Anda di halaman 1dari 25

c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

 
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c



Sc j 

Sc 
Sc   
Sc   
Sc j
Sc  j j  
Sc   
Sc  j   j  
Sc j j
Sc    
Sc 
Sc j j

V
 


  



      ! "  " " # $"  !    ! • 
"%  • &  ! ' "   ! V  "  •

 ! (   ! ' "  )* !  $!+' & !  , )* ! "-+ 
+  +" & !, !  "# .)" & j"$ !  & !)" ! "  $(
  /0 -"1  +   ! " )" 

   !  !  ! "  "  j !) -+!  ! " 2 ")
! 3 &    $!+' +"+  !  •• !!   4$#  !  +!#
" 5# • ,,  +"     ! ! 2 !"! 3 &  !% !
 ("+ +!

+" 2 " 6 ô   3#    ! & " "++  "+# 7  " !
+! & ! + 7 )"    +  j$ - ) +  +! +!"!
 "   •# 1 +  5$") 

! (" 

# 8""  "  8#  !+" ! + 1  "" "   !  +! 
4$! !)  ! !) " 7+  $# +$'  " )"  ! " "! !
" "  # + +"  ! "" + / &  " " + ! %  !
) +

! 4+4  / !  "   "      $" ", ! ! 
2

 0 !3 7  +  ! )! # +!  " 4 !  / ,1"  
"!,# !,# !/

!  + 7 )  !) " ! /  )  +  ! 0 V•V#  +"
+"  " +9  :!) "  -+" ! !+!  "9 , ! /   ! 
      + # !/ 2 "! ;!/;   5' 3  !!


  
 2!"! 
 
# & /   )-+$ 
3  !  )
)!   "  !   - " <  &   < +  )!+ ! # "   !!)' 
)-+" # &#  ! $ !+'  ! ",  V# ! - "   "+'
)"! !  $"   
+  ! )-+  

  
 "+' !
"+ ! )! 

 & !,   !  *+    "  !  +& !) -+!   ")
" 7+ # &  )" & "  !  "    ")!!     ") !   -)"
! )" " " "  "1 2/ + /' "  ! +3  , +  ! 4

•
+ ! ! # +  " ! , !+'  V==



!      !)  "  / "+ ! )" "!  ! !)
" + " !!# + !   +'  + ! *"  4$!# ) ! 0 !#
 ")(# -"+(  !   "  ,   -"++'  !')+# ! !) " $( 
!! 

  "  ,   !+ # !  "  !,  !  +'



 !) "  4$! " 5  " • !!   " #  ! +! !
& " 27  • !! 3 ,,  #    ! *+ !) -+! &# 7#
+ - "  !     ••# " " !    $!+'  !,# $(  -+!
"  !! -+! 

V  ! !) " " ! =   $!+'

j + " !   +   " "# $( 6   !     -+!  !
" ,+ '  "$   , #   !    -+!  ! '  &  
!    -+!  ! ' "  7#  4$!  ! +   )"
"   !#    # "+# "!# # 7 "+# 0  !#
" " 

X
! !-$ "  - (+ #  !   / ! !$"  ! + )! /  ! 2
5++'  ! !" +3

 " +"  " 7 )  ! /   + +   +"  V•V
!! 



     7 +" +  ! !-$ +"!+ +     ! 
""  5  "  2  $  / ! !) /  !%$ " ! +" 
"!)  " !, ) 3

- ! V "  "!,  %  " ! !-$ ! " +"$"  "  !
!-$ +"!+  )'  2)"! +&   3 4 V=# + ! +""
" - -+!  "

! + "" / " !) " +# ! "  " )(" 6 +! # - & " >
  ! " 4" ! !

 !$" / "  ;?;   -# " / !   $" +  -! +  7+
  +!  "  7# ! !$" / "  ;;  "  +!/" )(" 

!) ,+    -+" ! )(" !% -1   -  +!  !%
! -1 ; ; 2 
2-3   2+3 @ ) 3 & ! " +   ! )" +  ! -1 ; +?;
2  2+3  
 2-3 @ ! $ 3

 & " " ! !(5+ " 2!" "    3   ") 2! 3# " # 7#
$( 4   " +4 !$"   ,+  !, # ! -"+(# ! # !7#
4*)" # "+  )!(

 -!+ !,  "+   ! +   !(5+ +   ! - (+  ! !)  "


1! # !  " ! !  !$" " 5"" ;;# ! "  ' ! 5"' !, 

7# ! "  ! *+ !) " + +  ! -  A4A /  ,"  !+ 
! 0 ! B1C  " + ! -  ")! +!!  A5A

$( +$ +" / +   ! +, ""!   $" " + ! !#
" / /!! "!+  +  ! , "$ -"  "  " !) 2-"+(#
! # !7# )!(# 4*)" # +3 " ! )! # ! "  ' " !(5+ !
"+( & ! !  7 !#  ' ! !7 & ! )!(

   ) # ! "" "    +" +!  - 4$  " ! 
+ 23# / 4$!$  !)  " # ! !)  !  + #  ! /  $
&  + 

(  ! + / " # +  "- "'   " ,+ "  & ! ! ,!)" 
+ ,"'  ! !)   " ! "+' & " ! + "+  .& / +" / '!
 /0 "  + 2! / 4 &  3 - " %  & " " ! "" "
$  $!  " +  !$" / + ,"  $1 + " ! "  

/  / +   +4 +"+ ! + # 4& !) !$" ! " / 
'! 5   +" ," !+! &  ! / 4& + )   !$( j +" /

 !$" " + ! +   & " "   !$"  "!+' +  !  "
 ) 

j  /    !  !+  "  ,"  -+  4# " 5# ! )!
 & ! )! #   / ! !) !,  +"+"  !  $!   4$! + 
,"+  ! !+ + " 2! +!  4$!  "   3   )-+# !
+! !! ! +'  "/ 4 ! "  "  4$  + + " !  "  
 ")   - "  5 7 !!7  ! -" " "# & / 
4$!  "  j"$ !% !  !)1 /   !,

  

" ! j) "" !# !  "+"  + '+  "  -"  + !%  & !
+, + '+ !-+  V = # +  ! + ! "() + # ! , ) $"
"'  "  "- " " " +" !   +    "+  " ," 
0   ",%+  & +"!%+'# ! ) $" " 4   "  ",+'
)-+,  "  ! +  

    !  "+! " + " & 5 " "  " +  )"+ !  " 
 + " "" ! V !    +!,  + !   ! "-+ ! > ! 
"+"  - "!   $ & ! +  7 5  5 &+   )
"! & "'! /  "   "+1 )-+, ! +  " # " " +$"" !
 !  !  !  7 $!)   ""! # "+!   " "" 
"+" ! +  -+ " 5" #  4 ! ! )"+'  !  ")
+!"  4" !(+"+# & " $ +! "  "+     ! ") +   !


! + " "! "" ! X ! #   /  !  *!   # ! !+ 
+ " " !   +   +"!% 4 / $ ! & ! -7$"+ 4
 / ,"" ,   "%+    "+! + "   ! 5!# !
"*")+ # ! " ++'  /" & ,4+! #  " & ! " +  !
" ++' )" +"

  ",+  + " ! "  ! #  ! " ! "+! + "$& !


" )" # ! ! ! $ & !  7"    ! "++  "! / + +" !
" # " /  "!, +  "  +!"!

! +  !  ! # # ,"     " $1  "    ! ")' & 
"  ++!  $!% + "+!   (-+ )-+, # ! 5 "+    
XX !!   "  " / !  "+  !+% !   !!   " 
  "+!  +   #   ! 5 "+  +   !  "+    !
& ! j + ! 4+4  /  $ "!+  + "+! +     ! 
  4$! 4#  +! +  ")# 4!#  ! $# + "# 0 & %!

 !  *!  0  ! & "  ) $"  "+  &  "-""   "!+ 

$!"!# $!+  ," -+4   5  -"  "" +  %!# 
+  ! +!   "!+  + '+ $ +  !#  ! +" 
 "+' + '+  "!  ",( ! +!  +"'#  V X# !  ' 5
% ! >  /  4 "  " !"  % +   V 
 $(  " +!  "  !"# / 4 $!+ +  !  7
) $"   ! ")'

# / )"'  ! ' "  ! V  "  •  %'  "+' !
+  ! +!  -  V =   /!! ( + + $ +   " $ ! &
 " ++' -+ " ! + ! 
V

!  !'   "+'  X 0   "+' ! •# )"+  ! 5 "+   !  
 !  ! +   (+ & ! ,"  &"  ! +"+ !   0 
"+# " $( "!"   )" /!$"  ! $!+  ) 
V 

    !  "+! " + " & 5 " "  " +  )"+ !  " 
 + " "" ! V !    +!,  + !   ! "-+ ! > ! 
"+"  - "!   $ & ! +  7 5  5 &+   )
"! & "'! /  "   "+1 )-+, ! +  " # " " +$"" !
 !  !  !  7 $!)   ""! # "+!   " "" 
"+" ! +  -+ " 5" #  4 ! ! )"+'  !  ")
+!"  4" !(+"+# & " $ +! "  "+     ! ") +   !


! + " "! "" ! X ! #   /  !  *!   # ! !+ 
+ " " !   +   +"!% 4 / $ ! & ! -7$"+ 4
 / ,"" ,   "%+    "+! + "   ! 5!# !
"*")+ # ! " ++'  /" & ,4+! #  " & ! " +  !
" ++' )" +"

  ",+  + " ! "  ! #  ! " ! "+! + "$& !


" )" # ! ! ! $ & !  7"    ! "++  "! / + +" !
" # " /  "!, +  "  +!"!

" ! j) "" !# !  "+"  + '+  "  -"  + !%  & !
+, + '+# !-+  V = # +  ! + ! "() + # ! , ) $"
"'  "  "- " " " +" !   +    "+  " ," 
0   ",%+  & +"!%+'# ! ) $" " 4   "  ",+'
)-+,  "  ! +  # "   +   7  $" / " ! " 
 +!

! +  !  ! # #  " $1  "    ! ")' &  "  ++!
 $!% + "+!   (-+ )-+, # ! 5 "+     XX !!  
"  " / !  "+  !+% !   !!   "    "+!  + 
 #   ! 5 "+  +   !  "+    ! & !   
 4$! 4 7 +"+  "+ !     0 & %!> +  0 
+ 1  " !  +"   ! ' "  &  !  *!  0  %! & 
"-""   "!+  $!"!# $!+  "  V    5  -" 
+  !   ! +"   "+' + '+  "!  ",( ! +!  +"'
 V X# !  ' 5 % !  /  4 "  " !"  %
 "  V 


  

 +  +' (+  !  $!+' !  7 )"  "  & "  ") "
2==# 3# / + ,, +    " + !+,  4*)"  2# 3# + +"   $"  
 ! ")'  "!,# &  )  "  )  2•# 3 7# 5 " 
)"  (+    "  6 !# 1  & !,  2$*!)" # +"  & "$ #
"+!3

! +"+  !  $!+' " ! "  V  • 4  ), 2 # !3 


 $!+'  + +"  ! ")  7 "!%  ! "" $1 j'!  #• 
!  "  ,,  ! +# ! / ""   ! "  "+  7 $1  " #
'! "  " ,"    ,+  $!+7+  & !, 7 ! =  !  $!+' 
+"$  ! )! "  5 " $( 4& +'!+ # +! " !  "
4*)" & !  "!,   1   + +"  +"# ! +!

  $!+'   !+% !  ••#X !!  2•3# & 7 +"+   " ! #V•
!  & "  !  $!+' "+  !  " 2==# 3# )  "   "
+ !+,  4*)"  2# 3# + +"   $"    ! ")'  "!,# &  ) 
2•# 3 +"  2#X 3# " # ! 2#X 3# "+ # $*!)" # !  & "$ # 1 + 
"  "# + & ! "  !  $!+'•    4$  + +"  ! !!"#
  7 !  +"  "! &  "" !! ! )"+!"  )" +! ! #•  ! 
"  ,,  ! +# ! / ""   ! "  "+  7 $1  " # '!
"  " !)    ,+  $!+7+  &  +  +' (+  !  $!+' ! 
7 )"  "  & "  ") " 2==# 3# / + ,, +    "
+ !+,  4*)"  2# 3# + +"   $"    ! ")'  "!,# & 
)  "  )  2•# 3 7# 5 "  )"  (+    "  6
!# 1  & !,  2$*!)" # +"  & "$ # "+!3

! +"+  !  $!+' " ! "  V  • 4  ), 2 # !3 


 $!+'  + +"  ! ")  7 "!%  ! "" $1 j'!  #• 
!  "  ,,  ! +# ! / ""   ! "  "+  7 $1  " #
'! "  " ,"    ,+  $!+7+  & !, 7 ! =  !  $!+' 
+"$  ! )! "  5 " $( 4& +'!+ # +! " !  "
4*)" & !  "!,   1   + +"  +"# ! +!

  $!+'   !+% !  ••#X !!  2•3# & 7 +"+   " ! #V•
!  & "  !  $!+' "+  !  " 2==# 3# )  "   "
+ !+,  4*)"  2# 3# + +"   $"    ! ")'  "!,# &  ) 
2•# 3 +"  2#X 3# " # ! 2#X 3# "+ # $*!)" # !  & "$ # 1 + 
"  "# + & ! "  !  $!+'   4$  + +"  ! !!"#
  7 !  +"  "! &  "" !! ! )"+!"  )" +! ! #•  ! 
"  ,,  ! +# ! / ""   ! "  "+  7 $1  " # '!
"  " !)    ,+  $!+7+  & !,  "+! + !   
+"# ! +!# +  • !!   4$# 9# "9 ,# !1  +# 9 "# " ,#
 %# !D & ,   !! +    $!+'  " •= XX 4$


"  "9 ,# ,  ! )! )"      "!)' -+!# / 7
! =  !  $!+'  +"$  ! )! "  5  2)* ! +  ••3
$( 4& + )-+,  +'!+  2  " ! +   " "!3 2
#  !  $!+'# +4   !!   !  " 4*)" & !  "!,3#
"  2!"  & +!,32X#  !  $!+'3# )"  + ! & !
2!" "  V# !   !  $!+'  !3 j)* ! +  ••# $( ,,  !
 •XV   & ""!)   & V 1  !  "+1  +"&   
+ "$! !  "+1  +"&  "/# +  ! +' / "/   
& "" !7 ! "  !   -+! !   )   "+ !
4*)" & ! "  2/    / ," +  ! " #  +  !  " # !  ) 
" 3# 4$!   " !  $!+     ! +"  4$! 7"  ""#
+ ,#  $" &  ! )!(  ! ""   5"1" /    ! & "
 ! +! "# & +! 4&    "(  ! )!(  ! , +$!"
"  ! -"+(  4$!  "  )-+, *"  "  2   !! 3# &
  $"  ! "+ -  $( ! 0 !  4$!  "  *" )"  !
 $!+' & ! *" 7 +"+ 

!,  "+! + !    +"# ! +!# +  • !!   4$# 9#
"9 ,# !1  +# 9 "# " ,#  %# !D & ,   !! +    $!+'
 " •= XX 4$•

"  "9 ,# ,  ! )! )"      "!)' -+!# / 7
! =  !  $!+'  +"$  ! )! "  5  2)* ! +  ••3
$( 4& + )-+,  +'!+  2  " ! +   " "!3 2
#  !  $!+'# +4   !!   !  " 4*)" & !  "!,3#
"  2!"  & +!,32X#  !  $!+'3# )"  + ! & !
2!" "  V# !   !  $!+'  !3 j)* ! +  ••# $( ,,  !
 •XV   & ""!)   & V 1  !  "+1  +"&   
+ "$! !  "+1  +"&  "/# +  ! +' / "/   
& "" !7 ! "  !   -+! !   )   "+ !
4*)" & ! "  2/    / ," +  ! " #  +  !  " # !  ) 
" 3# 4$!   " !  $!+     ! +"  4$! 7"  ""#
+ ,#  $" &  ! )!(  ! ""   5"1" /    ! & "
 ! +! "# & +! 4&    "(  ! )!(  ! , +$!"
"  ! -"+(  4$!  "  )-+, *"  "  2   !! 3# &
  $"  ! "+ -  $( ! 0 !  4$!  "  *" )"  !
 $!+' & ! *" 7 +"+ 

 +  +' (+  !  $!+' !  7 )"  "  & "  ") "
2==# 3# / + ,, +    " + !+,  4*)"  2# 3# + +"   $"  
 ! ")'  "!,# &  )  "  )  2•# 3 7# 5 " 
)"  (+    "  6 !# 1  & !,  2$*!)" # +"  & "$ #
"+!3

! +"+  !  $!+' " ! "  V  • 4  ), 2 # !3 


 $!+'  + +"  ! ")  7 "!%  ! "" $1 j'!  #• 
!  "  ,,  ! +# ! / ""   ! "  "+  7 $1 " #
'! "  " ,"    ,+  $!+7+  & !, 7 ! =  !  $!+' 
+"$  ! )! "  5 " $( 4& +'!+ # +! " !  "
=
4*)" & !  "!,   1   + +"  +"# ! +!

  $!+'   !+% !  ••#X !!  2•3# & 7 +"+   " ! #V•
!  & "  !  $!+' "+  !  " 2==# 3# )  "   "
+ !+,  4*)"  2# 3# + +"   $"    ! ")'  "!,# &  ) 
2•# 3 +"  2#X 3# " # ! 2#X 3# "+ # $*!)" # !  & "$ # 1 + 
"  "# + & ! "  !  $!+'    4$  + +"  ! !!"#
  7 !  +"  "! &  "" !! ! )"+!"  )" +! ! #•  ! 
"  ,,  ! +# ! / ""   ! "  "+  7 $1  " # '!
"  " !)    ,+  $!+7+  & !,  "+! + !   
+"# ! +!# +  • !!   4$# 9# "9 ,# !1  +# 9 "# " ,#
 %# !D & ,   !! +    $!+'  " •= XX 4$•

"  "9 ,# ,  ! )! )"      "!)' -+!# / 7
! =  !  $!+'  +"$  ! )! "  5  2)* ! +  ••3
$( 4& + )-+,  +'!+  2  " ! +   " "!3 2
#  !  $!+'# +4   !!   !  " 4*)" & !  "!,3#
"  2!"  & +!,32X#  !  $!+'3# )"  + ! & !
2!" "  V# !   !  $!+'  !3 j)* ! +  ••# $( ,,  !
 •XV   & ""!)   & V 1  !  "+1  +"&   
+ "$! !  "+1  +"&  "/# +  ! +' / "/   
& "" !7 ! "  !   -+! !   )   "+ !
4*)" & ! "  2/    / ," +  ! " #  +  !  " # !  ) 
" 3# 4$!   " !  $!+     ! +"  4$! 7"  ""#
+ ,#  $" &  ! )!(  ! ""   5"1" /    ! & "
 ! +! "# & +! 4&    "(  ! )!(  ! , +$!"
"  ! -"+(  4$!  "  )-+, *"  "  2   !! 3# &
  $"  ! "+ -  $( ! 0 !  4$!  "  *" )"  !
 $!+' & ! *" 7 +"+ 

j

++
 ,'

  ,!  ")!" &   +4""  ! + 0 (" " 2" 3 &  ! + 0
5"1" +    +" 2!# " "+# -4# !!# j"# +3 !
+" +  !  7 )" " "  !  

  " "  "+ !     +"  #   4!


E )!+ &  "
! " " "+ !    +" 7    +  V= F ! +" 
! + j  !!)" ! +"  !   $ ! " " 2! "+ ! $!!   
!3  5  ! ) +  "-"$! + ," +  ! +4'-"  $" ! "+   $"
"(   )  " #  "/ !) )+ " -"+ &  ,+
 $!  "-" ! " "  "+  + ,$!

 "
  " "7  "+ ! ! +" & ! "+! +! ! +"  " # 
+  " ! ! "! ! " )" & ! )" + !    $" !
j "+ !  "-  -"" +""! 23  "!

  ++

 ,  ++    6 "!# G"%#   =V> # ")# 
 "  !+  " V> "# !)" # ",   "!  " >
# "# j - ") => $!# j -  +4 => +*# E,# 4 !$
=> G"%# E,# " j" =   ! ,   "+  + + "+ +  !
")!+  "+ ! j + +  ! " "+4  ! +""" & !  $!1  4+
 " ! %/"

 + " +" & ," )" +  6  V•• F> "! •V F>
" 2HI"+43 •V• F> "5!! •X  F>   •V F>  = X F>  4) •=
F> "F-" •V F>  .) 2 "3 ••= F> .!F •  F> $!  F>
E, V F> 4  F> $  V• F>    • F> " XX F> F
V F> +* V X F> ! •=• F> " •V F> ") V F> ) V  F>  
•V F> j -  F>  + ! XV F>  VV F# G"% V  F j !!) 
  + +4# ")  "  + +"# !  ! ! + +4# ! " ," ! !$
  $!+   & ! + 0  )" #   # ! 7   +' "
" $! (++   +!/" "    +"# !! !  $1 ! *" •

 $"+
"+   ", +!  ! "   2! " )" 3# ! " 7 )" ! 
$"++  " )"  $( ,  ! $ &  ! , , -!,! "" 
 "  # / +!& ! 7! $ " )"    "   ! $  
j!# !+# !# "!# " $ " j," & ")

j   &  j j

  ! / / "     "" 4+ "   ! )"  
$  +" /  -"+  + + & ," & "+  $  " +  "! &
 " / +# *      "# +4    !$ "+' ! "

V
 $ " +"  "    "/ +  )" + ""7 ! " +4
+! " & 0 !
  !   +" "   $" !  !   +  5++'  ! %  ! ! !
$ #   ! + ) +4  !  !)"0   ,""   "  
)" $7+   +   ! +  " "" ! !+ "  + ! +! 7
"+ 6
 j!+4+4 /0  & +  +  4"$
" 7+
  
    +" + 0 +  !) 2 !3
   ! +  +" + & ,!  4 1  + ! 
   "  +4 
  "" )
 
  
   J  ,1  
    j  + +  ,""
      ""  +  ! ")'   $"1 
       j!+4+ "  +  ! ")'  !
      ! %)"  ! ")'  !/
     +"  !! +  +$ !! -"#  ! +" +   # "   ! ")' 
"!,
      +4 -# /  +  $  !  
 "( ",  +  +4 + ! +!# "! , -!$  +  , F
      !!   +"
        "+' /"  #   ! -!+  ++#  4
  0 +  " +!   )"   / ! +! 7
+   " !  "  ! + /  # )  !! !)  !
,"  /  7 +  +6
  J $!+ ! !$ "  ! ")  +"+  !  7"  j +   
!+4  ,1 + !  /  $!  " " & !  4 
    J " "# -" & +# "   + 4+4 +  ! 
! 2$"-3 j!  "  "
 
  j !$ "  !  !+     !  +' " #  !
! + +,!!  j +    !+4  ,1#  ,+  %+!  $  $ "
,# !)" ! +  "+ & -" & 7 + + "
j!  "  & -" 
  "+  ! " " " !$ " +  !+4  ,+
    )! +"+"+ " !$ " +  !+4  ,1
      !+4  ,1# ,+ $*-! #  !  0 "'5 ! " 
!1  $1 +   " )"
   " ,"  E4F,! +  !+4  ,1
  J $!+ !  !+4  ,1# ,+ %+!  !+4  ,+ & $*-! 
   E4F,! %+!  !+4  ,1 & ,+
 J -"+ # $! &  ! j! + "   # %  +  4"$ & &
+  j !% +4  ! !$ "+'  !  + 



   )" "+' ,+ ! "  " !  5+! +!  / " +# !) 
 !  +! 4  )!"   +  "   "   +"7 "+ !
 
    "# !  "  !,# -)" " !  7 -   !  + 
!+  - "  " ) + '+  /  "+ +  7 # "7+#
+ !$  !  +" !  ,0      & + /  5+! , 
VV
+  ! !)' "+ ! "
" 7 ! ,0  . +  "+ +   +   4  & H)44"  !
!)"+ &  "  !$ " !)   !  1 " , # +  $" j,) #
"!  + )" 2 3# & + !$ !) 2$!+ 3   ,   ! ")' 
!   $(  "" +  ," ) +  "7 # "! & ")4#
5"1"# +  j,) # "! # $" j,) #    " & +  !  !
")'   $"1# +"+ ! $ #  5 !  ,0   # )# +!! &
-"!" / -"+ ," & -   ! 7$ "+ !
-"!"#  " 1! #    ! "+ 7 +  +  , # ! )! /  + 0+
" !  !+ " "  4& / +"   # )"  +"! +  
)"+' & !,>    +"+"+ !  "  "!,# $  "
!+'# " %+!#  +"!# !$"+ / & "  !+ +"  7 ,
/ ! +# " $(  !!)" 
" 7 )"+'> ! "+4# )"  "1 
 
   +  +4 " ! 1,  !!  "  +6 +   
+ $ # , F )$" +   +  !  " 1! # ! ",  " " &  4!  j $$
! , F "" & ( ! "-"+ 

    ! $$ 7 +  5 ," "+ " & $( 
 "+'# / ! "" ! " 7 $"



 +!"    "+ & ,"   !  "   " #  -! -


+  !   +"  " ")  6 "  "!# "  ! # & ! !
!+7+#   " " +!  !  )  ( "   "  - "'
 $"  "  !  "   & +  2! ! + 7 1  $3# ! +! 
"  " -!+ " ! -  ! )I & !  # ! -!+ & "
,"   6 $!  !,  / )""  &  "   !  +!  ,+  + 

 6 !)"# j"$# +"#  +!   !  & > )")  ,! & ! "
$% >   !")  +' ! "   >  !  4*)"  & 1   "!,
 +!" "  " , !+ ' 7   " !  *!  • 0 # +   -"
-!+  ! +!" ++!# "+!" -"+ & !#  $ ! 7 "+  !
-!+ $"7+ & "+

 "! " - -!+  "  + 5  +  !  !    " 
/""    "   *+  # /  " " 5"   
;+!+4(; 6 ; !  !   +( !, ; & ;! *+ $! "  5 !; .&#  "
+ "+'#  +  +'!+  "   2 ! " "  # +  ! " )") 3 &  )"
/0  " # " / 7 !   !  $!+'  "  5 " ! !
+ ,%    " /  ! )!  ! ,  ! )"+  7 "+# !
)! "  5  )  ! +' 7 "  " !  "   ! 
""!# ! +  ! )!   , )"# & $( " !  +   ! +
$(#  "  !) ++   + !$ "+' +  ! "() + # " !
""+$! ,"   ,"+! & !!)"   " ,"! "# +  !
+"  " j?! # + "   !  7 )" '! )  !  #  ! " 
"+

"  

)! &  "  "  5 5  ! !")  # " # "+ !#  !  +
  + "   +!  !  )" *"  )!  " 7  ,
+  !  $!   !   7" # " ! 7 "    ! )! 
"  ""9# / !!, ! (++  + ""  "   ! -!+
$%  + ""  ! & "  ! )! "# " !  '+  
, !+ "   "     &  ")    !  "  !,#  !
"+!" -  " + ""  " #  !  +! ! 7  "   ! 
 "     + , "   ! . + # +   " 1!
! ,D# # j+,D# &  " D  # ! "!  "  ")9 - + "
+   ! $% # & +  -!+  !   " # &  )" *"  "! "
- -!+  "  + 5  +  !  +" !    "  /""  
 "   *+  # /  " " 5"    ;+!+4(; 6 ; !
 !   +( !, ; & ;! *+ $! "  5 !; .&#  " + "+'#  + 
+'!+  "   2 ! " "  # +  ! " )") 3 &  )" /0  " #
" / 7 !   !  $!+'  "  5 " ! ! + ,%  
 " /  ! )!  ! ,  ! )"+  7 "+# ! )! "  5
 )  ! +' 7 "  " !  "   !  ""!# ! +
 ! )!   , )"# & $( " !  +   ! + $(#  " 
VX
!) ++   + !$ "+' +  ! "() + # " ! ""+$!
,"   ,"+! & !!)"   " ,"! "# +  ! +" "
j?! # + "   !  7 )" '! )  !  #  ! "  "+

)! &  "  "  5 5  ! !")  # " # "+ !#  !  +
  + "   +!  !  )" *"  )!  " 7  ,
+  !  $!   !   7" # " ! 7 "    ! )! 
"  ""9# / !!, ! (++  + ""  "   ! -!+
$%  + ""  ! & "  ! )! "# " !  '+  
, !+ "   "     &  ")    !  "  !,#  !
"+!" -  " + ""  " #  !  +! ! 7  "   ! 
 "     + , "   ! . + # +   " 1!
! ,D# # j+,D# &  " D  # ! "!  "  ")9 - + "
+   ! $% # & +  -!+  !   " # &  )" *"  )! "
-!+ )")# "+!" ! + " " ! )! # +  ! )!
j,"  ! # ! +"  +"   $( , !+ ' ! ! ;ô   ;# !
0 ,!+   ":+ ,# & !   "   j) , &  j:$?  j 
"!,   1!  +!7+ 

j +" / ! ""  ! )!   ! K  " L " ! +!" " + )'
 "+! ,!  -"+' )! $! & + %'  '! + 5' +  ! +  !
+!" "  ," " ! ,"   + )-+,  $" ! +!" "
! +! "   "+    , "  ! +!"  "  ",( !  ,
!  & ! $"++' " +  + !)# )  ,+ &  ") ?!+
+ "$&"  ! "$1 !""  "!# "+4 !  ,+!  +  ! "  !  +
" 

 +  " * !"  -" "+'  !" $   +"7+" &
+ + ,+ ! / 4  $",, 4 "    " "+ !
 !" + " ! !!  "# 1 & + "  "1# +"7+#  "  ! 4 )"#
% & "+ *+ (+ !  !   & ! +     
 " +  /   " $1 )"%" & " )" ! +!" "  !   
*!  )! 

! " "!  -!+  "  ! "!  !  "  7 !


=  !  $!+' "+  ! )! "  5  # " / ! " 7
+   " +'!+  "  & "  .&  !   +  ! )!  !
+  ""! & " ! "  & " / ,,  ! +   "  4
 "  " !(+ 5++ !  -" ,   ",  +  !   !
 #   , & !  )  !+  ! -*$ ! )  !  " 7  !" ! #
 +  ! # ")$& & ! )

V
  


Rumania Alojamiento

  
!'1   + "+!"   $ "" ! !  , (+   
4$+' ! + " " • & = !  "  +4#   +    +  +! 
4$+  7 !# / !)     $0 ", " !  ,  ,+
!  -"   4$! )!(
. !6 j "+   !  , ""," ! 1 +  !+'  ",(   )+
 ,1# +!   ! ,1"  ,"  ! %  + "   "+   !
4$+   !  4 !   " +) "   & $1   + "+' +  !   " 
++!# " / ! "-  !  $!+   +" & ++ "!!   !"
! &  ! " +!   + +  ! -+  "   " $"
7 !! ! "+ 2,( ß 
3  ! 7) $6 " ",!+   +!-++' 
!  4 ! ,"    ++ "!!
M 6 ! ! 1    +  & 2  3  & $   &
 + & $!  /0   " ! *+ +'  4$+  ", ! " 7
+ '+ & +!! / !  4 !# " ! " +'     ! 1 
+!-+ +  V# • ' X ")"  + +  ! -+  "   " $" 7
!! ! "+ 2,( ß 
3
M " 6 j  $" "++   ! 1 ", & "   !
-+  " ! +!
M) & +",6 5 " 5 V +7) ")"    .&
$    ") " " ,7!   &  $"  )+  ,1 +!%
M !$") 1,!6  & " $"  1! & )  # / !)  "+ $" 
"   ! 0 

  
,"  "   !  1 " 4 !    ! +) " " / -"   + 
!  1 " "+  ! "+     !  4 ! 7 +!-+   " %  " /  "!
7 -7+!  " !)" ! 1 " ! +!%+' 7# "   "", +!-+ ! 
4 !  V   "!! & +  -  )"- &  !! +"+'   !+ 
",  ",(  ,"  )  + !   ++!+' & ) "+  !
V
4 ! $(  4+" "",  *!  

c    !  4 !  +"

$ ! )" *"   !+ / 4& + 0 # ! "++' +(+ 4 $!+
!) " " j)*  #  " " /!!  5"1"  / )  $+ &
/!!  /  $-+ ! +"  + "+'  +   0% " " 
" )" "+ ! 2j# !$")4#  3 "+$ ! ! 1 !    
!!  $ +" !    !!) ! "   "+' "+ !

! "+  ! 4$+       N ! # &   4$+' ,!  VX N ! 
j "7 / )"  '   N /  , !,"7 + !  +$  +

$( 5 ! 1  ",  /  +  !  "'+    "+  +! "
VV •X N !   ! 7" &  ! + + 






V
  
 

"   , 


,385 3,888   

 
      , 8 
  ,   
     ,
   
 ! "#
$    d 

- Tren Accelerat - Tren Rapid - que para solo en estaciones


importantes, yTransporte en Rumanía

c   , tienen un total de 11,385 Km. (3,888 Km. electrificado) (2002).
Bucarest es el nudo ferroviario mas grande del país, de donde parten 8 líneas
principales, la mayoria ligadas a las rutas internacionales. Son 4 tip os de trenes,
con diferentes tarifas:
-Tren Persoane ± que hace paradas en todas las estaciones por donde pasa,
-Tren Accelerat - Tren Rapid - que para solo en estaciones importantes, y
-Tren Intercity ± que une las ciudades importantes.

  , tienen un total de 198,603 Km. en general en buen estado, excluyendo


las careteras secundarias y de algunos pueblos o aldeas. Hay solo dos autopistas,
Bucarest Pitesti y Bucarest-Constanta pero actualmente se esta están construyendo
una red de Autopistas, previstas para acabar en 2012.

  y muelles importantes en el Danubio hay en Braila, Galati, Sulina, Tulcea y


en el Mar Negro, Mangalia y Constanta. Transporte en Rumanía

     #    !  VV#X= E 2X#=== E !+"-+ 3 2••3 +"  !
 -"" ,"  )" ! #    " = ! "+!# ! & " !)  !
" "+ ! j      "# +  -" "-6
" "  O / 4+ "    ! +   "   #

" ++!" "  / "  !  +   "# &
" "+& O /  ! +  "

   #    !  V =#X E  )"!  $  # 5+!& ! +""
+" &  !)  $!  ! .&  !    # +" & +"
  " +!   7 + "&  "   # ", " +$"
 •V•

   & !!  "  ! $ 4&  "!# !# j!# !+ &  ! "
)" # )! &   

       7  V " " # !  7  "  # ! " "
"+ ! ."   2 3    # +"# ! " " "! !+ 23
V
  # +"# & "  7#  !  )" + +  "# !1  +
2j 3#  # "# j "# j$# :") "#  "# # !+



       7  V " " # !  7  "  # ! " "
"+ ! ."   2 3    # +"# ! " " "! !+ 23
  # +"# & "  7#  !  )" + +  "# !1  +
2j 3#  # "# j "# j$# :") "#  "# # !+

" "+& O /  ! +  "

   #    !  V =#X E  )"!  $  # 5+!& ! +""
+" &  !)  $!  ! .&  !    # +" & +"
  " +!   7 + "&  "   # ", " +$"
 •V•

   & !!  "  ! $ 4&  "!# !# j!# !+ &  ! "
)" # )! &   

       7  V " " # !  7  "  # ! " "
"+ ! ."   2 3    # +"# ! " " "! !+ 23
  # +"# & "  7#  !  )" + +  "# !1  +
2j 3#  # "# j "# j$# :") "#  "# # !+

7 !!7  !  "1+ #    $!!  /  +4 / -"+"6  +
 !  4 !)"  !  / "+  4$"  !  
 + "  ! / ! "# " &+"  ,1  " !$"    "  ! 1 "
!++ # & /  "    + ! )"  ! /  -7+! + "" " 
$!# 4 !" &   &"

 

 7 + 1$!  !!)"    ,'   0   ," + 0 ! /
 ,!  "+ #  " 1! $" " 
 ,% /  !!) ! +'  !/!"  + +4  7 / "+ $! " 5"" !
75 !  -" "+ ""   "  ) )"-   + 0  !/!" "  + 
"# &  "  # 4& -+  +!/"  ! "+ !
 ) !   "+ & "+ ! ! "  !   "  #  "  !  $"%
!  &  / 4  ! )  "   ! " ++'  "'! 

" 7  jVV6  1  "7++  "  ,1  


46AAVVA+ A+ 1  "++  "  ,1  "
•••=P5%%V//XE

V=
j j

j 4&  ")'    "   #  !  !/   /#  -!# !1   !
)+' & ! '# !/  1 +$""  " !  /0  & )" 1  / " ,+4
 ! ,++  " !!"  " " & +,

  +  ! ,1  !  7" 6


- El descubrimiento de unas de las más bonitas regiones de Rumania.
! +" +  !  4$#  "+ #  +!"#  4 !
 ,1 ," / !" " # ,  $! #  " #   !# , !+ 
!  # & +4  
" )" ! ,16
V6 !  +" "!  j"+4 1#  " !  +4# +$" ! $! 
•6 & # , ! )" "+  j"+4 1  " ! "# "  j"+4 1#  "
!  $ /  !  & ,!  " ! !  ! j+"%
X6 j!  + +4  !  , !+  !   "+ ! ,!# , ! "   !#
& !   +!"  )"# "   $ / "+  4 ! 4" !
"  !
6 j"  j"+4 1 4 "  "#  " ! "# +" +  !  "   !
")'# ,   "$0 
6   !   !  j!+# "  !  "  4 ! "  "# !
7 $   "  ! ")'
6 j"  !    " "!# "!, 6 ! 
ô
!!
 ! # " ,# + ,!
6 j"  !   + 6 !  "  4# ! )! - "-+ 
"1"
=6 &  "! ! " "  +" "  ")"   "  ! +  + +4 &
 # , !   ! !
,!6 7+!   " #  X  4  "+4A ++$!  !  0   ""  !   V•
0 
! 1 6  + ""! 
j )6 ) + 0 ! +!  4$! -"+ & 0 !

"76  " ,7! X  (  ! -+4  ,! +"(   ,7! 

V
      

A) INDICADORES BASICOS DEL MERCADO DE TRABAJO:

Número de habitantes: •  c• c


Densidad de población:  c   cdc•c
Renta per capita: 
c cc•c
Salario Mínimo Interprofesional:  cc c• c
Salario medio mensual: •cc c c• c
Tasa de desempleo: 
c c• c
Idioma:  c

c
•
c
Evolución reciente de la economía rumana
 c  c   c c  c    c  c c •c c  c  c  c  c
     c dc c   c  c d c c  c d! c    c c c
 c"c  c c cd# cc c! cc cd $  c cc c $ c cd!  c
% c"&cd  cc c'(c c•c"c•c c$ cc c c  c c c)•
c c
 cc*cc c
c  c c 
c"c c cd# cc c
c c 
c c (+c
c •)c c  c c c c ,c  *c !c c  c c  c c c d $  c
 c   c c !c c -c .d c "c d$ c /c d  c c  c  c c  c
c c ! c c c d $  c  c c c " c 0c c d c  c  c  c
c 
c c •c •
c c •c "c 

c c • c 0c dc  c c dc 0c


d  c  c  cc c-c  c ccd cc   c c cc c
   cc cc cd!  cccc    c"c c   cc
c cc c  c.   cc c  c  ccd   cc cc
c c   ccc c cc  c
 c $ c c   c c   c "  c   c c d c c c • c c c 
c
d-c c  c c dc c   c c  c c c ddc 0 c  c c
d   c  c 0 c . c 0c  c  c 
c c •c "c  c )
c c  c dc  c c
• c !  cdc cc  c c c cc c  cc c cc c c * c
c c.d  cc c'  c c c• ccccc c c
cdc
c  c  c    c c  c (1c  c   c  c •
c c  c 
c c c c  c
 c/#c $c cc c c-c cc c •cdcc+ !  c

c
 c c• c  c  cd cc* cc cdd c c)
c c (+c2ccc
 "c c• c  c ccc c c cdc  cdc c'(c c c$ c *c
c•
ccd  cc cdc  cc•c c* cccc    c
c  c  . c  c'(c  c 0c c c d  cc  c  c  c  c d$ c c c

c  c (+c 3c  c  c c  c 0c  c d c c 
c  c (+c c $ c c c
 c c d c  c 
c c c  c c c !  c dd c "c  c
c c
c  c c c !c /c c c c  c   c  c '(c "c  c ,c  c
* c cc* cc3 cc
cd  c  d c c c$ cc c$ c"c c c c
dc c (+c

c
c
c
c
 $ ccc ccc cc cd  c c cccc•cdc c  c cd   cc
 c-c cd.  cd  c ccc2c c c cc   * cc
 $ c c  c  c"ccccd c2c -ccdcc c"c   *c
0cc  -cc c cc.  *$ cc  c c2cdc0c c c  -c
 c cccc•c c cc/ c. cc/c c c cc! c"c
 
  + !  !    $"    + "   "$1   "
+ "     "  " "$1" !)!#  !% !  !+ +   ! &
!$" +"+!+  " !    $"  7  ")  !  Q $ ! " !!  ! 
"  + "   ! 4 "  + $""
  7  !, +    ! ! # + "" ",    ,
",  !+   + ! # + 0 ! "  "+ & "$1  ! 
+ !%" "   "7 !") & 0   "+ !)!  ! # !, /   
•V
! $!+ ! , & ! "7  + "  • 0 # &  -"+ " !  "   )"
!  / 4& +   -"  !  /  ! + !  " "+ + 
+  + ! "  /  ! +'   " "" ! + !  +  5"  #
 ! !  " = & V 0   "+ +  & !)! "  "  !+" !
+#  4+ /  & 0  !   !  / 7 -+! 4+ !
 $!  $"  + !
c
c

(/c

c
 6     

# $    +'  ! "   " #   +! ! + ! 
"+' +  +" + # /  +"+"%  " )" -!++   ! ""#
/  7  " 4+ ! %  + "

 ","  )"$! +   +4 & 0 -"+ &  +7!   ," ! +!  

+! & +   %  7 -+   ! j" & j" #    ! "'"  " !
)"! " !  X=R " !    1! & )    ""   7 $1 
!  0 !  0  + & & -"+ &  ! 1  4 1 " 1 & "!!  
,"     " & -"  & $"  # +  "" & $1  $"  
 !  0 24 •R3 $ ,  +$" 4    "% 

 c cc c


-d c 0 c c  c -  cc c! c  c  cc  c
c c0c cc$c"cc  cc cc"c cc c. c c c  c
 - ccc  c $ c d c
 "++'  !   !" "  X !"   ! +"  "!,# •
!"   #  !,# & '! X= !"    %  ! " )"   +
 "++  &     &  !  0  ! !!"# !)  ! % 
  0 "+$ 7  V !"   !!, + 0 
 1 " ( + " ,"   +  -!  $"! 4 "+   1! &
-!  )   -!  +$"# +  "" , & )"$!  )"!

  j   6
 $ " $" &  ! ) j +  , +
+"
!, 23  X X=     = • X•  X

  2R3  X   V V V V VV  V •

5  2R3 V  V V= •X • • •= • V= V 

••
 c cc    c c
-d c"c c  c * c c c c c cc
c$cc d  c  c0c $ c c c c4
c"c c c4
c c  c * cc
1 0 c   c"c3* c cc c-c- c"cccc ccdc
cc$cc5c c d  c!   cc+  c"c c  c * c $ c c c
 c4
c"c c c•c4
c
c
cc $dc  c  c#c 0c   c-c d c0c cd $c0cc
  c cc c"cc c c -c c  c-c d ccc
   c c c  c  c c c6!cc cc c0c cc
 $ cc c cd c0c  c  cc cd c $ c 0c   c c  c
  c c c  cc c/ - c c   c c0c  c  cc cd c
  c"c$ c"c c"c0c ! c  c cd $ccc-. c. ccc c c
 c c   c c0cccc cc c c c  c"c c c
d c  c  cc cd c c -c"c c/- c-c-  c0c c0c ! c
c c/ - c c# cc c ! c   c c   cc c/c"c c
  c  cc7 c
 "()  +'  +"   ++' 4+ / ! +!  ) " - 
+ "# " ,"  & -"  & +  & ,"  +7!  & !!,    %#  ! + 
! " )"  ! %  7 !# +  X# M !  7 -" 2" 3 & •V M !  7
+7! 21! 3 4 "#  ! #   +! !) 7 -" # /  !!)  V M   
" & V M  1!  +"#  !/#   $! 7 -"# +  •# M  " & •X
M  1!  !1  +#  ! +"  "!,# $(  & -"  ," 2• M 
" 3 & -"+  ," 2V M $ 1! 3  ")' 7 -"  !,# /  +"+"+
"'5  !  !  "# +  X M  " # & V M  1! /  ")"  4 
+!+' ("+ ! "# +  -+! !  • M
  ,"   '!   -" #   /   $  , & ,  -"   +!"  
," #  " ! + ""  # !!,  # / ! 75  "++   " +  -!
 "," & + %  !  0 #  " -!+ ""7  "++  +! "
!  V   !  0 & !  V   ! %  7 + "!,  ! ")' /
  +! 7 +" #  '!  " -"    " "# 7# ! 7 !!,  # " + 
-"++ !     )"! !  !   * " !   & !    " ! 
!   & + # $1 ! "++   " $1  !  •    ")' / 7
$1 !    ++!  ("+   ," &  ++!  7+   ," #  " !
/ !  ,"    & -"  & + # & !  ,"  +7!  & + 
 ,)+' +  ! $ / 5  !- ! & + -"  +     !
" $!#  # $!# 4&# +"   ! $ / +  "!, & !  0# 7  
"+ ! # "  !/ & !, ! ,)+' +   "" "
 # + " # ! $ / 5 +  "  +"!#  " ! +" & !  "#
! $ / "  "  "!#  ! # ! $ / 5   #  ! # ! $ /
5 $!+7+ #  ! "# ! $ / !  + -"#  !  7"  & ! #  !
"
c
c

ÊNIVERSIDADES
c
c
 c cc+  cc ccÊ 
      cc  cc cdc

  c+  cc c8/  c c2  c2  8c+  c  cc cc
 !$ c"c $ cc!!5c/ . c d c c c  cc cc $c cc  c

•X
c c! c9(9cc c c  cc cc   cc c cc"c    
 ,"  +" +  !  0  •V +  X # V " - " & V=
-+! ! -+ "+!  +"  ! !%  ! ,"2

  3 
! +"  ! +
c
c
'  c
c +!   ! )
c +!  + ! "+4
c +!  J+
c +!   )"-
c +!  +
c +!  !  -
c +!   ! )
c +!  " 
c +!  7+
c +!  ""
c +!     " 
c +!  +  !+
c +!  +  +!
c +!  . "
c +!  + ! )
c +!   ! ) 
c +!   ! ) "  5
c +!   ! )   '!+
! "+ "  ! ,"  " - "   :%"

•