Anda di halaman 1dari 5

Education and Training Actions for High Skilled Job

Opportunities in the Railway Sector


(a) (b)
M., Pereira , V., Infante
(a)
IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica Lisbon
(b)
ICEMS - Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade
Tecnica Lisbon

Article Information Abstract


Keywords: Rail transport in Europe is a future-oriented industry and is striving to offer an even more
EURAIL attractive, affordable, safe, clean, competitive and reliable transport mode. Innovation is a key
SKILLRAIL success factor for European Railways and the Supply Industry.
Training and education The purpose of SKILLRAIL project is to contribute to European surface transport research
Railway Research, program implementation and to the enhancement of the sector by fostering a better match
Skills development between the human resources needs to make railways a more competitive and innovative
sector, and the offer of skills coming out of the different research based education and
training institutions across Europe.
Corresponding author:
An intensive activity has been carried out for the identification of the stakeholders' needs.
Manuel Pereira
This work comprised the following: Design of a questionnaire to target railway stakeholders;
Tel.:+351218417456
Collection of stakeholders’ contacts and responses and an analysis of stakeholders needs.
Fax.:+351218417914
High contribution of training (on-the-job training and Short term specialization) for all
e-mail: mpereira@dem.ist.utl.pt
competences is stressed. Training accounts for 61% of the acquisition process on the
Address:Av Rovisco Pais, 1049-001
average.
Lisboa, PORTUGAL
Meeting the needs of the railway industry in educating and training skilled technical and
management personnel is twofold: the fields of specialization are identified as well as the
qualification levels of the corresponding jobs.
The SKILLRAIL project is devoting a significant effort to design and launch a sustainable
framework, EURAIL “European University of Railway”, for creation, dissemination and
transfer of knowledge within the railway sector. By addressing the needs of the sector, the
European University of Railway- EURail will provide the conditions to disseminate the social
and industrial benefits of training and education in the railway sector.

1 Introduction
Rail transport in Europe is a future-oriented industry
and is striving to offer an even more attractive, affordable, Raising awareness
safe, clean, competitive and reliable transport mode. Training & Education
Innovation is a key success factor for European Railways EUR A I L
and the Supply Industry. European University
The purpose of SKILLRAIL project [1] is to contribute of
Railway
to European surface transport research program
implementation and to the enhancement of the sector by
European Universities with research
fostering a better match between the human resources excellence in all rail related
research domains
needs to make railways a more competitive and
innovative sector, and the offer of skills coming out of the
different research based education and training
institutions across Europe.
A partnership for innovation, skills development and
jobs is envisaged to mobilize support and getting the Fig. 1 Training and Education for the Railway sector in
different players to work together in a collective effort to
Europe
spread ownership and excellence.
Figure 1 highlights the institutional scope where
authorities, regulators, operators, suppliers, etc., have all 2 Stakeholders Needs
to be engaged, and identifies the gap where SKILLRAIL is
acting by matching demand and supply of the required An intensive activity has been carried out for the
skills and competencies to foster the development of the identification of the stakeholders' needs [2]. This work
sector, and consequently of more job opportunities and comprised the following: Design of a questionnaire to
faster incorporation of young talents into the sector. target railway stakeholders; Collection of stakeholders’
M., Pereira (a), V., Infante Education and Training Actions for High Skilled Job Opportunities...

contacts and responses and an analysis of stakeholders is twofold: the fields of specialization are identified as well
needs. as the qualification levels of the corresponding jobs.
The universe of stakeholders is distributed by domains PhD holders or holders of multiple degrees are
of activity as illustrated in figure 2. unsurprisingly under 10% for the majority of the
respondents (88%). 38% even respond that there are no
PhD holders in their company.
In-house and external training are considered, where
the first is normally dedicated to specialized and
sometimes proprietary matters, while the second falls
under more general considerations, which can be taught
externally. Courses and degrees are subscribed to at the
personal initiative of the employees ("As individual
initiative of the employees"); Continuing education is
supported in the frame of curricula and programmes
proposed by the employer ("In the frame of agreed
programmes and courses providers").
Fig. 2 Domains of activity University courses and curricula are unequally
participateing unequally into specialization, with values
2.1 Competences needs ranging from 0% to 57%. The contribution of universities
is most significant for competencies in the category
Respondents were asked to check the competencies Economics, business and regulations.
required for their railway activities according to the Most respondents are expecting at least 20%
qualification level at which they are exerted. Figure 3 commitment from universities in educational tasks
shows an overview of the selections made in the eight dedicated to railway applications.
main categories for each degree.
Railway operators, infrastructure management,
infrastructure contractors and signalling represent the
3 Training and Education Offers in
most significant contributions, with shares around 25%, Universities and Research
18%, 15% and 15%, respectively. Institutes
The analysis of training and educational programs and
projects available inside EURNEX Universities and other
relevant Hhigher Education Institutions in Europe, as well
asnd outside Europe (China, India, Russia, South Africa,
South Korea and United States of America) has been
undertaken [3]. More then 5 000 web places have been
surveyed, 134 Institutions from the 7 countries outside EU
and 157 European Institutions have been identified with
relevant research and education activities in railways.
Global remarks about the countries and data collected
are summarised belownow referred:
Russia, is the only country, among the seven analysed
outside Europe, that has railway universities,
USA offers the highest number of railway related courses,
railway related but most of them are under the umbrella of
Fig. 3 Competence needs by categories
Civil Engineering subjects,
South Africa seems to be a country with a transversal
2.2 Acquisition of competences and expected education, offering core courses complemented with
contribution from the Universities research work, graduation projects and post-graduation
courses to give the adequate skills to railway
High contribution of training (on-the-job training and professionals,
Short term specialization) for all competencies is In general, the majority of the courses referred to in the
stressed. Training accounts for 61% of the acquisition web pages of the seven countries analysed are Civil
process on the average, with thea largest part for Engineering related (except forto Russia),
Interiors, auxiliaries, HVAC (88%). PhD courses and research projects cover specific railway
On-the-job specialization is less common, with values topics, which are not included in the Bachelor and Master
ranging from 10% to 22%, accounting for 16% on the Degree programs,
average. The most common railway related keywords railway
University courses and curricula ar e unequally related among the data collected are: “Transportation
participateing unequally into specialization, with values Engineering”, “Traffic Engineering”, and “Planning”,
ranging from 0% to 57%. The contribution of universities In Europe, about 30% of the railway related courses are
is most significant for competencies in the category offered at MSc level,
Economics, Business and regulations. 1/3 of the railway related offers are presented in short
training courses, seminars and special courses, which do
2.3 What further contributions are expected not award any diploma,
from the University? BSc and Dipl. Ing academic degrees related with the
railway system are notless offered to the students as
Meeting the needs of the railway industry in educating much asthan MSc courses.
and training skilled technical and management personnel

April 6th – 8th, 2011, Madrid,Spain Proceedings of the WCRT2011


M., Pereira (a), V., Infante Education and Training Actions for High Skilled Job Opportunities...

The distribution of the type of courses (i.e., academic research and education activities. Many of the
degree level) per “main topics” isare shown in Figure 4. participating institutions have unique expertise and
sophisticated laboratory and testing facilities which can be
used to enhance the quality and effectiveness of training
and education in the railway sector. A networking process
is crucial, and requires a detailed knowledge of the
industry needs of the industry .

4.2 EURail Objectives


The following short term objectives for EURAIL are
identified:
- Enhance and expand educational access to railway
courses,
- Enhance educational quality in the railway area
(academic, stakeholders),
Fig. 4 Distribution of the type of courses (academic degree - Create mechanisms to put forward courses not
level) per “main topics” offered by existing institutions,
- Develop e-learning based courses and promote the
From the graph above it is possible to observe that the production of course materials,
main railway topics are covered. The Graph shows also - Adopt quality assurance procedures of railway
that the number of MSc courses related towith the “main courses and award titles,
topics” is more or less the same withto all the keywords. - Promote Joint PhDs using bilateral and multilateral
programs,
4 EURail – The European Railway - Promote joint international MSc programs in different
rail related areas,
University - Develop and deliver short training courses (STC).
The development of the European Railway sector
needs well managed and collaborative research and EURail supports a strategy for incorporating “e-
targeted research lead education. The SKILLRAIL project learning” into both mainstream and non-traditional
will devote a significant effort to design and launch a programmes to meet public expectations and to enhance
sustainable framework, EURAIL “European University of learning opportunities. With rRegard toing this, EURail will
Railway”, for creation, dissemination and transfer of set forth a vision for the distance learning market in
knowledge within the railway sector [4]. By addressing the EURNEX community. Throughout the SKILLRAIL project,
needs of the sector the European University of Railway- major milestones are proposed to implement EURAIL a
EURail will provide the conditions within which to start operations on a regular and sustained basis.
disseminate the social and industrial benefits of training
and education in the railway sector and to develop, at 5 Training Needs and
European level, high quality training and education
activities for the railway community of tomorrow. Requirements
In line with the SRRA of ERRAC, EURail is expected European railways are facing fundamental legal,
to promote interaction among its associates, and to define technological, demographic and market changes that the
clear and realistic objectives in view of the establishment railways need to deal with in the coming years [5].
of new and innovative forms for further cooperation The main changes include:
between industry and academia. Introduction of new European legislation that, amongst
Based on knowledge, experience and people from other thingss, promotes cross-border interoperability and
"real" universities in Europe, EURail is virtual in nature common standards in the railway sector,
and aspires to foster excellence, at European level, Technological developments affecting the professional
excellence by gathering and networking the different requirements related to the operation of trains and
relevant organizations and institutions around an networks as well as the maintenance of rolling stock and
educational project suitable to the needs of the European infrastructures,
Rail sector. EURail’s unique feature is this concentration The demographic situation; implying that a significant
of high-level knowledge and expertise in one single number of railway staff has to be replaced in the coming
sector/problem-oriented institution. It is expected that years, thereby creating a need to recruit a considerable
EURail will form a coherent community able to define number of staff for the railway sector.
lines of actions and conduct sustainable business in close Such changes create a ‘skills gap’ that European
liaison with the Network of Excellence EURNEX. railways need to bridge in order to stay in business.
However, there is a lack of knowledge about future
4.1 The Mission of EURail training needs, i.e., what types of professional skills will be
needed in the coming years.
EURail aims to disseminate the social and industrial
benefits of training education in the railway sector and to
develop new and innovative forms for further co-operation 5.1 Training Courses for Highly Skilled Jobs
with industry. Short training for highly skilled technical and economic
EURail aims to support and disseminate the idea that jobs are a specific part of the rail training field, which is
the railway sector needs advanced engineering education not well covered by training centers orand within the
connected with research and technological development. university landscape.
EURail provides access to a range of professional and
academic groups in Europe active in railway related

April 6th – 8th, 2011, Madrid,Spain Proceedings of the WCRT2011


M., Pereira (a), V., Infante Education and Training Actions for High Skilled Job Opportunities...

Short training for highly skilled jobs can be targeted to The European rail supply industry has 130, 000 direct
all kind of railway stakeholders in order to develop employees and 250, 000 in total.
competencies standardized or recognized at international Meeting the needs of the railway industry in educating
level enabling to compliancey with EU international and training skilled technical and management personnel
requirements and legislation and also with the high tech is twofold: the fields of specialization must be identified as
innovations under development/implementation in railway well as the qualification levels of the corresponding jobs.
services. PhD holders or holders of multiple degrees are
The creation and development of a portfolio of short unsurprisingly under 10% for the majority of the
training courses for highly skilled jobs constitutes a respondents (88%). 38% even respond that there are no
benchmark for the rail training system which mainly PhD holders in their company. This group is the leastss
answers to the following needs: representative of all.
- To create professional profiles able to operate in the University courses and curricula are unequally
technological changes provided recently by the participateing unequally into specialization, with values
signalling, communication, IT system introduced in ranging from 0% to 57%. The contribution of universities
the railway sector, is most significant for competencies in the category
- To create professional profiles in the international Economics, business, regulations (EC1 – Economics,
legislation and market liberalization under EC2 – Costs, asset management, life cycle costs, EC3 –
implementation in the railway sector. Market analysis).
- To create an integrated system of training for highly A survey of railway stakeholders needs in terms of
skilled jobs, the following two main actions are training and education has been carried out within WP1 of
requested and being pursued in SKILLRAIL project. the SKIILRAIL project. Railway operators and
The involvement of the railway manufacturers and infrastructure managers account for 43% of the
the UNIFE support in order to overcome the responses, whereas manufacturing (rolling stock,
obstacles arisingcoming from competition amongst signalling and control and info technology) totals 21% of
railway companies, protected know how and the responses.
patents., The development of a Training As far as training programmes are concerned, in-house
Management System, including the inventory of and external training are considered;, where the first is
courses performed, contents, tools, facilities and, e- normally dedicated to specialized and sometimes
learning modules due to the fragmented training proprietary matters, while the second falls under more
activities at national, local and company level. general considerations, which can be taught externally.
By applying the market identification model depicted in Courses and degrees are subscribed to at the personal
figure 5 and in view of the results obtained in SKILLRAIL initiative of the employees ("As individual initiative of the
and onin the UIC web base, the following major topics employees"); Continuing education is supported in the
have been identified: frame of curricula and programmes proposed by the
- multimodal and combined transport, employer ("In the frame of agreed programmes and
- new technologies in rolling stock, courses providers").
- asset management, EURNEX Association members are the major actors
- quality (infrastructure, passenger, freight), for the development, maintenance and provision of short
training courses for highly skilled jobs and they need to
- energy efficiency,
cooperate with the existing Rail Training Centres through
- Signalling principles and knowledge in railway
integrated courses, where some scientific and
transport to maintain and improve railway safety and
technological innovations must be explained/implemented
performance,
in the real operating conditions.
- Safety and security. A number of impacts are expected to resulting from the
work so far:
- Contribution tofor the dissemination of the railways
vision and the intense on-going change process and
tofor the change of the public image of railways
RAIL TRAINING RAILWAY -
AUTHORITIES New concepts and skills for young people across
CENTERS INDUSTRY sectors have been identified and will be provided by
offering disciplines based on Basic Sciences and
recent research results, such as Materials sciences,
Meeting the Ensuring fair Applied Dynamics
Bridging the -
current and access to rail Demonstrate and disseminate the need of advanced
competence
future training training high technology engineering in the future of railways;
gap -
needs services Demonstrate and disseminate the need of additional
domains of knowledge that should complement
engineering, such as economics, management,
MARKET FOR TRAINING SERVICES
sociology, human factors, etc.

Fig. 5 Market Identification for Training Services Acknowledgement


This paper describes work undertaken in the context of
6 Conclusion the SKILLRAIL project, “Education and Training Actions
for High Skilled Job Opportunities in the Railway Sector”
European main line and local mass transit operators (www.skillrail.eu). SKILLRAIL is a coordination and
provide employment for over 1 million people in Europe. support action supported by the European 7th Framework
Programme, contract number: 233649. SKILLRAIL

April 6th – 8th, 2011, Madrid,Spain Proceedings of the WCRT2011


M., Pereira (a), V., Infante Education and Training Actions for High Skilled Job Opportunities...

Partners: IST - Instituto Superior Técnico, NITEL -


Conzorcio Nazionale Interuniversitario per i Transporti e
la Logistica, TSB/FAV - TSB Innovationsagentur Berlin
GmbH / Forschungs – und Anwendungsverbund
Verkehrssystemtechnik Berlin, UIC - Union Internationale
des Chemins de Fer, EURNEX-European Railway
Network of Excelence, UPCE - Univerzita Pardubice,
UCPH - University of Copenhagen, TFV-Trafikverket,
ALSTOM Transport, UNIFE - Association of Railway
European Industry

References
[1] www.skillrail.eu
[2] Educational and Training needs in the Railway
sector, SKILLRAIL report.
[3] Characterization of T&E offers in Universities and
research Institutes and other training agencies,
SKILLRAIL report.
[4] EURAIL framework, statutes and Business Model,
SKILLRAIL report.
st
[5] 1 SKILLRAIL newsletter, SKILLRAIL report.

April 6th – 8th, 2011, Madrid,Spain Proceedings of the WCRT2011