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TABLE A1

Tables of Integration ∫ M mdx for the virtual work method


L

∫j 2
dx

1 2 3 4 5
2
Ljk ½L jk ½ Lj (k1+k2) ½ Ljk Lj
1
2 ½ L jk 1/3 Ljk 1/6 Lj (k1+2k2) 1/6 Ljk(1+α) 1/3 L j2

3 ½ Ljk 1/6 Ljk 1/6 Lj (2k1+k2) 1/6 Ljk(1+β) 1/3 Lj2

4 ½ Lk (j1+j2) 1/6 Lk (j1+2j2) 1/6 L[j1 1/6 Lk[j1(1+β)+ 1/3


(2k1+k2)+ j2(1+α)] L(j12+j1j2+j22)
j2(k1+2k2)]
5 ½ Ljk 1/6 Ljk(1+γ) 1/6 Lj[k1(1+δ)+ 1/3 L j2
k2(1+γ)] L
jk
6βγ
( 2γ − γ 2
−α 2
)

6 2/3 Ljk 1/3 Ljk 1/3 Lj (k1+k2) 1/3 Ljk (1+αβ) 8/15 Lj2

7 1/3 Ljk ¼ Ljk 1/12 Lj (k1+3k2) 1/12 Ljk(1+α+α2) 1/5 Lj2

8 1/3 Ljk 1/12 Ljk 1/12 Lj (3k1+k2) 1/12 Ljk(1+β+β2) 1/5 Lj2

9 1/6 Lk(j1+4j2+j3) 1/6 Lk(2j2+j3) 1/6 L 1/6 Lk [j1β+2j2 1/15


[j1k1+2j2(k1+k2) +j3α-αβ(j1-2j2+j3)] L[2(j12+4j22+j32)
+j3k2] + 2j1j2+2j2j3-j1j3]

NOTES
• The magnitudes of the diagrams are shown with their positive values. The equations are equally valid for negative
magnitudes.
• The trapezoidal shapes of column 3 and row 4 are meant to describe linear functions. There is no assumption on the relation
between the magnitudes that the left and right end, i.e. on which is larger or on their signs.
• α = a/L; β = b/L; γ = c/L; δ = d/L.
• The curves of rows 6-9 are quadratic (i.e. the result of uniformly distributed load).
• The curve of row 7 has zero slope (i.e. zero shear) at x = 0.
• The curve of row 8 has zero slope (i.e. zero shear) at x = L