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- Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridges(1)
- Design Moment Variations in Bridges Constructed Using a Balanced Cantilever Method
- Balanced Cantilever Construction
- Balanced-Cantilever (at TW)
- Lrfd Design Example-precast Balanced Cantilever Bridge Desig
- Prestressed Concrete Briges Christian Menn
- Cantilever Bridge
- Segmental Bridge Construction
- MODERN PRESTRESSED BRIDGES
- Lotus Phase 2 Report
- Guide to Construction of Segmental Bridge
- Construction and Design of Prestressed Concrete Segmental Bridges
- An Investigation on Determination of Flow Curves at Room Temperature and Under Forming Conditions
- Precast Segmental Box Girder Bridge Manual
- Precast Concrete Bridges
- Designers Guide to EN1992-2 Eurocode 2
- Bridge Construction Methods
- Bridge Design Eurocodes Worked Examples
- Concrete Box-Girder Bridges
- Podolny and Muller - Construction and Design of Pre Stressed Concrete Segmental Bridges

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www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

constructed by balanced cantilever method

H.-G. Kwak *, J.-K. Son

Department of Civil Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,

373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701, South Korea

Received 26 March 2001; received in revised form 21 August 2001; accepted 30 October 2001

Abstract

This paper introduces an equation to calculate the design moments in reinforced concrete (RC) bridges constructed by the balanced

cantilever method. Through time-dependent analyses of RC bridges, considering the construction sequence and creep deformation

of concrete, structural responses related to the member forces are reviewed. On the basis of the compatibility condition at every

construction stage, a basic equation which can describe the moment variation with time in the balanced cantilever construction is

derived. It is then extended to take into account the moment variation according to changes in construction steps. By using the

introduced relation, the design moment and its variation over time can easily be obtained with only the elastic analysis results, and

without additional time-dependent analyses considering the construction sequences. In addition, the design moments determined by

the introduced equation are compared with the results from a rigorous numerical analysis with the objective of establishing the

relative efficiencies of the introduced equation. Finally, a more reasonable guideline for the determination of design moments is

proposed. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Balanced cantilever method; RC bridges; Construction sequence; Creep; Design moment

expensive but also a hazard.

In accordance with the development of industrial However, the design and analysis of bridges con-

society and global economic expansion, the construction structed by the balanced cantilever method (FCM)

of long-span bridges has increased. Moreover, the con- require the consideration of the internal moment redistri-

struction methods have undergone refinement, and they bution which takes place over the service life of a struc-

have been further developed to cover many special ture because of the time-dependent deformation of con-

cases, such as progressive construction of cantilever crete and changes in the structural system repeated

bridges and span-by-span construction of simply sup- during construction. This means that the analysis of

ported or continuous spans. Currently, among these con- bridges considering the construction sequence must be

struction methods, the balanced cantilever construction performed to preserve the safety and serviceability of the

of reinforced concrete box-girder bridges has been bridge. All the related bridge design codes [1,2] have

recognized as one of the most efficient methods of build- also mentioned the consideration of the internal moment

ing bridges without the need for falsework. This method redistribution due to creep and shrinkage of concrete

has great advantages over other kinds of construction, when the structural system is changed during construc-

particularly in urban areas where temporary shoring tion.

would disrupt traffic and service below, in deep gorges, Several studies have dealt with the general topics of

design and analysis of segmentally erected bridges,

while a few studies have been directed toward the analy-

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +82-42-869-3621; fax: +82-42-869- sis of the deflection and internal moment redistribution

3610. in segmental bridges [3–5]. Alfred and Nicholas [3]

E-mail address: khg@cais.kaist.ac.kr (H.-G. Kwak). investigated the time-dependent deformation of cantil-

0141-0296/02/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 1 4 1 - 0 2 9 6 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 1 2 8 - 6

640 H.-G. Kwak, J.-K. Son / Engineering Structures 24 (2002) 639–648

ever construction bridges both before and after closure, duced. Details to the analytical model can be found in

and Cruz et al. [6] introduced a nonlinear analysis previous papers [8,11,12].

method for the calculation of the ultimate strength of Balanced cantilever construction is the term used for

bridges. Articles on the design, analysis and construction when a phased construction of a bridge superstructure

of segmental bridges have been published by many starts from previously constructed piers cantilevering out

researchers, and detailed comparisons have been made to both sides. Each cantilevered part of the superstruc-

between analytical results and responses measured in ture is tied to a previous one by concreting a key segment

actual structures [7,8]. and post-tensioning tendons. It is thus incorporated into

Moreover, development of sophisticated computer the permanent continuous structure; consequently the

programs for the analysis of segmental bridges consider- internal moment is continuously changed according to

ing the time-dependent deformation of concrete has been the construction sequence and the changing structural

followed [9]. Most analysis programs, however, have system. To review the structural response due to the

some limitations in wide use because of complexities in change in the construction sequence, three different

practical applications. Consequently, a simple formula cases of FCM 1, FCM 2 and FCM 3, shown in Fig. 1,

for estimating the internal moment redistribution due to are selected in this paper.

creep and shrinkage of concrete, which is appropriate for For the time-dependent analysis of bridges consider-

use by a design engineer in the primary design of ing the construction sequence, a five-span continuous

bridges, has been continuously required. Trost and Wolff bridge is selected as an example structure. This bridge

[5] introduced a simple formula which can simulate has a total length of 150 m with an equal span length

internal moment redistribution with a superposition of of 30 m, and maintains a prismatic box-girder section

the elastic moments occurring at each construction step. along the span length. The assumed material and sec-

A similar approach has been presented by the Prestressed tional properties are taken from a real bridge and are

Concrete Institute (PCI) and the Post-Tensioning Insti- summarized in Table 1. The creep deformation of con-

tute (PTI) on the basis of the force equilibrium and the crete is considered on the basis of the ACI creep with

rotation compatibility at the connecting point [10]; how- an ultimate creep coefficient of f⬁cr=2.35 [13].

ever, these formulas do not adequately address the As shown in Fig. 1, the time interval between each

changing structural system because of several simplify- construction step is assumed to be 50 days. FCM 1 is

ing assumptions adopted.

designed to describe the construction sequence in which

In this paper, a simple, but effective, formula is intro-

construction of all the cantilever parts of the superstruc-

duced to calculate the internal moment redistribution in

ture is finished first at the reference time t=0 day. The

segmental bridges after completion of construction. With

continuity of the far end spans and center span follows

previously developed computer programs [8,12,12],

at t=50 days, and then the construction of the superstruc-

many parametric studies for bridges erected by the bal-

ture is finally finished at t=100 days by concreting the

anced cantilever method are conducted, and correlation

key segments at the midspans of the second and fourth

studies between the numerical results obtained with

those obtained by the introduced formula are included spans. FCM 2 describes the continuity process from the

to verify the applicability of the formula. Finally, reason- far end spans to the center span, and FCM 3 the step-

able guidelines to determine the internal design by-step continuity of the proceeding spans from a far

moments, which are essential in selecting a proper initial end span. The corresponding bending moments at typical

section, are proposed. construction steps are shown in Figs. 2–4, where TS

(total structure) means that all the spans are constructed

at once at the reference time t=0 day.

2. Construction sequence analysis After construction of each cantilever part, the negative

moment at each pier reaches M=wl2/8=1160 (tonFm)

Every nonlinear analysis algorithm consists of four (l=30 m), and this value is maintained until the structural

basic steps: the formulation of the current stiffness system changes by the connection of an adjacent span.

matrix, the solution of the equilibrium equations for the The connection of an adjacent span, however, causes an

displacement increments, the stress determination of all elastic moment redistribution because the structural sys-

elements in the model, and the convergence check. Pre- tem moves from the cantilevered state to the over-

vious papers [8,11,12] presented an analytical model to hanging simply supported structure (see Fig. 1a). Never-

predict the time-dependent behavior of bridge structures. theless, there is no internal moment redistribution by

Experimental verification and correlation studies creep deformation of concrete in a span if the structural

between analytical and field testing results were conduc- system maintains the statically determinate structure. As

ted to verify the efficiency of the proposed numerical shown in Fig. 1, the statically indeterminate structure

model. The rigorous time-dependent analyses in this begins at t=100 days in all the structural systems (FCM

paper are performed with the analytical model intro- 1–3). Therefore, it is expected that the dead load bending

H.-G. Kwak, J.-K. Son / Engineering Structures 24 (2002) 639–648 641

Fig. 1. Construction sequences in balanced cantilever bridges: (a) FCM 1; (b) FCM 2; (c) FCM 3.

Table 1

Material and sectional properties used in application

4.5 m2 0.62% 10.3 t/m 400 kg/cm2 4000 kg/cm2 2.1×106 kg/cm2

moments in the structures start the time-dependent cally determinate stage at t=100 days and for the initially

moment redistribution after t=100 days. completed five-span continuous structure (TS in Figs. 2–

Comparing the numerical results obtained in Figs. 2– 4); and (3) the final moments in the structure depend on

4, the following can be inferred: (1) the time-dependent the order that the joints are closed in the structures,

moment redistribution causes a reduction of negative which means that the magnitude of the moment redistri-

moments near the supports and an increase of positive bution due to concrete creep may depend on the con-

moments at the points of closure at the midspans; (2) struction sequence, even in balanced cantilever bridges.

the final moment at an arbitrary time t after completing Under dead load as originally built, elastic displace-

the construction converges to a value within the region ment and rotation at the cantilever tips occur. If the mid-

bounded by two moment envelopes for the final stati- span is not closed, these deformations increase over time

642 H.-G. Kwak, J.-K. Son / Engineering Structures 24 (2002) 639–648

moment. On the other hand, as the central joints are

closed, the rotations at the cantilever tips are restrained

while introducing the restraint moments. Moreover, this

restraint moment causes a time-dependent shift or redis-

tribution of the internal force distribution in a span. If

the closure of the central joints is made at the reference

time t=0 day, then the final moments Mt will converge

with the elastic moment of the total structure (TS in Figs.

2–4). However, the example structure maintains the

statically determinate structure which does not cause

internal moment redistribution until t=100 days, so that

only the creep deformation after t=100 days, which is a

relatively small quantity of time, affects the time-depen-

dent redistribution of the internal moment. Therefore, the

moment distribution at time t represents a difference

Fig. 2. Moment redistribution in FCM 1. from that of the total structure. On particular, as shown

in Figs. 2–4, the difference is relatively large at the

internal spans. This means that the moment redistri-

bution caused in proportion to the elastic moment differ-

ence between the statically determinate state and the

five-span continuous structure will be concentrated at the

internal spans. Figure 5, which represents the creep

moment distribution of the FCM 1 bridge, shows that

the creep moments at the center span are about 3.5 times

larger for the negative moment and about 7.0 times

larger for the positive moment than those of the end

spans.

Figure 6 shows the final moment distribution of the

example structure constructed by FCM 1, FCM 2, and

FCM 3 at t=100 years. As this figure shows, the differ-

ence in construction steps does not have a great influence

on the final moment distributions, but there is remark-

able difference in the final moments between the initially

completed continuous bridge (TS in Figs. 2–4 and 6)

Fig. 3. Moment redistribution in FCM 2.

and the balanced cantilever bridges. Balanced cantilever

bridges represent relatively smaller values for the posi-

tive moments and larger values for the negative moments

Fig. 4. Moment redistribution in FCM 3. Fig. 5. Creep moment distribution of FCM 1 bridge.

H.-G. Kwak, J.-K. Son / Engineering Structures 24 (2002) 639–648 643

load moments. Since the dead load moment depends on

the construction method because of the creep defor-

mation of concrete, determination of the dead load

moment through time-dependent analysis considering

the construction sequence must be accomplished to

obtain an exact design moment.

On the other hand, post-tensioning tendons (cantilever

tendons) may be installed to connect each segment dur-

ing construction, and the prestressing forces introduced

will also be redistributed from the cantilevered structural

system to the completed structural system due to con-

crete creep and the relaxation of tendons. However,

unlike the dead load from the self-weight of a structure

and the continuity tendons installed after completion of

construction, the cantilever tendons have a minor effect

Fig. 6. Internal moment distribution at t=100 years. on the internal moment redistribution, which is directly

related to the construction sequence [7]. Thus the influ-

than those of a five-span continuous structure (see Figs. ence by cantilever tendons has been excluded in this

2–4 and 6). This difference is induced from no contri- paper while determining the dead load moment consider-

bution of the creep deformation of concrete up to t=100 ing the construction sequence.

days at which the structural system is changed to the The time-dependent behavior of a balanced cantilever

statically indeterminate state. From the results obtained bridge can be described using a double cantilever with

for the time-dependent behavior of balanced cantilever an open joint at the point B, as in Fig. 7. When the

bridges, it can be concluded that the prediction of more uniformly distributed load of q is applied on the struc-

exact positive and negative design moments requires the ture, the elastic deflection of d=ql4/8EI and the rotation

use of sophisticated time-dependent analysis programs angle of a=ql3/6EI occur at the ends of the cantilevers

[8,9,11,14], which can consider the moment variation (see Fig. 7b), where l and EI refer to the length of the

according to the construction sequence. To be familiar cantilever and the bending stiffness, respectively. If the

with those programs in practice, however, is time-con-

suming and involves many restrictions caused by com-

plexity and difficulty in use because the adopted algor-

ithms, theoretical backgrounds and the styles of input

files are different from each other. Accordingly, the

introduction of a simple but effective relation, which can

estimate design moments on the basis of elastic analysis

results without any time-dependent analysis, is in great

demand in the preliminary design stage of balanced can-

tilever bridges.

loads and seismic loads, permanent loads such as the

dead load and prestressing force are strongly related to

the long-term behavior of a concrete structure, so that

these are classified by the load which governs the time-

dependent behavior of a structure. Of these loads, the

dead load includes the self-weight continuously acting

on a structure during construction. Thus the moment and

deflection variations arising from changes in the struc- Fig. 7. Deformation of cantilevers before and after closure: (a) con-

tural system are heavily influenced by the dead load. The figuration of cantilever; (b) elastic deformations in a cantilever; (c)

design moments of a structure can finally be calculated restraint moment Mt after closure.

644 H.-G. Kwak, J.-K. Son / Engineering Structures 24 (2002) 639–648

joint remains open, then the deflection at time t will same loads applied on the changed structural system, and

increase to d·(1+ft) and the rotation angle to a·(1+ft), MIII=the restraint moment Mt.

where ft is the creep factor at time t. However, if the The derivation of Eq. (2) is possible under the basic

joint at the point B is closed after application of the load, assumption that the creep deformation of concrete starts

an increase in the rotation angle a·ft is restrained, and from the reference time, t=0 day. If it is assumed that

this restraint will develop the moment Mt, as shown in the joint is closed after a certain time, t=C days, while

Fig. 7c. The moment Mt, if acting in the cantilever, maintaining the same assumptions adopted in the deri-

causes the elastic rotation at the point B, defined as vation of Eq. (2), then the structure can be analyzed by

b=Mtl/EI, and also accompanies the creep deformation. means of the rate-of-creep method (RCM) [15], and the

Since the creep factor increases by dft during a time creep moments obtained in Fig. 8 can be represented by

interval dt, the variations in the angles of rotation will the following expression [16]:

be a·dft and db (the elastic deformation) +b·dft (the

Mcr⫽(MII⫺MI)(1⫺e−(ft−fC)) (3)

creep deformation) for a and b, respectively.

From these relations and the fact that there is no net Namely, in balanced cantilever bridges, the restraint

increase in discontinuity after the joint is closed, the moment grows continuously from the time at which the

compatibility condition for the angular deformation structural system is changed (t=C days), and its magni-

(a·dft=db+b·dft) can be constructed. The integration of tude is proportional to (1⫺e−(ft−fC)) [10,15,16].

this relation with respect to ft gives the restraint moment Generally, construction of a multispan continuous

Mt [10]: bridge starts at one end and proceeds continuously to the

(1−e−ft) (1−e−ft) other end. Therefore, change in the structural system is

Mt⫽ql2 ⫽qL2 (1) repeated whenever each cantilever part is tied by

6 24 concreting a key segment at the midspan. Moreover, the

where ft means the creep factor at time t, and L=2l. influence by the newly connected span will be delivered

From Eq. (1), it can be found that for a large value into the previously connected spans so that there are

of ft, the restraint moment converges to Mt=qL2/24, some limitations in direct applications of Eq. (3) to cal-

which is the same moment that would have been culate the restraint moment at each span because of the

obtained if the joint at the point B had been closed before many different connecting times of t=C days. To solve

the load q was applied. This illustrates the fact that this problem and for a sufficiently exact calculation of

moment redistribution due to concrete creep following a the final time-dependent moments, Trost and Wolff [5]

change in the structural system tends to approach the proposed a relation on the basis of the combination of

moment distribution that relates to the structural system elastic moments (SMS,i; equivalent to MI in Eq. (3))

obtained after the change. occurred at each construction step (see Fig. 9), and the

Referring to Fig. 8, which shows the moment distri- moment obtained by assuming that the entire structure

bution over time, the following general relationship may

be stated [10]:

Mcr⫽MIII⫺MI⫽(MII⫺MI)(1⫺e−ft) (2)

where Mcr=the creep moment resulting from change of

structural system, MI=the moment due to loads before a

change of structural system, MII=the moment due to the

H.-G. Kwak, J.-K. Son / Engineering Structures 24 (2002) 639–648 645

is constructed at the same point in time (ME; equivalent 3.2. A proposed relation

to MII in Eq. (3)):

冘 冘

With the background for the time-dependent behavior

ft

MT⫽ MS,i⫹(ME⫺ MS,i) (4) of a cantilever beam effectively describing the internal

1+rft moment variation in balanced cantilever bridges, and by

where ft and r represent the creep factor and corre- maintaining the basic form of Eq. (4) suggested by Trost

sponding relaxation factor, respectively. and Wolff [5], considering the construction sequence

This relation has been broadly used in practice while calculating the internal moments at an arbitrary

because of its simplicity. In particular, the exactness and time t, the following relation is introduced:

efficiency of this relation can be expected in a bridge

constructed by the incremental launching method (ILM) MT⫽ 冘 MS,i⫹(ME⫺ 冘 MS,i)(1⫺e−(ft−fc))·f(ft) (5)

or the movable scaffolding system (MSS), that is, in a

where f(ft)=cft/(1+cft). c is the concrete aging coef-

span-by-span constructed bridge. However, there are still

ficient which accounts for the effect of aging on the ulti-

limitations in direct applications of Eq. (4) to balanced

mate value of creep for stress increments or decrements

cantilever bridges because this equation excludes the

occurring gradually after application of the original load.

proportional ratio, (1⫺e−(ft−fC)) in Eq. (3), which rep-

It was found that in previous studies [11,12,14] an aver-

resents the characteristic of the balanced cantilever

age value of c=0.82 can be used for most practical prob-

method.

lems where the creep coefficient lies between 1.5 and

The difference in the internal moments (ME⫺ΣMS,i in

3.0. An approximate value of c=0.82 is adopted in this

Eq. (4) which is equivalent to MII⫺MI in Eq. (3)) is not

paper. In addition, if the creep factor ft is calculated on

recovered immediately after connection of all the spans

the basis of the ACI model [13], f(ft)=cft/(1+cft) has

but gradually over time, and the internal restraint

the values of 0.62, 0.64, and 0.65 at 1 year, 10 years,

moments occurring at time t also decrease with time

and 100 years, respectively.

because of relaxation accompanied by creep defor-

Comparing this equation (Eq. (5)) with Eq. (4), the

mation. From this fact, it may be inferred that Eq. (4)

following differences can be found: (1) to simulate the

considers the variation of the internal restraint moments

cantilevered construction, a term, (1⫺e−(ft−fC)) describ-

on the basis of a relaxation phenomenon. When a con-

ing the creep behavior of a cantilevered beam is added

stant stress s0 is applied at time t0, this stress will be

in Eq. (5) (see Eq. (3)); and (2) the term ft(1+rft) in

decreased to s(t) at time t (see Fig. 10). Considering the

Eq. (4) is replaced by f(ft)=cft/(1+cft) in Eq. (5) on the

stress variation with the effective modulus method

basis of the relaxation phenomenon.

(EMM), the strain e(t) corresponding to the stress s(t)

To verify the effectiveness of the introduced relation,

can be expressed by e(t)=s0/E0·(1+ft). Moreover, the

the internal moment variations in FCM 1, FCM 2, and

stress ratio, which denotes the relaxation ratio, becomes

FCM 3 bridges (see Fig. 1), which were obtained

R(t,t0)=s(t)/s0=1/(1+ft), and the stress variation

through rigorous time-dependent analyses, are compared

⌬s(t)=ft/(1+ft)·s0. That is, the stress variation is pro-

with those by the introduced relation. The effect of creep

portional to ft/(1+ft). If the age-adjusted effective modu-

in the rigorous numerical model was studied in accord-

lus method (AEMM) is based on calculation to allow

ance with the first-order algorithm based on the expan-

the influence of aging due to change of stress, the stress

sion of a degenerate kernel of compliance function

variation can be expressed by ⌬s(t)=cft/(1+cft)·s0,

[8,11,12]. Figures 11–13, representing the results

where c is the aging coefficient [17].

obtained at t=1 year, t=10 years, and t=100 years after

completion of construction, show that the relation of Eq.

(4) proposed by Trost and Wolff gives slightly conserva-

tive positive moments even though they are still accept-

able in the preliminary design stage. On the other hand,

the introduced relation of Eq. (5) effectively simulates

the internal moment variation over time regardless of the

construction sequence and gives slightly larger positive

moments than those obtained by the rigorous analysis

along the spans. Hence the use of Eq. (5) in determining

the positive design moments will lead to more reason-

able designs of balanced cantilever bridges. In addition,

the underestimation of the negative moments, which rep-

resents the equivalent magnitudes with overestimation of

the positive moments, will be induced. The negative

Fig. 10. Stress variation due to relaxation. design moments, however, must be determined on the

646 H.-G. Kwak, J.-K. Son / Engineering Structures 24 (2002) 639–648

Fig. 12. Moment variations of FCM 2 bridge after: (a) 1 year; (b)

Fig. 11. Moment variations of FCM 1 bridge after; (a) 1 year; (b) 10 years; (c) 100 years.

10 years; (c) 100 years.

4. Application to segmental bridges

basis of the cantilevered state because it has the A time-dependent analysis of balanced cantilever

maximum value in all the construction steps, as noted bridges was conducted by assuming that the cantilevers

in Fig. 2. This means that the negative design moment are constructed simultaneously while maintaining a con-

has a constant value of M=1160 t m in this example stant time interval (see Fig. 1). The cantilevers in real

structure and is calculated directly from the elastic bridges are usually constructed by sequential connection

moment of a cantilevered beam. of segments 3 to 6 m long. These segments may be cast

H.-G. Kwak, J.-K. Son / Engineering Structures 24 (2002) 639–648 647

The results obtained at t=100 years in FCM 1, FCM 2,

and FCM 3 bridges (see Fig. 1) are given in Fig. 15.

Comparing the obtained results in Fig. 15 and in Figs.

11–13, the positive moments in the segmental bridge

show slightly larger values than those obtained when the

entire length of the cantilever is cast at the same time.

This difference in the numerical results seems to arise

not from the difference in the construction method of

the cantilever part but from the difference in time when

the structural system is changed. From the results

obtained, it can be inferred that the most influential fac-

tors on the internal moment variation in balanced cantil-

ever bridges are the magnitude of the ultimate creep fac-

tor and the time when the structural system is changed

to a statically indeterminate state. This is because the

time-dependent deformations of concrete become very

important as a result of early loading to the young con-

crete. Moreover, it can be concluded that the introduced

relation of Eq. (5) can be used effectively even in seg-

mental bridges, and by using this relation, the design

moment required to determine the concrete dimensions

in the preliminary design stage can easily be calculated

without any rigorous time-dependent analysis.

5. Conclusions

Fig. 13. Moment variations of FCM 3 bridge after: (a) 1 year; (b) the internal moment variation due to the creep defor-

10 years; (c) 100 years. mation of concrete and the changes in the structural sys-

tem during construction is proposed, and a new guideline

in place or transported to the specific piers after pre- to determine the design moments is introduced in this

casting in a nearby construction yard. Accordingly, a paper. The positive design moment for a dead load can

segmental concrete bridge has been taken as an example be determined by the introduced relation, while the nega-

structure to review the applicability and effectiveness of tive design moment for a dead load must be calculated

the introduced relation of Eq. (5). The example structure directly from the elastic moment of a cantilevered beam

is shown in Fig. 14, and each segment with a length of in balanced cantilever bridges.

2.7 m is assumed to be cast-in-place with a time interval Moreover, since the internal moments by other loads,

of 8 days. All the sectional dimensions and material except the dead load, are not affected by the construction

648 H.-G. Kwak, J.-K. Son / Engineering Structures 24 (2002) 639–648

addition, if a rigorous time-dependent analysis is con-

ducted with the initial section determined on the basis

of the initial design moments obtained by using Eq. (5),

then a more effective design of balanced cantilever

bridges can be expected.

Acknowledgements

partly by the Samsung Engineering and Construction.

Their support is greatly appreciated.

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