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Detuned ICPT Power Pick-ups

Ping Si, Student Member, IEEE, Aiguo Patrick Hu, Member, IEEE, Simon Malpas, and David Budgett

Abstract--Dynamic detuning methods have been used in up ability [8]. A rectifier is employed to convert the ac voltage

inductive contactless power transfer (ICPT) systems for power to dc. For achieving maximum power transfer capability, a dc

flow control. However, the highly variable switching frequency inductor Ldc is commonly connected on the dc side of the

involved in the detuning operation will contribute to

electromagnetic interference (EMI) and power losses. It is rectifier. This is because the dc inductor helps to maintain

difficult to determine the detuning frequency precisely due to current flow in the circuit so that the delivered power from ac

nonlinear features of power pick-ups. Uncertainty in the to dc can remain continuous [9].

operating frequency can result in difficulties in designing filters

with suitable bandwidths and choosing suitable switching devices.

Based on detailed analytical analysis in four segments of the

detuning process, a numerical method is developed in this paper ArM-A ~~~Ldc

+ POWER

to determine the boundaries of the switching frequencies. An CONVERTER L W T R

iterative algorithm is presented using a flow chart to illustrate the s c c1tdc R

process taken in the numerical analysis. Simulation and practical

experiments are conducted to verify the algorithm so as to ensure

the calculated results are sufficiently accurate for designing EMI Primary Secondary

filters and choosing suitable switching devices.

Fig. 1. Basic structure of ICPT system.

Index Terms--Dynamic detuning, inductive contactless power

transfer (ICPT), switched capacitor circuits, frequency A main concern in such a system is that the voltage

estimation. supplied to the load may vary if there is a change in circuit

parameters such as the load R, the magnetic coupling M, and

I. INTRODUCTION primary operating frequency. To solve the problem, a novel

INDUCTIVE contactless power transfer (ICPT) technology detuning control technology has been developed to

has been developed to supply power over relatively large air dynamically control the power flow for supplying a constant

gaps to one or more moving objects. It has been adopted in dc voltage to the load [10]. Fig. 2 illustrates the principle of

many practical applications such as materials handing, the dynamic detuning control technology.

transportation, coalmining, battery charging and implantable

biomedical power supplies [1]-[7]. Fig. 1 shows the basic

structure of an ICPT system which includes a primary power

supply and a secondary power pick-up. To transfer power from

the primary to secondary, a high frequency alternating

electromagnetic field has to be generated by the primary coil

(or track) L, and links to the secondary pick-up coil L by a

mutual inductance M. The pick-up coil is connected in parallel

to a tuning capacitor C, forming a resonant circuit to improve

power transfer capability. Such a parallel tuned configuration

Fig. 2. Power pick-up with dynamic detuning control.

This project is supported by School of Engineering Guaranteed Financial

Support Scheme (GFSS), The University of Auckland, and Telemetry It can be seen from Fig. 2 that in addition to a tuning

Research Limited, New Zealand. capacitor C, a detuning capacitor C, and a semiconductor

P. Si is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The

University of Auckland, New Zealand (e-mail: psiOOl @ec.auckland.ac.nz).

switching device S are also employed in the pick-up. They are

A. P. Hu is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, connected in series, forming a branch connected to the pick-up

The Univeristy of Auckland, New Zealand (e-mail: a.hu@ieee.org). coil L in parallel. Thus, when S is switched on, the resonant

S. Malpas is with the Department of Physiology, The University of circuit includes both capacitor C and C,. When the switch S is

Auckland, New Zealand (e-mail: s.malpas@auckland.ac.nz).

D. Budgett is with the Bioengineering Institute, The University of off, only capacitor C is involved in resonance. Because the

Auckland, New Zealand (e-mail: d.budgett@auckland.ac.nz). maximum power transfer ability is achieved only in the fully

2

tuned condition, the power flow can be controlled by switching frequency accurately is not easy due to the nonlinear feature of

S on or off to change the tuning conditions of the pick-up. For a switching circuit. In this paper an approximate closed-form

example, as shown in Fig. 2 if the output voltage v,. is over the analytical analysis, as well as numerical analysis of the

reference voltage Vref, the switch S will be turned on to detune switching frequency, are undertaken to determine the upper

the pick-up so that the power transferred is reduced. boundary frequency of the dynamic detuning circuit in the

Otherwise, when the output voltage voc is under the reference power pick-ups.

Vref, the switch S will be turned off to fully tune the pick-up for

maximum power transfer. As a result, the average value of II. DYNAMIC DETUNING PROCESS

output voltage voc would be maintained at desired level of Vref. Fig. 3 shows the current and voltage waveforms of the pick-

Considering the fact that when the pick-up is fully tuned the up shown in Fig. 2, where a full bridge rectifier is employed

oscillation frequency of the resonant circuit is equal to the and the coupling between the primary and secondary is

primary operating frequency, two detuning methods are constant. The switch control signal V, is high (on) for detuning

developed for controlling the power flow, over-tuning and the pick-up, and low (off) for full tuning. If the circuit operates

under-tuning. Over-tuning means that the power transfer is under steady state conditions the waveforms are periodical, as

controlled by capacitance variations above the nominal value shown in Fig. 3. Each period shows a complete dynamic

required by full tuning. In principle, only the minimum detuning process. To calculate the maximum switching

capacitance C is needed for full tuning to achieve maximum frequency, one complete process is divided into four segments:

power transfer. In this situation, the switch S is off so that the initial, discharging, charging, and final segment. The division

capacitor C, is not connected to the resonant circuit. When the is based on the changes in the dc current idc of the dc inductor,

load does not need full power capacity, the switch S is turned and the ac voltage vac of the resonant circuit.

on so as to add capacitor C, in the resonant circuit, causing the

pick-up to be detuned from the primary operating frequency. Initial Charging

Alternatively, under-tuning means that the power transfer of

the pick-up is reduced by controlling the tuning capacitance

under the nominal value required by the full tuning. To

transfer maximum power the switch S has to keep on so that

both the capacitor C, and C are connected to the resonant

circuit to achieve full tuning. When the load decreases, the

capacitor C, is removed from the resonant circuit by switching

S off to detune the pick-up from the primary operating

frequency.

Most practical power pick-ups utilize over-tuning method

for dynamic detuning control to manage start-up problems.

During the start-up period the switch S can only be off because

insufficient power is available to drive it on. By over-tuning,

the pick-up is fully tuned initially, hence the voltage can build

up quickly to enable the circuit to start functioning.

Although the dynamic detuning technology works very well

in controlling the power flow while maintaining high power Fig. 3. Dynamic detuning waveforms.

transfer efficiency, the highly variable switching frequency of The initial segment starts from the beginning of the

the semiconductor switch S may cause electromagnetic

detuning operation. During this period the resonant voltage Vac

interference (EMI) to surrounding equipment. In the

(shown in Fig. 2) of the pick-up decreases from the maximum

application of inductive power supplies for implantable value because the pick-up is detuned from the primary

biomedical sensors, the noise generated in sensitive

operating frequency. Since the dc capacitance Cdc (shown in

biomedical sensors from an ICPT system may exceed the

Fig. 2) of the pick-up is normally very large (greater than 10

microvolt level bioelectric signals being recorded [5]. Also,

uF) for filtering out high frequency harmonics, output dc

for the contactless power supply systems combining

voltage v,C decreases more slowly than the resonant voltage

communication channels between the primary and secondary,

vac. Therefore, the voltage across the dc inductor Ldc becomes

the random switching frequency can cause difficulty in

negative, resulting in a dc current (idc) drop from its peak

designing filters with a suitable bandwidth. In addition, value, as shown in Fig. 3. The initial segment is finished when

determining the switching frequency upper boundary is very the dc current idc reaches zero.

important for choosing suitable switching devices. The The next segment, discharging, is also within the duration

switching frequency of semiconductor switch for dynamic of the detuning operation. Current idc maintains zero in this

detuning depends upon many parameters, for example, primary period because no current flows through the rectifier.

operating frequency, maximum power rating, dc capacitance, Therefore, the voltage across the dc side of the rectifier

dc inductance. Calculating the upper boundary of the switching

vdc is

3

equal to the output dc voltage v0c. As the dc capacitor Cdc is in this segment, the voltage vd, is equal to the absolute value of

discharged through the load resistor R, both of Vdc and v,C the resonant voltage, vdc=IvacI. Fig. 5 shows the current and

drop. If their values become lower than the reference voltage voltage waveforms of the model, where the decrease of current

Vref, the switch S is turned off, ending the discharging idc from peak value Ip to zero is assumed to be linear at a rate

segment. of k.

The charging segment starts from the beginning of the full idc

tuning operation. During this segment the resonant voltage vac

increases from the minimum value because the pick-up is fully

tuned to the primary operating frequency. However, the

rectifier keeps blocking since the voltage vac is still lower than

the voltage vdc (voc) in this segment. As a result, the dc current

idc remains at zero.

The final segment begins when the rectifier conducts again.

The dc current idc increases from zero to its maximum value Fig. 4. Model of dc side of pick-up for initial segment.

during this segment. And the dc capacitor Cdc is charged by the

current idc so that the output dc voltage vOC increases again to Vsi< Initail - *

approach the reference value, Vref. The finial segment finishes,

and the next dynamic detuning process starts, when voc equals Adc i Time

to Vref. 'dc kt +JI

normally between 4 to 15 [9], [11]. This results in significant

resonant voltage (vac) variation according to the changes of the

tuning condition. In other words, if the pick-up is detuned from

the primary operating frequency the resonant voltage Vac is ~~~~~.............

------------------------1-----

although it can be boosted up to be Q, times higher than the Ti Time

open circuit voltage when the pick-up is fully tuned. To

achieve the maximum power transfer ability the inductance of Fig. 5. Voltage and current waveforms of pick-up for initial segment.

dc inductor Ldc has to be larger than the value determined by

(1), where co is the angular frequency of the electromagnetic Using the model shown in Fig. 4 a differential equation can

field generated by the primary power supply, and Rmin is the be obtained as:

minimum load resistance of the pick-up [9].

dc dv'

dc + °' kt + I (2)

=

Ldc = Rmin / C (1) dt RP

where initial condition is vclt=O=Vref

because the initial

A. Initial segment segment starts at the beginning of the detuning operation.

To analyze the initial segment of a dynamic detuning Solving (2), the output dc voltage voc can be obtained as:

process, two assumptions are made to reduce the complexities -t

resulting from the nonlinear features of switching circuit. voc = kRt-kR2CdC +IPR +e RCdc (Vref + kCdcR2- IpR) (3)

Firstly, the dc current idc is assumed to decrease linearly in this

segment. Secondly, the detuning capacitance C, is assumed to Since the output dc voltage is very close to the reference

be relatively large and its equivalent series resistance (ESR) is voltage Vref, the relation between the current and voltage of dc

zero. Thus the resonant voltage of vac quickly drops down to inductor Ldc can be written in the form of (4):

the minimum value at the beginning of this segment due to fast

discharging caused by the detuning capacitor C,. In a practical dic (4)

LdC

dt Vdcd vle-

larger than C for a fast response in dynamic detuning. Considering that the reference voltage Vref is much higher

Simulation and practical results show that these assumptions than the vdc and the current idc decreases linearly in this

are valid for calculating the upper boundaries of the switching segment, (4) can be simplified:

frequencies.

Based on these assumptions, a model representing the dc Ldckk-Vref (5)

side of the pick-up can be represented as shown in Fig. 4. The Then the duration T1 of the initial segment can be

voltage source vdc represents the voltage across the dc side of determined as:

the rectifier. Because the current conducts through the rectifier

4

k Vref electromagnetic field generated by the primary. In the model

the voltage source is connected to L in series, where co is the

B. Discharging segment angular frequency of the primary operating frequency, and V,P

The discharging segment is still within the duration of the is the peak value of the induced voltage. It can be assumed that

detuning operation. Since the dc current idc is zero, the rectifier the initial value of the resonant voltage vac and current iac are

disconnects the ac and dc sides of the pick-up circuit. The dc zero. This is valid for a pick-up with a high boost-up factor Q,

capacitor Cdc is discharged through the load resistor R, where the voltage vac and current iac under a detuned condition

reducing output dc voltage v0c. As discussed previously, the (discharging segment) are much smaller than its fully tuned

discharging segment is finished when the voltage v,C drops condition (charging segment).

down to the reference voltage Vref. So the duration of the

discharging segment can be determined by calculating the iac L

discharging time of the capacitor Cdc. Fig. 6 shows the model

for the dc side of the pick-up. The model consists of the

parallel connected dc capacitor Cdc and the load resistor R.

% Va, sin(a)

I - f~C

Vac

I + 1

T dc R Fig. 7. Model of ac side of pick-up for charging segment.

Fig. 6. Model of dc side of pick-up for discharging segment.

the pick-up is fully tuned to the primary frequency. The

Using this model, a differential equation can be written as: following two equations can be obtained based on the model:

=0 (7) C dvacdVac

=

- (11)

Cdc dcdt + R dt

Since the initial value of the voltage v,C in the discharging (12)

L dt = VSP sin(wt) -vac

segment is the final value from the initial segment, the initial

condition of (7) can be determined using (3) with t=Tl, as

shown below: Solving (11) and (12), the resonant voltage vac during the

charging segment can be obtained as:

IV

V,, t=O -kCdCR

= +e kRCdc (Vllf + kCdRR2 _ I pR)

(8) Vac = IVp sin(wt)- Vp Ca cos( C) (13)

Therefore, if the discharging segment begins at time zero,

the output dc voltage v,C can be obtained as: The mode of the dc side for the charging segment is the

same as that for the discharging segment shown in Fig. 6

because no dc current flows through the rectifier. However, the

voc= -kCdCR+ e kC R (V1ef + kCdcR2 IpR) eCcR (9) initial condition is different. The charging segment starts from

the beginning of the tuning operation, the output voltage must

The discharging segment is finished when dc output voltage cross the level of the reference voltage Vref. This means that

voc drops down to the reference voltage Vref. The duration T2 the initial value of v,C will equal Vref. Therefore, the output dc

of the discharging segment can be obtained as: voltage v,C can be solved using (7). The result can be shown

as:

T2= -RCdclrn V,ef kCdcR+ekRct Vef +kCdcR2 - IR) (10)

voc Vf

rf e CdR (14)

C. Charging segment The charging segment finishes when the dc current starts to

increase from zero. As shown in Fig. 8, this also means that the

In the charging segment, the dc current is still zero. This

also means that the dc and ac sides are separated by the

charging segment ends when the rectifier first starts to conduct

rectifier. As the pick-up is fully tuned in this segment, the

(Ivacl=voc). Therefore, the following equation can be obtained:

resonant voltage vac starts to increase. At the same time, the

FT, (t) = 2IV SP sin(wt)

I

load resistor keeps discharging the dc capacitor Cdc. The V SP tcos(t) -Vre eC =0 (15)

2 oft

model for the ac side of the pick-up is shown in Fig. 7, where

the ac voltage source V,Psin(cot) represents the open circuit It should be noted that the duration T3 of the charging

5

segment is the minimum solution of (15) because the first time (18)

of 1Vac1=VOc is the boundary between this segment and next env(vd ) = 1 V o)(t + T3)

2

segment. Although it is very difficult to obtain an explicit

solution of T3 from equation (15), numerical solution can be In fact, as shown in Fig. 9, the approximate envelop of vdc

achieved easily by utilizing a computer program. is a smooth curve crossing vdc at the angle of co(t+T3)=nn

where n is a positive integer. The simulation and practical

idc results have demonstrated that this approach is valid in

calculating the upper boundaries of the switching frequencies.

Ve Time Errors introduced separately by Vref and env(vdC), instead of v,C

and vdc, have a canceling effect.

IVacli o Considering the initial condition of idclt=o=0, the

approximate solution of iac can be obtained as:

Vs, cot2//2+ (Vsp coT3 -2Vref ) t

T3 Time tdc

(19)

2Ldc

Fig. 8. Voltage and current waveforms of pick-up for charging segment. Since when t=T4 current idc reaches its maximum value Ip,

the duration T4 of the final segment can be solved as:

D. Final segment -T2(V pO3-2V,,f ) + 4(VspT3- 2Vref )2 + 16IPLdCVSpC (20)

In final segment, the dc current idc flowing through dc 2Vp co

inductor starts to increase from zero to a peak value Ip. Fig. 9

shows the voltage and current waveforms of the pick-up for Finally, because in the steady state conditions the output

this segment. Because the dc current idc is very small compared voltage v,C is controlled to approach the reference voltage Vref,

to the resonant current iac, its effects on the resonance are the average value of the dc current idc can be considered to be

ignored. Based on this, the amplitude of the resonant voltage equal to Vref/R. Therefore, the following equation can be

vac increases at the same rate as in the charging segment. obtained:

According to (13) the voltage vac for the final segment can be

written as: Iaeav (T1 +T4)Ip/2 _

Vlef (21)

T, + T2+ T3 + T4 R

VsI Vn[(+T]

I

Vac = sin[t + T)]- T3)cos[(t+T3)] (16) The duration T1, T2, T3, T4 and peak value of dc current Ip

can be solved using (6), (10), (15), (20) and (21), then the

where the zero time is at the beginning of this segment. switching frequency is given by f=l/( T1+T2+T3+T4).

'dc

It would be very complicated to achieve a closed form

explicit solution to the maximum switching frequency using

equation (6), (10), (15), (20) and (21). So the numerical

solutions utilizing computer programs are adopted. Fig. 10

shows the flowchart designed for calculating the maximum

switching frequency of the dynamic detuning.

The program starts with given circuit parameters LdC, L, Cdc,

Ev a c~~~~~~~~~c Ial ) Vref, f, Pmax and V,p, enabling that the slop k of the dc current

T4 Time

to be equal to -Vref/L in the initial segment. The load resistor

R is determined by the maximum power transferred by the

Fig. 9. Voltage and current waveforms of pick-up for finial segment.

pick-up Pmax and reference voltage Vref. Simulation and

As the dc current is not zero during the final segment, the experimental results show that the numerical results obtained

model of the dc side for this period is the same as that for the according to this flowchart are most accurate when the

initial segment shown in Fig. 4. However, it is very difficult to minimum load resistance is applied. Then the duration T3 of

achieve an explicit solution to idc by solving the differential the charging segment is calculated first because it can be

equations obtained from the model. So, an approximate determined independently using (15) and is used later in the

solution is obtained by replacing the vdc (vdc=1vac1) by its calculation for the final segment. An iterative computation is

approximate envelope env(vdC), and v,C by reference voltage applied in the calculation of T3 based on the function FT3(t3)

Vref, as shown below: shown in (15). t3(0) is an estimated initial value of T3. The

next step is to check whether F13(t3(i)) has converged to a

given error index £, e.g. _=10 . When this stopping criteria is

Ld, dt = env(vdC ) -V,f (17)

met, the iteration terminates with T3=t3(i); otherwise, the

6

After determining T3, the program runs another iterative

process to calculate durations of period T1, T2, and T4. This

iteration starts with an estimated initial value of the peak

current lp(O). Then, the duration T1, T2 and T4 are calculated

according to (6) (10) and (20). In the next step, the program

checks whether the average value of the current lave determined

by (21) has converged to the value of Vref/R under a given

error C'. Once the stopping criteria is met, the iteration

terminates with final value of T1, T2 and T4. Finally, the

switching frequency f is solved based on f=l/( T1+T2+T3+T4).

Although the numerical solution is from the analyses of the

pick-up with full bridge rectifier, simulation and practical

results show that the computation shown in Fig. 10 are also

suitable for calculating the maximum detuning frequency of

the pick-up with a half bridge rectifier. This is because the

frequency of the dynamic detuning circuit reflects how much

power transferred, and not what power converting method

used.

Fig. 11 shows the simulation results of the switching

frequencies at different loading conditions. The parameters of

the simulated pick-up circuit are LdC=497 uH, L=83.4 uH,

Cdc=22 uF, Vref=30 V, f=38.4 kHz, Pmax=7.5 W and VSP=6.4 V.

From Fig. 11 it can be seen that the switching frequency of

the detuning is about zero when the pick-up operates with the

minimum load resistance. At this load, the detuning switch

remains off most of the time achieving the maximum power

transfer condition. The switching frequency increases

dramatically with the increase of the load resistance since the

detuning switch starts operating to detune the pick-up for

reduced power transfer. Then the frequency almost remains

stable around the maximum value while the resistance

continues increasing. In this situation power transferred is

mainly affected by the on duty cycle of the switching signal,

not the switching frequency. However, when the load

resistance becomes too large, the switching frequency starts to

decrease. This happens when the detuning switch starts to stay

on longer to match the much reduced power requirement.

Finally, the switching frequency drops back to zero when R is

infinitely large (no load condition). The maximum value of Fig. 10. Flowchart for calculating the maximum switching frequency of

dynamic detuning circuit.

the detuning frequency achieved in the simulation is about 8.5

kHz. As a comparison, the upper boundary of the frequency is

also computed according to the flowchart shown in Fig. 10.

N

The result of the computation is 8.9 kHz, showing the I IRmin

computed solution is sufficiently accurate for determining the

detuning frequency range for purposes such as designing EMI

filters and choosing the proper switching devices.

A power pick-up which is used to supply wireless power to U-

device used for dynamic detuning is a BJT (Bipolar Junction

Transistor) with an integrated body diode, and a half bridge a n 120 180

Load Resistance(Q)

rectifier is employed to convert ac power to dc. The main

parameters of the pick-up used includes LdC=450 uH, L=17 Fig. 11. Variation of switching frequency at different loading conditions.

uH, Cdc=10 uF, Vref=3 V, f=200 kHz, Pmax=50 mW and

7

VSP=450 mV. The maximum power is required when the good agreement with the measured value. In addition, the

implantable telemetry device communicates with an external measured frequencies shown in Fig. 12 and 13 also verify that

transceiver. the switching frequency is very low when the pick-up operates

Fig. 12 shows the waveform of the voltage across switched under very heavy loading conditions.

capacitor Cs when the equivalent load resistance is

approximately 190 Q. The fundamental frequency of the

waveform is about 1.7 kHz which is the switching frequency

caused by the dynamic detuning. Such a low switching

frequency appears in this situation because the pick-up load is

close to the maximum loading condition. This is identical to : ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

the analytical result shown in Fig. 11. From Fig. 12 it can also

be seen that the voltage across Cs maintains a level of

, ~ ~~~~~

~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .......

, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .2

because the detuning capacitor Cs is charged through the body

diode of the BJT, although the BJT itself is off for full tuning

in this situation. Thus the minimum voltage across Cs would be

close to the minimum peak value of the resonant voltage, -5V.

When the pick-up is detuned, the voltage across the detuning

capacitor is sinusoidal because the switch is on in this

situation, adding the detuning capacitor Cs into the resonant Fig. 13. Experimental waveform of output dc voltage of pick-up. (Loading

circuit. At the same time the peak value drops down to about condition: R=380 Q.)

1.5V due to the detuning operation.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

This paper has analyzed the dynamic detuning operation

employed in ICPT pick-ups for supplying a constant output dc

voltage. The dynamic detuning process has been divided into

four segments: initial, discharging, charging and final segment.

Based on detailed analytical analysis of each segment, an

iterative method has been proposed to obtain a numerical

solution for the detuning operating frequency. The computed

TPOWWWRW results are in a good agreement with the simulation and

MMEL.. experimental results. It has been demonstrated that the

maximum detuning frequency occurs around the nominal load

and is maintained roughly constant over a wide range of load

conditions although switching duty cycle varies. The frequency

decreases at both ends of high and low loading conditions.

These results are very useful in designing EMI filters and

Fig. 12. Experimental waveform of voltage across detuning capacitor Cs. selecting power switches for power pick-up circuits.

(Loading condition: R=190 Q.)

VII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Fig. 13 shows the measured waveform of the pick-up output The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions from

dc voltage when the equivalent load resistance is 380 Q. In the the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and

experiments, the maximum switching frequency has been the Bioengineering Institute of the University of Auckland, and

recorded under this loading condition. From the waveform it Telemetry Research Limited.

can be seen that the average voltage is controlled at about

3. IV with a 200 kHz harmonic component resulting from the VIII. REFERENCES

EMI of the primary. The lower frequency ripple appears as

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8

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[5] P. Si, A. P. Hu, D. Budgett, S. Malpas, J. Yang and J. Gao, "Stabilizing Simon Malpas received his PhD from Otago

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electrical stimulation (FES)," IEEE Trans. Magnetics, Vol. 40, pp. the Bioengineering Institute at the University of

2964-2966, Jul. 2004. Auckland. He is head of the Circulatory Control

[7] T. Bieler, M. Perrottet, V. Nguyen and Y. Perriard, "Contactless power Laboratory whose research focus is on the role of sympathetic activity in the

and information transmission," IEEE Trans. Industry Applications, Vol. development of hypertension.

38, pp. 1266-1272, Sep. 2002.

[8] J. T. Boys, G. A. Covic and Y. Xu, "DC analysis technique for inductive

power transfer pick-up", IEEE Power Electronics Letters, Vol. 1, Issue

2, pp. 51-53, Jun. 2003.

[9] P. Si and A. P. Hu, "Designing the dc inductance for ICPT power pick- David Budgett gained his PhD in Biomedical

ups", in Proc. The 5th IASTED International Conference on Power and Engineering from Imperial College in 1995. He has

Energy Systems, Benalmadena, Spain, 2005, pp.162-167. held academic positions at the University of Sussex

[10] A. P. Hu and S. Hussmann, "Improved power flow control for and the University of Auckland with research

contactless moving sensor applications" IEEE power Electronics interests in medical devices. He leads a team

Letters, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 135-138, 2004. developing implantable telemetry devices in the

[11] A. P.Hu, "Selected resonant converters for IPT power supplies", PhD Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland.

thesis, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University

ofAuckland, Oct. 2001.

IX. BIOGRAPHIES

Electrical Engineering from Xian JiaoTong

University, China, in 1998. From 1998 to 1999 he

worked as a Engineer at the Northwest Electrical

Power Testing Research Institute, China. He

received his Graduate Diploma in Computer Science

form the University of Auckland, New Zealand, in

2002. He is currently a last year PhD student in the

Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering, the University of Auckland. His research is to develop high

quality wireless power supplies for implantable biomedical devices.

JiaoTong University, China, with BE and ME

degrees in 1985 and 1988 respectively. After

migrating to New Zealand in 1996 he received his

Ph.D from the University of Auckland in 2001.

Before that he worked as a lecturer, an electrical

engineer, group leader, and later the director of a

technical section in China. He holds a few patents

in microcomputer control and inductive power

transfer technologies, and co-authored a book on electrical machines. He

received the University of Auckland Ph.D scholarship, the Asian 2000

Foundation Scholarship for a four-month study visit to the National

University of Singapore, and an industrial scholarship from Wampfler AG,

Germany.

He is currently a senior lecturer in the Department of Electrical and

Electronic Engineering, the University of Auckland. He is also a co-chair of

the New Zealand IEEE Power Engineering and Power Electronics Joint

Society. His research interests include wireless power transfer, power

converters, and application of power electronics in power systems.

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