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# Annexure

## Student’s Roll No: 03 Section No. : OE136

Declaration:
I declare that this assignment is my individual work. I have not copied from any other student’s
work or from any other source except where due acknowledgment is made explicitly in the text,
nor has any part been written for me by another person.
Student’s Signature: sonagra divya
_____________________________________________________________________
Marks obtained : ___________ out of ______________________
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Q1. What are the main network performances parameters defined from ATM networks?
Ans : Network Performance Parameters
1. Cell Transfer Delay (CTD),
2. Cell Delay Variation (CDV),
3. Cell Loss Ratio (CLR),
4. Cell Error Ratio,
5. Cell Misinsertion Rate,
6. Severely Errored Cell Block Ratio.
The Following parameters characterize the performance of ATM systems
Throughput
This can be defined as the rate at which the cells depart the switch measured in the number of
cell departures per unit time. It mainly depends on the technology and dimensioning of the ATM
switch. By choosing a proper topology of the switch, the throughput can be increased.
Connection Blocking Probability
Since ATM is connection oriented, there will be a logical connection between the logical inlet
and outlet during the connection set up phase. Now the connection blocking probability is
defined as the probability that there are not enough resource between inlet and outlet of the
switch to assure the quality of all existing as well as new connection.
Cell Loss Probability
In ATM switches when more cells than a queue in the switch can handle will compete for this
queue, cell will be lost. This cell loss probability has to be kept within limits to ensure high
reliability of the switch. In Internally Non-Blocking switches, cell can only be lost at their
inlets/outlets. There is also possibility that ATM cell may be internally misrouted and they reach
erroneously on another logical channel. This is called Insertion Probability.
Switch Delay
This is the time to switch an atm cell through the switch. The typical values of switching delay
range between 10 and 100 μsecs. This delay has two parts .Fixed switching delay and queuing
delay fixed switching delay is because of internal cell transfer through the hardware.

## Q2. What is cell terminology & functions of each layer of ATM?

Ans : An ATM cell is 53 bytes long with a 5-byte header possessing information for control and
signaling, and 48 bytes of data payload. Having fixed-size cells may reduce queuing delays for
high priority cells. Because one knows the size of a cell beforehand, it becomes easier to
implement the switching mechanism in hardware for efficient switching.
The header information is generated in the ATM Layer, while the ATM Adaptation Layer
(AAL) breaks the entire message into 48-byte data chunks. The cell header contains fields to
help deal with congestion, maintenance, and error control problems. It is broken up into the
following fields:
Generic Flow Control (GFC), a mechanism used to alleviate shortterm overload
conditions in the network. It is intended to provide efficient and equal utilization of the link
between all the users.
Virtual Path Identifier (VPI), which allows for more virtual paths to be supported within
the network.
Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI), which functions as a service access point as it is used
for routing to and from the end user.
Payload Type (PT), which is used to distinguish between user information and
connection-associated layer management information.
Cell Loss Priority (CLP), which is used to provide guidance to the network to discard the
cell in case of congestion.
Header Error Control (HEC), which contains the information that can be used by the
physical layer for error detection or correction. It is calculated from the first 32 bits of the
ATM layer functions
ATM layer is the layer above the physical layer. it does the 4 functions which can be
explained as follows.
Cell header generation/extraction: This function adds the appropriate ATM cell
header(except for the HEC value) to the received cell information field from the AAL in the
transmit direction. VPI/VCI values are obtained by translation from the SAP identifier. It does
opposite i.e. removes cell header in the receive direction. Only cell information field is passed to
the AAL.
Cell multiplex and demultiplex: This function multiplexes cells from indiv- idual VPs
and VCs into one resulting cell stream in the transmit direction. It divides the arriving cell stream
into individual cell flows w.r.t VC or VP in the receive direction.
VPI and VCI translation:This function is performed at the ATM switching and/or cross-
connect nodes. At the VP switch, the value of the VPI field of each incoming cell is translated
into a new VPI value of the outgoing cell. The values of VPI and VCI are translated into new
values at a VC switch.
Generic Flow Control(GFC): This function supports control of the ATM traffic flow in a
customer network. This is defined at the B-ISDN User-to-network interface (UNI).

Q3. Using diagram explain about ATM layer & ATM Adaptation layer.
Ans :

## • ATM adaptation layer

– Similar to transport layer
– Provides interface between
upper layers and ATM
Break messages into cells and
reassemble
• ATM layer
– Cell switching
– Congestion control
Atm Layer.
The ATM layer is next above the physical layer. The ATM layer takes the data to be sent
and adds the 5-byte header information. It performs the following four actions:
Cell header generation/extraction, which adds the appropriate ATM cell header to the
received cell information field from the upper layer in the transmit direction. It does the opposite
in the receive direction.
Cell multiplex and demultiplex function, which multiplexes cells from individual virtual
channels and virtual paths into one resulting cell stream in the transmit direction. It divides the
arriving cell stream into individual cell flows to VCs or VPs in the receive direction.
• VPI and VCI translation, which is performed at the ATM switching and/or cross-connect
nodes.
• Generic Flow Control (GFC), which supports control of the ATM traffic flow in a
customer network.

AAL is divided into two sub-layers as shown in the figure. 1.Segmentation and
reassembly(SAR) 2.Convergence sublayer(CS)
SAR sublayer: This layer performs segmentation of the higher layer information into a
size suitable for the payload of the ATM cells of a virtual connection and at the receive side, it
reassembles the contents of the cells of a virtual connection into data units to be delivered to the
higher layers.
CS sublayer: This layer performs functions like message identification and time/clock
recovery. This layer is further divided into Common part conver- gence sublayer(CPCS) and a
Service specific convergence sublayer(SSCS) to support data transport over ATM. AAL service
data units are transported from one AAL serv- ice access point(SAP) to one or more others
through the ATM network. The AAL users can select a given AAL-SAP associated with the
QOS required to transport the AAL-SDU. There are 5 AALs have been defined, one for each
class of service. The service classification for AAL can be shown by the following figure.

Q4. Distinguish between physical layer transport functions & ATM layer transport functions.

The physical layer is divided into two parts. The ATM physical medium sublayer is
responsible for transmission of data over the physical medium, regardless of the type of medium
used.

The physical medium sublayer is responsible for receiving and transmitting bit streams in
a continuous method. This is important to channelized services with rely on constant bit streams
to maintain synchronization. When the bit stream stops, channelized equipment interprets the
condition as an error and releases the virtual connection. bit synchronization is also maintained
by this sublayer

The transmission convergence sublayer is responsible for the transmission and reception
of frames over framed transmission facility, such as T-3. ATM cells are packed into these frames
and unpacked at the remote end. This sublayer also performs error detection/correction but only
on the ATM header. This prevents the cells from being sent to the wrong destination.

The Physical Layer defines the medium for transmission, any medium-dependent
parameters (e.g., rate, quality of service required), and framing used to find the data contained
within the medium.

The ATM Layer provides the basic 53-byte cell format, by defining the 5-byte ATM
header for each 48-byte payload segment handed down by the AAL.

## Q5. Explain service classification of AAL layer.

Ans : service classification for the AAL. service classification is based on the following
parameters.
timing relation between source and destination :required or not required.
bit rate: constant or variable.
connection mode: connection oriented or connecctionless
Q6. Explain in detail different user control and management plans?
Ans : ATM offers significant benefits to users and those who design and maintain
communications networks. Because network transport functions can be separated into those
related to an individual logical connection (virtual connection) and those related to a group of
logical connections (virtual path), ATM simplifies network management. ATM also allows for
the integration of networks, improving efficiency and manageability and providing a single
network for carrying voice, data, and video.
ATM increases network performance and reliability because the network is required to
deal with fewer aggregated entities. There is also less processing needed and it takes less time to
add new virtual channels because capacity is reserved beforehand on a virtual path connection.
Finally, ATM offers a high degree of infrastructure compatibility. Because ATM is not based on
a specific type of physical transport, it can be transported over twisted pair, coaxial, and fiber
optic cables.
The control plane protocols deal with call-establishment and call-release and other
connection-control functions necessary for providing switched services.

The C-plane structure shares the physical and ATM layers with the U-plane.

## It also includes ATM adaptation procedures and higher-layer signaling protocols.

Management plane:

The management plane provides management functions and the capability to exchange
information between the U-plane and the C-plane.

The M-plane contains two sections: layer management and plant management.

The layer management performs layer-speciﬁc management functions, while the plane
management performs management and coordination functions related to the complete system.

## Q7. What should be the main considerations for payload size?

Ans: If too short: overhead will be high due to the header
If too long, padding results in bandwidth wastage.
Efficient link utilization and voice traffic should be both considered
48B of payload is a compromise!
Q8. Give the layered structure of ATM and compare with it ISO-OSI model? What are the
features of AAL.
Ans : The physical layer is the easiest to map as it performs similar functions in both the models.
However, the physical layer in the ATM layer in the ATM reference model has a much wider
scope. In fact, the transmission convergence sub laye performs some of the functions of a typical
The ATM layer,according to some , lies in the lower part of the data link layer. This view
stems from the aaumption that the ATM layer is the connection oriented counterpart of shared –
medium protocols like Ethernet and token ring. According to others, ATM layer is comparable to
the network layer because of the cell header format & elaborate network layer protocols.
The AAL layer is the most difficult one to map. Again, some consider it to be a part of
the data link layer. This opinion is applicable for the control plane wherein AAL acts as the
reliable layer of the transport layer. For the user plane, it is more appropriate to place AAL in the
lower half of the transport layer because AAL works end to end.
Q9. What percentage of an ATM link's total bandwidth is consumed by the ATM cell headers?
What percentage of the total bandwidth is consumed by all nonpayload bits in AAL3/ 4 and
AAL5, when the user data is 512 bytes long?
Ans : ATM overhead can consume a significant part of a VC's bandwidth. The following shows
how to estimate this value. First, consider that IP packets on the Internet typically are one of
three sizes:
• 64 bytes (for example, control messages)
• 1500 bytes (for example, file transfers)
• 256 bytes (all other traffic)
These values produce a typical overall Internet packet size of 250 bytes. Next, consider that
some overhead is predictable and some is variable.
Overhead Field Predictable Variable
five-byte cell header (cell tax) X -
eight-byte AAL5 trailer X -
eight-byte LLC/SNAP header X -
Up to 47 bytes of AAL5 padding - X
Now, use the above values to estimate the percentage of overhead on an ATM link based on the
encapsulation type. In these calculations, assume a packet size of 250 bytes, which requires 22
bytes of padding after we include the eight-byte LLC/SNAPheader and eight-byte AAL5 trailer.
• AAL5SNAP encapsulation:
8+8+22=38 or 15 percent "AAL5" overhead + 10 percent cell tax = >25 percent
• For AAL5MUX encapsulation, with 250 byte packets, 30 bytes of padding are
required, which means:
8+30=38 or 15 percent "AAL5" overhead + 10 percent cell tax = >25 percent overall
In other words, the overhead factor varies with packet size. Small packets result in higher

AAL3/4 CS‐PDU format – padding to ensure that the trailer is aligned on a 32‐bit boundary.

## From left to the pad field inclusive, it has to be a multiple of 32bits.

For a 512B user data, the CS‐PDU is 520B.
520B divided by 44B, we get 11 44B pieces plus a segment of 36B. They form 12 ATM cells
with each 11 having a header/trailer overhead of 9B. The last cell also has a padding of 8B.
Therefore 12*9 + 8 + 8= 124B of overhead. The percentage is: 124/(124+512).
AAL5 CS‐PDU format – padding to ensure that the trail falls at the tail end of an ATM cell.

By encapsulation, we get an AAL5 CS‐PDU with a length of 528B, which will be segmented
into 11 cells. The percentage is (11*5+16)/ [(11*5+16)+512].
Q10. How reliable does an ATM connection have to be in order to maintain a loss rate of less
than one per million for a higher-level PDU of size 20 cells? Assume AAL5.
Ans : Only a small amount of overhead is added to the CPCS PDU.

There is no AAL level cell multiplexing. In AAL-5 all cells belonging to an AAL-5
CPCS PDU are sent sequentially.

To simplify still further, the CPCS PDUs are paddedto become integral multiples of 48
octets, ensuring that there never will be a need to send partially ﬁlled cells after segmentation.
AAL5 places control information in an 8-octet trailer at the end of the packet. The AAL5 trailer
contains a 16-bit length field, a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) and two 8-bit fields
labeled UU and CPI that are currently unused.

In AAL5, each higher layer packet is divided into an integral number of ATM cells. At
the receiving end, these cells are reassembled into a packet before delivery to the receiving host.

The last cell contains padding to ensure that the entire AAL5 protocol data unit (PDU) is
a multiple of 48 octets long. The final cell contains up to 40 octets of data, followed by zero
padding and the 8-octet trailer.
Q11. What is the importance of Header Error Check byte? What is segmentation and reassembly
in ATM?
Ans : Header Error Control (HEC) provides protection from bit errors in the ATM cell header
that can occur, primarily during the propagation of the cell between ATM nodes. The HEC can
detect and correct one-bit errors and can detect some multiple bit errors. At the transmitting end,
the ATM Layer passes to the PHY layer the first four bytes of the cell header, and the 48-byte
payload. The Transmission Convergence Sublayer then computes the HEC value, which is then
placed in the fifth byte of the cell header. At the receiving end, the Transmission Convergence
Sublayer checks the integrity of the cell header, and if no errors are detected, then passes the
ATM cell to the ATM layer.
Segmentation and Reassembly refers to the process used to fragment and reassemble
packets so as to allow them to be transported across Asynchronous Transfer Mode networks.
Since ATM's payload is only 48 bytes, nearly every packet from any other protocol has to be
processed in this way. Thus, it is an essential process for any ATM node. It is usually handled by
a dedicated chip, called the SAR.
The process is conceptually simple: an incoming packet from another protocol to be
transmitted across the ATM network is chopped up into segments that fit into 48-byte chunks
carried as ATM cell payloads. At the far end, these chunks are fitted back together to reconstitute
the original packet.
The process is analogous to the fragmentation of IP packets on reaching an interface with
a Maximum Transmit Unit (MTU) size less than the packet size and the subsequent reassembly
of the original packet once the fragments have reached the original packet's destination.
Since different types of data are encapsulated in different ways, the details of the
segmentation process vary according to the type of data being handled. There are several
different schemes, referred to as ATM Adaptation Layers (AAL). The schemes are:
• AAL0 - Raw cells with no special format
• AAL1 - Constant bitrate, circuit emulation (T1, E1, etc.)
• AAL2 - Variable bitrate synchronous traffic, e.g. voice data
• AAL3/4 - Variable bitrate asynchronous traffic, e.g. Frame Relay transport
• AAL5 - Used for most data traffic, such as IP

The segmentation and reassembly sub layer is AAL4 is very simple as compared to the
other AALs.this layer doesn’t add any header or trailer to the SAR-SDU. It just breaks down the
SAR-SDU into 48-bytes SAr-PDUs, whichin turn form the payload of the cells.The beginning
and end of the SAR-SDU is indicated through the ATM-User-to-ATM-user indication bit,which
is the rightmost bit among the 3-bits in the payload type identifier field of the cell header. A
value os 1 of this bit indicates the end of a SAR-SDU. On the other hand a value of 0 indicates
the beginning or continuation of an SAR-PDU. This value is passed to the ATM layer along with
the SAR-PDU.

Q12. How many generic flow control bits are there in ATM payload? What is their function.
ANS : Generic Flow Control (GFC), 4 bits in length. It is generally not used and the field is set
equal to zero. The intent of GFC was for media access control for ATM cells on bus, ring, or star
topology customer-premise networks, which are on the "user" side of the user-network interface,
and where the network element on "network" side of the UNI had primary control.