The lack of teaching learning facilities, aid that support, and help the teacher

and student activities in English lesson.

(4) The student still fined difficulties to deal with vocabulary, grammar, and

pronunciation.

(5) The number of the student in a class is too big so that it gives the difficulties

to the teacher in explaining and making scoring in transactional / interpersonal

material.

5.2 Suggestion

In order to implement the 2006 English curriculum well, the writer proposes

the following suggestion;

(1) The government should give more attention to the implementation of 2006

English curriculum. The attention can be done by providing more funds to

socialize the curriculum to all English teachers or conducting practical training

about this curriculum.

(2) The government should provide the facilities and supplementary books for the

teachers and the students that are appropriate for the curriculum.

(3) The teachers should get more understanding about the curriculum by reading

all book related the curriculum and joining the 2006 English curriculum

training.

(4) The teacher should more creative in the teaching learning process and use the

teaching learning aids appropriately.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alexander, W. M. et al. 1980. Curriculum Planning for Better Teaching and


Learning. New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Arikunto, S. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: PT


Rineka Cipta.

Best, W. J. 1981. Research in Education. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.

Bygate, M. 1987. Speaking. New York: Oxford University Press.

Candlin, C. N and Widdowson, H. G. 2001. Discourse; Guy Cook. New York:


Oxford University

Celce-Murcia, M. 2001. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language.


USA: Thomson Learning Inc.

Depdiknas. 2004. Kurikulum 2004. Stndar Kompetensi Mata Pelajaran Bahasa


Inggris Sekolah Menengah Pertama dan Madrasah Tsanawiyah. Jakarta.

---------. 2003. Standar Kompetensi Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Sekolah


Menengah Atas dan Madrasah Aliyah. Jakarta.

---------. 2006. KTSP Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SD/MI, SMP/MTs,


SMA/MA. Jakarta.

---------. 2006. Model Silabus dan Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran. Jakarta.

Hamalik, O. 1994. Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta: PT Bumi Antariksa.

Harmer, J. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Harlow:


Longman.

Hornby, A.S. 1995. Oxford Advanced Dictionary. London: Oxford University


Press.
Howard, and Alvin.W. 1968. Teaching in the Middle School. Pennsylvania:
International Textbook Company.

Huda, H. N. 1999. Desentralisasi Pendidikan: Pelaksanaan dan Permasalahannya.


Jurnal Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 5/017.

Jozadi, I 2001. Kendala dan Potensi Penerapan Pendekatan Komunikatif Dalam


Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris di Indonesia. Education Indonesiae. 3rd March

Judd, E., and Woltson, N. (ed). 1983. Language Acquisition-Adresses; Essay;


Lectures; Cociolinguistics-Addresses; Essay; Lectures. Massachusetts.
Newburry House.

Marmaridou, and Sophia S.A. 2000. Pragmatic Meaning and Cognition. AN


Amsterdam. The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing CO.

McNeil, J.D. 1990. Curriculum A Comprehensive Introduction. London: Scott,


Foresman/ Little, Brown Higher Education. A division of Scott, Foresman and
Company.

Miles, M.B., and Huberman, A.M., 1992. Qualitative Data Analysis. New York
Sage Publication Inc.

Moleong, J.L. 1990. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT. Remaja Roda
Karya.

Musgrave, P.W. 1974. Contemporary Studies in the Curriculum. Sydney: Angus


and Robertson PTY LTD.

Nunan, D. 2003. Practical English Language Teaching International Edition.


McGraw-Hill Companies. Singapore

-----------. 2005. Practical English Language Teaching ; Speaking. Singapore:


McGraw-Hill ESL/ELT.

Nasution, S. 1989. Kurikulum dan Pengajaran. Jakarta: Bina Aksara. Citra


Adirya Bakti, Bandung.
--------------. 1994. Asas-asas Kurikulum. Jakarta: PT. Bumi Aksara.

--------------. 2003. Pengembangan Kurikulum. Bandung: Citra Adirya Bakti.

Ragon, and William B. 1960. Modern Elementary Curriculum. USA: Hat,


Rinehart and Winsto Inc.

Ramelan., 1992. Introduction to Linguistic Analysis. Semarang: IKIP Semarang


Press.

Renandya, W.A. (ed). 2003. Methodology and Material Design in Language


Teaching: Current Perception and Practices and Their Implication. Sigapore.
SEAMEO regional Language Centre.

Richard, J. C., 1994. The Language Teaching Matrix. USA: Cambridge


University Press

Richard, J. C., et al, H., 1990. Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. Hong
Kong: Longman Group

Saylor, J.G. et al, 1981. Curriculum Planning for Better Teaching and Learning.
New York. Holt. Rinehart and Winston.

Schiffrin, D., 1994. Approaches to Discourse. Cambridge, USA: Blackwell


Publishers.

Searle, J.R., et al, 1980. Speech Act Theory and Pracmatics. Dordrecht, Holland:
D. Reidel Publishing Company.

Soetopo, et al. 1993. Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Kurikulum. Jakarta: PT.


Bumi Aksara.

Thomas, J. 1995. Meaning in Interaction (an Interaction to Pracmatics).


Malaysia: Longman Group Limited 1995.

Wiryokusumo, et al. 1988. Dasar-dasar Pengembangan Kurikulum. Jakarata: PT.


Bina Aksara.

http://www. webster online Dictionary


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/implementation