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HANDBOOK OF

COMPOSITES

SECOND EDITION

Edited by

S.T.Peters
Process Research, Mountain View, Calfornia, USA

CHAPMAN & HALL


- - - -
London Weinheim . New York Tokyo Melbourne Madras
Published by Chapman & Hall, an imprint of Thomson Science, 2-6 Boundary
Row, London SE18HN, UK

Thomson Science, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE18HN, UK

Thomson Science, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA

Thomson Science, Suite 750,400 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

Thomson Science, Pappelallee 3,69469 Weinheim, Germany

First edition 1982

Second edition 1998

0 1998 Chapman & Hall

Thomson Science is a division of International Thomson Publishing

Typeset in 10/12 pt Palatino by GreenGate Publishing Services, Tonbridge, England

Printed in Great Britain by Cambridge University Press

ISBN 0 412 54020 7

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,,mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the
publishers. Applications for permission should be addressed to the rights manager
at the London address of the publisher.
The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the
accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal
responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made.

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
CONTRIBUTORS

SURESH G. ADVANI KENNETH R. BERG


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Riggs Corporation,
University of Delaware, 837 Agate Street,
Spencer Laboratory, Medford, OR 97501,
Newark, DE 19716, USA
USA
LARS A. BERGLUND
MAURICE E AMATEAU LuleH University of Technology,
Applied Research Laboratory, SE-97187 LuleH,
Pennsylvania State University, Sweden
PO Box 30,
State College, PA 16804, D. BROWN
USA Boeing Commercial Airplane Group,
Douglas Products Division,
EVER J. BARBER0 Mail Stop D001-0018,
315 Engineering Science Building, Long Beach, CA 90846,
West Virginia University, USA
Morgantown, WV 26506-6106,
USA JOHN D. BUCKLEY
23 East Governor Drive,
A.I. BEIL' Newport News, VA 23602,
Institute of Polymer Mechanics, USA
Latvian Academy of Sciences,
23 Aizkraukles Street, JERRY L. CADDEN
Riga LV-1006, C & S Technologies,
Latvia 42759 Mountain Shadow,
Murrieta, CA 92562,
JEROME S. BERG USA
True Temper Sports,
5421 Avenida Encinas, ZHONG CAI(deceased)
Suite G, 4180 Berkeley Creek Drive,
Carlsbad, CA 92008, Duluth, GA 30136,
USA USA
x Handbook of composites

FRANK A. CASSIS MIRIA M. FINCKENOR


FAC Associates, EH12 Bldg 4711,
1150 N. Mountain, Suite 1028, Marshall Space Flight Center,
Upland, CA 91786, AL 35812,
USA USA

LINDA L. CLEMENTS LIHWA FONG


C & C Technologies, BLK G 5,
PO Box 1089, Nanyang Avenue,
Dayton, NV 89403, Singapore 63616
USA
HUGH H. GIBBS
DOUGLAS L. DENTON Polycomp Consulting, Inc.,
Chrysler Corporation, 25 Crestfield Road,
CIMS 482-00-13, Wilmington, DE 19810,
800 Chrysler Drive, USA
Auburn Hills, MI 48326-2757,
USA TIMOTHY GUTOWSKI
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
EDDY A. DERBY Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Composite Optics, Bldg 35-234,
9617 Distribution Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139,
San Diego, CA 92121, USA
USA
RICHARD N. HADCOCK
GEORGE W. DU 6 Sue Circle,
Principal Engineer, Huntington, NY 11743,
16331 Bay Vista Drive USA
Cleanvater, FL 34620,
USA ENAMUL HAQUE
Azdel, Inc.,
HARRY W. DURSCH Technology Center,
Boeing Defense and Space Group, 658 Washburn Switch Road,
PO Box 3999, Mail Stop 73-09, Shelby, NC 28151-2284,
Seattle, WA 98124-2846, USA
USA
L.J. HART-SMITH
DON 0. EVANS Boeing Commercial Airplane Group,
Cincinnati Milacron, Douglas Products Division,
4701 Marburg Avenue, Mail Stop D800-0019,
Cincinnati, Ohio 45209, 4000 Lakewood Boulevard,
USA Long Beach, CA 90846,
USA
Confributors xi

JENNIFER HETH VALERY I. KOSTIKOV


Cytec Fiberite, Niigrafit Institute,
501 W. Third Street, 2 Electrodonaya Street,
Winona, MN 55987-2854, Moscow, 111524,
USA Russia

THOMAS S. JONES GARY C. KRUMWEIDE


Industrial Quality, Inc., Composite Optics,
640 E. Diamond Ave., Suite C, 9617 Distribution Avenue,
Gaithersburg, MD 20877, San Diego, CA 92121,
USA USA

THOMAS JUSKA V.L. KULAKOV


Naval Surface Warfare Center, Institute of Polymer Mechanics,
Carderock Division, Latvian Academy of Sciences,
Structures and Composites Department, 23 Aizkraukles Street,
Bethesda, MD 20084-5000, Riga LV-1006,
USA Latvia

JOHN T. KANNE KHALID LAFDI


2201 Johnson Road, Center for Advanced Friction Studies,
Memphis, TN 38139, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale,
USA Carbondale, IL 62901-4343,
USA
HARRY S. KATZ
Utility Development Corporation, CHRISTY KIRCHNER LAPP
112 Naylon Avenue, 1412 Bellingham Way,
Livingston, NJ 07039, Sunnyvale, CA 94087,
USA USA

V.S. KILIN ROBERT A. LATOUR


Niigrafit Institute, Clemson University,
2 Electrodonaya Street, Clemson, SC 29634,
Moscow, 111524, USA
Russia
BURR L. LEACH
FRANK K. KO Cambridge Industries,
Drexel University, 1700 Factory Avenue,
Fibrous Materials Research Laboratory 27-439, Marion, IN 46952,
Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
USA
STEWART N. LOUD
KENT E. KOHKONEN Composites Worldwide Inc.,
Brigham Young University, 991 Lomas Santa Fe Drive, C469,
435 CTB Technology Department, Solana Beach, CA 92075-2125,
Provo, UT 84602, USA
USA
xii Handbook of composites

VICKI P. MCCONNELL NITIN POTDAR


Ray Publishing, Brigham Young University,
Independence Street, 435 CTB Technology Department,
Suite 270, Wheat Ridge, Provo, UT 84602,
CO 80033, USA
USA
KENNETH REIFSNIDER
ANDREW C. MARSHALL Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
Marshall Consulting, University,
720 Appaloosa Drive, Patton Hall 120,
Walnut Creek, CA 94596, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0219,
USA USA

ANTHONY MARZULLO THEODORE J. REINHART


39 Harold Street, 345 Forrer Boulevard,
COSCob, CT 06807-2132, Dayton, OH 45419-3238,
USA USA

DONALD W. OPLINGER PAUL E SADESKY


Federal Aviation Administration, C & S Technologies,
Wm. J. Hughes Technical Center AAR-431, 23547 Mountain Court,
Atlantic City, International Airport, Murrieta, CA 92562,
NJ 08405, USA
USA
FRANK J. SCHWAN
HARRY E. PEBLY 36671 Montecito Drive,
198 Center Grove Road, Fremont, CA 94536,
Randolph, NJ 07869, USA
USA
ANTON L. SEIDL
LYNN S. PENN 18941 Mellon Drive,
Department of Chemical and Materials Saratoga, CA 95070,
Engineering, USA
177 Anderson Hall,
University of Kentucky, JOCELYN M. SENG
Lexington, KY 40506-0046, Owens Corning Science and Technology
USA Center,
2790 Columbus Road,
S.T. PETERS Granville, OH 43023-1200,
Process Research, USA
925 Sladky Avenue,
Mountain View, CA 94040-3625, SHALABY W. SHALABY
USA Clemson University,
301 Rhodes Res.,
Clemson, SC 29634,
USA
Contributors xiii

DAVID A. SHIMP WAYNE C. TUCKER


PO Box 974, Naval Undersea Warfare Center,
Prospect, KY 40059, PO Box 86,
USA Exeter, RI 02822,
USA
DONALD R. SIDWELL
44609 Grove Lane, V. V. VASILIEV
Lancaster, CA 93534-2833, Moscow State University,
USA 14-1-110 Podolskih Kursantov Street,
Moscow 113545,
BRIAN E. SPENCER Russia
Spencer Composite Corporation,
3220 Superior Street, PO Box 4377, DENNIS J. VAUGHAN
Lincoln, NE 68504-0377, 146 Longview Drive,
USA Anderson, SC 29621,
USA
ROBERT C. TALBOT
7199 Lorine Court, H. WANG
Columbus, OH 43235-5125, Department of Chemical and Materials
USA Engineering,
177 Anderson Hall,
YU.M. TARNOPOL'SKII University of Kentucky,
Institute of Polymer Mechanics, Lexington, KY 40506-0046,
Latvian Academy of Sciences, USA
23 Aizkraukles Street,
Riga LV-1006, ANN E WHITAKER
Latvia EHOl Bldg 4612,
Marshall Space Flight Center,
R.C. TENNYSON AL35812,
University of Toronto, USA
Institute for Aerospace Studies,
4925 Dufferin Street, BRIAN A. WILSON
Downsview, Ontario, Wilson Composite Group,
Canada M3H 5T6 6611 Folsom-Auburn Road, Suite C,
Folsom, CA 95630,
JAMES L. THRONE USA
Shenvood Technologies, Inc.,
158 Brookside Boulevard, S. WONG
Hinckley, OH 44233-9676, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group,
USA Douglas Products Division,
Mail Stop D001-0018,
FRANK TRACESKI Long Beach, CA 90846,
Department of Defense, USA
5203 Leesburg Pike Suite 1403,
Falls Church, VA 22041,
USA
xiv Handbook of composites

MAURICE A. WRIGHT PHILIP R. YOUNG


Center for Advanced Friction Studies, Emory & Henry College,
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Department of Chemistry,
Carbondale, IL 62901-4343, Emory, VA 24327,
USA USA
ABOUT THE EDITOR

S.T. Peters was previously a fellow engineer He is a private consultant with worldwide
with Westinghouse Electric Corporation, clients and has presented tutorials on compos-
Marine Division prior to devoting full time to ites to many audiences, including the US
composite and materials and processing con- Navy and NASA, several technical societies
sulting for his own company, Process and two universities. He is a licensed profes-
Research, in Mountain View, CA. He has writ- sional engineer in the state of California, a
ten many articles on composites and filament member of ASM, and the composites division
winding, a book on filament winding, edited of SME and has been elected a fellow of
one previous book and holds several patents SAMPE.
on winding techniques and composite joints.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

As with any large undertaking there is a sup- approach to resolving problems. Thanks also
porting group of people without whose help go to Mr Frank Heil and Dr Alvin Nakagawa
the objective would not be met. I wish to of Westinghouse Electric, Marine Division
acknowledge my wife, Lynn, for her help in (now Norton Grumman) for their editorial
deciphering and rewriting some of the articles and review help. I also wish to thank Dr Linda
and for enduing my sometimes uncivil Clements for her advice and support.