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Study of the effects of rotation and magnetic field on the

stagnation flow of a second grade fluid towards a


stretching/shrinking sheet using HPM and BPES protocols

Abstract

In the present investigation we have presented the effects of rotation and


magnetic field on the stagnation point flow of a second grade fluid towards a
porous stretching /shrinking sheet. The governing equations of second grade
fluid are simplified by using boundary layer approach and similarity
transformation. The reduced nonlinear coupled differential equations are
solved using the Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme BPES and the
Homotopy Analysis Method HAM. The results of various physical
parameters are discussed through graphs. The convergence of the solution is
discussed by h-curves, homotopy pade approximation and residual error.

Keywords: Stagnation flow; stretching/shrinking sheet; rotating frame;


HAM solutions; BPES solutions.

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1. Introduction

In a number of applications, rotation plays a significant role such as in cosmical fluid


dynamics. Similarly a great deal of metrology depends upon the dynamics of the
revolving fluid. The large scale and moderate motion of the atmosphere are greatly
affected by the vorticity of the earth’s rotation. In the case of infinite fluid rotating as a
rigid body about an axis, the amount of energy possessed by the fluid is infinite and it is
of great interest to know how small disturbances propagate in such a fluid. Greenspan
and Howard [1] have initiated the study of the dynamics of spin up of an incompressible,
homogenous Newtonian rotating fluid. They have presented a detailed mathematical and
physical analysis of the transient process by which the fluid adjusts to a small change in
the rotation rate of its boundary. It has been demonstrated that the Ekman boundary layer
is established on the horizontal boundary surfaces and it is primarily responsible for the
adjustment process. Furthermore, the Ekman layer produces a secondary interior
circulation throughout the fluid which transports angular momentum. After initiation of
Greenspan and Howard [1], a large number of studies have been presented by various
researchers keeping different fluids and its geometries for rotating flows [2-6].
The analysis of the effects of rotation and magnetic field in the fluid flows has been an
active area of research because of its geophysical and technological importance. It is well
known that a number of astronomical bodies (e.g. the Sun, Earth, Jupiter, magnetic stars,
Pulsars) possess fluid interiors and magnetic fields. Changes in rotation rate of such are
discussed elsewhere [7, 8].
Boundary layer behavior over a stretching surface is another area of research which has
attracted the attention of many researchers due to its important applications in
engineering. Such applications includes aerodynamics extrusion of plastic sheets, the
boundary layer along a liquid film condensation process, the cooling process of metallic
plate in a cooling bath and in the glass and polymer industries. After the initiation of

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Sakiadis [9] several authors consider the boundary layer over a stretching surface [10-
15].
In almost all the fields of engineering and scientific interest, stagnation point flow is an
important phenomenon. These flows may be characterized inviscid or viscous, steady or
unsteady, two dimensional or three dimensional, symmetric or asymmetric, normal or
oblique, homogenous or two fluids and forward or reverse. Some important studies to the
topic are described in refs. [16-22].
Motivated from the above analysis, the aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of
rotation and magnetic field on the stagnation point flow of a second grade fluid towards a
similarity transformation and then the reduced problem have been solved using the
Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme BPES and the Homotopy Analysis Method
HAM. Homotopy analysis method is the successful tool for solving nonlinear ordinary
and partial differential equation and some recent related developments on the topic are
defined in [23-27]. The Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme BPES is also aprotocol
which has been significantly tested in severel applied physics fields [28-38]. The solution
for both stretching and shrinking phenomena are presented. The results of the necessary
physical parameters are discussed through graphs. The convergence of the solution have
been discussed through h-curves, homotopy pade approximation and residual error.

2. Mathematical formulation

We consider an incompressible, stagnation point flow of a second grade fluid


towards a porous stretching/shrinking sheet in a rotating frame in the presence of the
magnetic field. We are choosing the cartesian coordinate system in which (u; v;w) are the
velocity components along x; y and z-axis with Ω being the angular velocity of the
rotating fluid in the z-direction. The potential stagnation flow at infinity is taken by u =
ax, w = -az, v=0 (in which a is the strength of the stagnation flow) where as the velocities
on the shrinking(stretching) rate are considered u = bx, w =-W, v=0, here b > 0 is the
stretching rate (shrinking if b < 0). A constant magnetic field B0 is imposed along z-axis
vertical to the sheet. The governing boundary layer equations for the flow problem are:

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We introduce the similarity variables and non-dimensional variables as follows:

Making use of Eq. (4); the incompressibility condition is automatically satisfied and the
momentum equations take the form:

σB02 Ω α1a
where M 2 = ,λ = ,β = and prime denotes the derivative with respect to η .
ρa a µ
The boundary conditions for the problem under consideration are:

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W
where s =
av

3. HAM Solution

To seek HAM solution of Eqs. (5) and (6) we select:

as the initial approximations of f, h and:

as auxiliary linear operators which satisfy:

where Ci (i = 1..5) are arbitrary constants. If p ∈[0, 1] is an embedding parameter and


 i (i = 1.. 2) are non-zero auxiliary parameters then the zeroth order and mth order

deformation problems are:

Zeroth order deformation problems:

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where:

mth order deformation problems:

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where :

The symbolic software MATHEMATICA isused to get the solutions of Eqs. (21) and
(22) up to first few order of approximations. It is found that the solution for f, h are given
by:

in which the coefficients am ,n and cm ,n of f m (η) and hm (η) can be found by using
q q

given boundary conditions and by the initial guess approximations in Eqs. (8) and (9) and
numerical data is presented through graphs.

4. BPES Solution

To seek Boubaker polynomials expansion scheme BPES [28-38] solution of Eqs. (5) and
(6) we set:
N0
1
f (η ) =
2N0
∑λ
k =1
k × B4 k (η × rk ) (29)

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and:
N0
1
h(η ) =
2N0
∑ λ′ × B
k =1
k 4k (η × rk ) (30)

where B4 k are the 4k-order Boubaker polynomials, rk are B4 k minimal positive roots,

N 0 is a prefixed integer, λk k=1.. N 0 and λk′ k =1.. N 0


are unknown pondering real
coefficients.
The main advantage of these formulations is the fact of verifying the four boundary
conditions in Eq. 1, in advance to problem resolution.
Due to the properties of the Boubaker polynomials [29-32] , and since rk are B4 k

roots, the following conditions stand, for i.e. λk′+1 k =1.. N 0−1
= −λk′ :

 1 N0
 f (η ) η = 0 = − N ∑ λ k = s
 0 k=1
 N0
(31)
 h(η ) = − 1 λ ′ = 0
 η = 0 N 0 ∑k = 1 k

By introducing expressions (29) and (30) in Eq. (5-8), and by majoring and integrating

along the interval [0,+


∞] , f and h are confined, through the coefficients λk k=1.. N 0

and λk′ k =1.. N , to be weak solutions of the system (32):


0

 f ′′ (η ) + f (η ) f ′ (η ) + 2λ h(η ) = M 2 − 1

 h′ (η ) + f (η )h′ (η ) − f ′(η )h(η ) − M h(η ) = 2λ
2

 f (η ) = s (32)
 η =0
 h(η ) = 0
 η =0

which gives:

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 N0 N0

 ∑ λ k M k + ∑ λ k′ Pk = M − 1
2

 k=1 k=1
 N0 N0
 λ M ′ + λ ′ P′ = 2λ
 ∑k = 1 k k ∑k = 1 k k
(33)

 ∞ d B (η × r )
3

 M k = ∫0 ( + B4 k (η × rk ))dη
4k k

 d η 2

 P = 1 (2λ B (η × r ))dη
 k ∫0 4k k
with  1
 M k′ = ∫ ( B4 k (η × rk ))dη
 0

 1 d B (η × r )
2
dB4 k (η × rk )
 k ∫0
P ′ = ( + − M 2 B4 k (η × rk ))dη
4k k

 dη 2

The set of solutions λ


ˆ
k
k=
1.. N and λ
ˆ′
k
1.. N is the one which minimizes the global
k=
0 0

Minimum Square function ΦMS :


2 2
 N0 N0
  N0 N0

Φ MS =  ∑ λˆk M k + ∑ λˆk′ Pk − M 2 − 1 +  ∑ λˆk M k′ + ∑ λˆk′ Pk′ − 2λ  (34)
 k =1 k =1   k =1 k =1 
The correspondent solutions are represented along with the HPM solution (27-28).

5. Convergence of the analytic solution

The analytic series solutions given in Eqs. (27) and (28) of the considered problems are
found by homotopy analysis method. These expressions contain non-zero auxiliary
parameters  i (i = 1.. 2) which can adjust and control the convergence of the solutions.
To ensure the convergence of the solutions in the admissible range of the values of the

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auxiliary parameters i one can draw h curves. For the present cases, 20th order i -
curves are plotted in Figs. (1) and (2). It is seen from these figures that the ranges for the
values of i are -0.7 ≤  1 ≤ -0.2 and -0.95 ≤  2 ≤ -0.25. The residual error of the
problem is calculated and shown in Fig (3).

6. Results and discussion

This section deals with the influence of stretching/shrinking parameter


α, magnetic field parameter M, rotation parameter λ and suction parameter s on f ′ and
h. The velocities f ′ and h against η for various values of α are presented in Figs (4)
and (5). It is observed that magnitude of f ′ and h increases with the increase in α.
However, the layer thickness decreases. The variation of M on f ′ and h are shown in
Figs (6) and (7). It is observed that the magnitude of f ′ increases with the increase in M
whereas h decreases with the increase in M however boundary layer thickness decreases
for both the velocity cases. The magnitude of f ′ increases while the magnitude of h
decreases with the increases in λ (see Figs (8) and (9)). Figures (10) and (11) show that
the suction causes boundary layer reduction.
It is observed from Figs (12) and (13) that f ′ increases with the increase in β whereas h
increases with increase in β up to β = 0.09 then it gives the reverse behavior.

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