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Maritime Technical Bulletin

Issue 5: January 2011

Highlights of this issue:

• Eurocode 7 for Driven Pile Design • Langton Dock Caisson Refurbishment • Offshore wind turbine foundations

• New Container Vessel Shape • Supply of Ballast Water • General Updates

Editorial In the author’s opinion, the use of the Maritime Technical

Welcome to the first edition of the Maritime Technical Eurocodes to design piles and to set out the Committee
Bulletin for 2011. This bulletin is produced by the requirements for verification is far from straight- Peter Beamish has taken over as
Maritime Technical Committee and published forward. It requires a great deal of care. This chair for the Maritime Technical
quarterly. situation is not helped by the fact that the UK National Committee. He has set out his vision
Annex, rather than clarifying the situation, only seems for 2011 in the editorial.
I have now taken over as Chairman of the committee to add to the complexity.
following the completion of Steve Davies’ term in the The first Maritime Technical
role and I will use this opportunity to set out the Eurocode 7 allows piles to be designed by testing, by Committee meeting of 2011 will be
committee’s plans for 2011. These include: calculation or through the observed performance of held on the 16th February.
comparable pile foundations. The code makes it clear
• Continuing to publish the Maritime Technical that neither the testing approach nor the calculation Minutes of previous meeting can be
Bulletin (4 issues per year); method should be used in isolation; separate found on Bridge ( http://www.rh-
• Eurocodes: To publicise and operate the Eurocode provisions are allocated to the two methods. The martec/committeegroups/TechnicalCommittee/
Helpdesk, to finalise both the exemplar design approach that we will normally adopt will be to design TechnicalCommittee_Meetings.asp).
guides and the design tools already developed the piles following a ground investigation and then
verify the design through field testing. Despite the Contact: Peter Beamish
and to develop further design tools as necessary;
apparent simplicity of the Eurocode approach, there
• EC8 (Earthquake Resistant Structures) awareness are a huge number of factors that have to be
presentations to offices in the UK and NL; considered (combination factors, load factors, +44 (0)1733 33 6527
• Development of specifications for use on correlation factors, model factors etc). The additional
Large Retaining Walls Panel
Eurocode projects; fact that the ground can contribute to both the actions
Please remember that it is a
(e.g. through negative skin friction) and the
• Continuing the validation of existing design tools resistances makes the application of limit state design
requirement of the Maritime
(i.e. spreadsheets); Division's QHSE Management
procedures to pile design both complicated and
System (QMS) that all large retaining
• Providing practical and financial support for potentially problematic. Care must be taken in the
walls (i.e. walls retaining more than
writing technical and semi-technical papers. The selection and application of these factors to reduce
7 metres of soil) designed by the
committee has set a target of 12 papers in the the high potential for error at the design stage. In the
Maritime Division must be subject to
year. Any suggestions for papers will be welcome. short term, designs must be checked by comparison
the scrutiny of the Large Retaining
with what would previously have been considered
• Steve Osborn’s work as the chairman of BS6349 Wall Panel. Qualifying projects
satisfactory; there should be no great change in the
committee will now be supported by the Maritime should be notified to the Large
end product.
Technical Committee. Retaining Wall Panel using the
Eurocode 7 states that the resistance of all installed procedures set out on the Maritime
The committee is also being extended to include
piles shall, in most circumstances, be verified through Technical Committee's web pages on
some of the overseas offices, i.e. Dubai, India,
calibration with static load test results, CAPWAP Bridge ( h t t p : / / w w w . r h - b r i d g e . c o m /
Vietnam and Malaysia.
analyses, pile driving formulae and wave equation default.aspx?url=%2Fdhp%2Forgunits%
If you have any comments or issues that you wish to calculations. The primary means of determining the 2Fcommitteegroups%2FLargeRetainingWalls%
raise, please contact your local AG representative or ultimate capacity of a pile is the sustained static load 2FLargeRetainingWalls_About.asp).
myself directly. test, and the other dynamic test results are required
to be calibrated against static load test results. The first meeting in 2011 of the
With best wishes for 2011. Large Retaining Wall Panel will be
Different factors, called model factors, are applied to
Peter Beamish, the dynamic test results depending on the number held on the 15th February.
and the type of the tests. The test results are then
+44 (0)1733 33 6527 Please contact Philip Smith directly if
grouped to represent particular design loads and
you have any queries.
ground conditions. To determine the pile axial
Eurocode 1997 for Driven Pile Design
capacity from the group of pile test results requires Contact: Philip Smith
The Maritime Division is responsible for the design
the minimum and mean axial capacities to be
and/or the performance of a large number of piles
determined and these two results are divided by
every year and a large proportion of these piles are
different correlation factors (ξ1 to ξ6 depending on the +44 (0)1733 33 6611
driven steel tubes. It is therefore of great importance
verification method used). The smallest result defines
that as designers, we have a good appreciation of the
the characteristic pile resistance for the piles in that Eurocode Helpdesk
key principles of pile design to the Eurocodes
group. It is important to realise that this process is Don't forget you can contact the
(particularly EC3 and EC7). The exemplar designs
quite prescriptive and leaves less room for the Eurocode helpdesk at:
produced for the piled deck as part of the Eurocode
application of engineering judgement than may
training programme set out the procedures for
previously have been the case.
producing a pile design but, out of necessity, only
Next Issue Deadline
concentrated on the characteristics of one particular A fuller explanation of the pile design process is Please submit articles for the next
project. In reality, the requirements of the Eurocodes currently being produced and will be circulated once it edition of Maritime Technical
in relation to piling cover a much greater scope and has been approved by the Maritime Technical Bulletin to Philip Smith by Thursday
significantly change the way in which piles are Committee. 31st March.
designed. In particular, a greater emphasis is placed
on the verification of pile performance through the use Chris Browne
of field testing rather than on the adequacy +44 (0)1733 33 6114
of the calculated pile design. +44 (0)1733 33 6611
New Container Vessel Shape de-mudding operations that have to be carried out by divers January 2011, Page 2
in the tidal decks. Finally, the power supply to the caisson
was replaced with a reliable sliding energy chain. Lessons Learned
The following is a list of
Lessons Learned Sheets
currently posted on the
Maritime Division’s technical
pages on Bridge. The full
details can be found at:

Ref Title, additional descriptor

50 Visiting Existing Client


Since November 2009, CMA-CGM has brought 6 number of 51 Steel End Plate Connec-
these 13,300 TEU container vessels into service, the first tion to Vertical Walls
being the CMA CGM Christophe Colomb. 52 Software Updates

As can be seen from the photos, the vessel has an unusual 53 Alternative System For
shape; there is a sharp transition from the flat sides of the Cutting Down Piles
vessel to the bow. This unusual shape creates problems
54 Internal Collaboration
for fender design. In particular, a typical bow radius of, say,
200m which would usually be representative for this size of In addition to the structural works, the caisson’s control 55 Electrical Isolation of
ship is much too large. As a consequence, we cannot rely system was refurbished. It is now possible to access a Reinforcement
on any energy sharing between fenders for this vessel. significantly increased amount data (relating to operational
This will have a significant effect on fender design at the performance, flooding of tanks etc). This allows for a Classified Application
berths where this vessel is anticipated. quicker and more accurate assessment of problems (Level B) Software —
or maintenance issues. Update
Since we have undergone the
For further details, contact: Alistair Reid change to our current service
provider (TaTa Consultancy +44 (0)151 2362 944
Services), we have experienced
some teething problems. We
Eurocode Training have noted that it is no longer
In order to facilitate a better awareness and understanding possible to use TEDDS CSC
of seismic design issues, David Bu and Helge Fransden are suite remotely through the VPN
currently working on a series of presentations relating to connection system. SCALE is
seismic design. also not possible, but this was
never functional when Siemens
An awareness presentation will be a lunchtime talk aimed were on board.
at a wide audience (including DAGs and marketers). The
It is hoped that Level B software
talk will aim to create an awareness of key seismic design
will be setup so that it can be
principles and describe both how the lack of appropriate
used remotely. We hope to
At present, we have very limited drawings of this vessel’s design procedures can result in sub-standard designs and
discuss these new problems
hull shape of this vessel. It is suggested that the unusual how careful and knowledgeable designs can save our
with KIM shortly. A planned visit
characteristics of this vessel and the consequences for clients considerable time and money. The awareness
by KIM to Peterborough to have
fender design are discussed with clients as soon as presentation will also include a description of the services
meetings with the functional
possible. to be offered by the Seismic Group (e.g. contributions to
owners is planned later in the
proposals, establishment of site specific seismic design
For further details, contact: year.
criteria, seismic analysis and design of earthquake
resistant structures). In the next newsletter we shall
Peter Beamish, January 2011
list out any new Eurocode pro- +44 (0)1733 33 6527 The seismic design course will give a more detailed grammes which are now avail-
description of the framework under which seismic design is able. In the meantime we have
carried out. It will be structured to match the framework of listed below the functional own-
Langton Caisson No.2 Refurbishment the Eurocode 8 (Design of Earthquake Resistant ers of Category B software. We
The Liverpool Office has recently completed a project which Structures) but will also refer to other internationally are aware this is not an exhaus-
involved the design and supervision of the refurbishment of accepted codes where these present technically acceptable tive list. We would be pleased
Langton Caisson Gate No.2 (Port of Liverpool). The main but cheaper alternatives. The key subjects covered by the for anyone who uses other Cat
objective of the work was to make the caisson safer and one day course will be: B software to make one of the
more reliable in use. existing functional owners
• Performance based seismic designs.
aware so we can also include
The work involved the general refurbishment of the dock
• Seismic action according to EC8. these packages.
gate (renewal of the sealing faces, etc.) and the relocation
of the housing of the majority of the operational equipment • Geotechnical seismic design according to EC8. STAAD John Redding
from confined spaces at the bottom of the caisson to upper Scale Mark Palmer
decks. A new control room was installed on a new access • EC8 and its application to concrete and steel maritime
structures (including its shortcomings). TEDDS Peter Wood
deck above the quayside. This permits safe access from
CAD G. Cairns/R. Lakey
the quayside onto the caisson and across the lock. The • Examples of seismic design for retaining wall and
existing hover pump system was replaced with a system suspended deck structures. GIS Tim Burgess
which uses submersible pumps located on the upper tidal Contact: Mark Palmer:
Contact: David Bu or Helge Fransden
decks. These can easily be extracted for maintenance and
have a high level of operational redundancy (100% over the +44(0)1733 33 6198
minimum requirement). A de-mudding system was also +44 (0)1733 33 6161 +44(0)207 227 3779
installed with the objective of reducing the number of the
Legal bit: This bulletin has been produced to disseminate technical information throughout the Maritime Division. Its purpose is to draw the attention of
staff to important technical issues and to identify areas of experience and expertise within the company. It is not intended to be a comprehensive or
complete statement of fact or the law and should not be relied upon as the sole basis of design. The bulletin is for internal circulation only and should
not be issued to parties outside the company such as clients, subcontractors or co-workers.
Supply of Ballast Water to Vessels within Ports January 2011, Page 3
Seawater is commonly used by ships for ballasting purposes due to its availability and flexibility. However, many types of
aquatic organisms are present in seawater, and they have the potential to cause environmental damage when the water
BS 6349 Update
is discharged by the ship in a different part of the world from where it was collected. The International Maritime
Plans for ongoing work on BS
Organisation (IMO) considers the transfer of invasive species through ballast water to be one of the most significant
6349 are now progressing quite
threats to the marine environment today.
well with the following activities
In response to this, the IMO has developed the Ballast Water Management Convention, which is likely to be ratified later now under way:-
this year. The BWMC focuses primarily on measures which may be implemented by vessels themselves and by their
destination ports in processing and/or safely discharging ballast water. However, there are steps which can be taken by • Updating of BS 6349 Part 1,
ports supplying ballast water to vessels to minimise the problem. Much of the aquatic life present in ballast water resides General. One part of this
in sediment, so if the amount of suspended matter taken in by vessels can be reduced then so can their capacity for that I think we need assis-
carrying aquatic organisms. tance on is that on port
equipment loadings. If any-
When designing new shipyards and port facilities, we can facilitate a substantial reduction in the sediment content of
body has any views on how
ballast water supplies by providing protection in the form of coarse screening, fine screening, basket strainers, anti-
this can best be addressed I
fouling and UV irradiation systems on the inlets of ballast water pumps. Depending on the flow rates required, these units
would like to hear them.
can be quite large, and allowance should be made for this when allocating space for pumphouses on site layout plans.
• Adjustments to the errors in
These measures can help us to demonstrate to our clients that we are at the cutting edge of maritime facilities design,
and enhance our reputation as a leader in sustainable development. Table A3 of BS6349 Part 2
(pointed out by Chris Hart-
For further details, please contact John Cowley. ley) have now been imple- +44 (0) 1733 336139 mented.
Offshore wind turbine foundations • Adjustments to BS 6349
The offshore wind energy industry is a sector that is likely to show significant growth Part 8 (Linkspans and walk-
over the next decade, particularly in the North Sea. Royal Haskoning is already a key ways) are required so that
player in some aspects of offshore wind farm development but foundation design they match with the Euro-
for such projects is relatively new to us. Due to the expected growth in this market codes. Fortunately I have
the company is keen to become an active player in this field. been able to reconvene the
We have recently started to build a track record in this type of work. In particular; team that originally drafted
we have been awarded the concept foundation design for the Noordoostpolder it so I expect that to go quite
near-shore wind farm. The wind farm is located in the Dutch IJsselmeer and easily.
consists of 48 wind turbines of 3.0 MW each; they are located in water depths of up I am pleased to announce that,
to 10 m and are founded on monopiles. following my appeal for assis-
The design of the monopile foundation is governed by the fatigue life of the tance on the proposed new
structure, natural frequency requirements and the response of the ground. Ultimate standard for port surfacing,
and other serviceability limit states have to be verified, but often have no effect on Jonathan Tyler offered to join
the design results. DNV (Det Norske Veritas) has developed a standard for the panel and the BS committee
designing offshore wind turbine foundations. This standard was used for the design approved his appointment last
for the Noordoostpolder project. week. He will now lead that
particular initiative which will
For the fatigue assessment, the turbine manufacturer normally specifies a series of
result in the production of a new
load variations and the number of cycles that are anticipated to occur during the
BS6349:Part 9.
design life of the structure. The ranges of stresses in the steel resulting from these
loads are translated into a hot spot stress in the welds by applying a Stress Progress on BS 6349 Part 4
Concentration Factor (which depends on the type of joint). By applying the “S-N” continues. I am not quite up to
curves, included in the DNV standard, the allowable number of cycles, for a certain date about where they are. Tom
stress range can be determined. The fatigue damage can then be calculated by Kercel in London kindly offered
comparing the actual number of cycles to the allowable number of cycles. to assist in the collating of data
to establish some new rules for
The natural frequency of the total structure (composed of the foundation and wind turbine) has to meet the turbine
the selection of berthing veloci-
manufacturer’s requirements so as to prevent resonance in the system. The turbine manufacturer will generally specify a
ties, but we have not yet worked
lower bound to the overall system’s first natural frequency. For the purpose of this assessment, the turbine manufacturer
out how to start gathering the
will usually provide details of the mass distribution of the wind turbine. The natural frequency of the total structure can
data. If this can be got going at
then be calculated in structural design programs such as STAAD Pro.
the right time it might help him
For further details, please contact: Priscilla Bonte with his M.Sc dissertation, but I +31 (0) 10 2865 662 fear that we might not get it
going fast enough to suit his
PIANC Meeting needs!!
At the PIANC seminar in London on 26 November, updates on various working groups were given. Of note were the
following: Contact: Steve Osborn
In mid 2011 an updated “Approach Channels, a Guide to Design” will be published. Preliminary channel width
+44 (0)1733 336117
calculations will be as before with minor adjustments, but there will be more detail on channel depth.
Late 2011 PIANC will publish “Design Principles for Container Terminals in Small and Medium Ports”. The contents list
looked comprehensive. Richard Marks is a corresponding member but has yet to see a draft! Paving Sub-Committee
The design guide for Paving for
WG 145 is about to start work on reviewing berthing velocities and fender design. The existing velocity curves in BS6349
container terminals has now
are based on an old paper and it is not clear how the curves were derived (the reported measurements cover a smaller
been issued. For a copy, speak
range of berthing conditions and ship sizes than the curves do). It is also not clear which curve should be used as the
to Peter Beamish or use the link.
descriptions (e.g. “easy berthing exposed”) are not defined. The curves also vary between different publications, e.g. the
BS6349 curves differ from the original paper, the 2002 PIANC Guide is closer to the original (PHLB has a paper reviewing div_mar/knowledge/martec/
these curves for those interested in more detail). It is therefore proposed to collect up-to-date information on berthing technicalinformation/publications/
speeds and update the curves (see also BS6349 Update on this page). MarTecPub.asp

Latest PIANC News. Richard Marks and Claire Bryant are on working group 150, “A Practical Guide to a Sustainable Port”. Contact: Peter Beamish
The first meeting was held on 31 January 2011. publication is due in 2012.
For further details, please contact: Peter Beamish
+44 (0)1733 33 6527 +44 (0)1733 33 6527