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# MAGLEV TRAINS

## Trains that fly

PRESENTATION OUTLINE

What is maglev?
Types of maglev
How maglev trains works.
 Propulsion
 Levitation
 Lateral guidance
Materials used in building of maglev
Application information
 Safety
 Maintenance
 Speed
 Environment
 Comfort
 Magnetic field
 Noise
Features
References

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WHAT IS A MAGLEV?

## A MAGLEV is a MAGnetically LEVitated train, that relies more on magnetic

systems than mechanical systems for its propulsion and stability.

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TYPES OF MAGLEV’S

EDS Type- This type uses wheels to reach lift-off velocity ( typically
at 100mph)and then retracts the wheels and then uses
electromagnets for levitation and propulsion. One of the early
developed models.
EMS Type- This type uses only electromagnets for levitation and
propulsion.
INDUCTRACK- This is a variant of EDS Type it uses induction
coils for levitation

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EMS TYPE MAGLEV SYSTEM

## EX:- Shanghai MAGLEV , China

Commercially available

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HOW MAGLEV TRAINS WORK

STABILTY
 The electromagnets on the
underside of the train pull it up to the
ferromagnetic stators on the track
and levitate the train.
The magnets on the side keep the
train from moving from side to side.
A computer changes the amount of
current to keep the train 1 cm from
the track.
This means there is no friction
between the train and the track!

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PROPULSION

## An alternating current is ran through electromagnet coils on the guide walls

of the guide way. This creates a magnetic field that attracts and repels the
superconducting magnets on the train and propels the train forward.
Braking is accomplished by sending an alternating current in the reverse
direction so that it is slowed by attractive and repulsive forces.

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LEVITATION

## The passing of the superconducting magnets by figure eight

levitation coils on the side of the tract induces a current in the coils
and creates a magnetic field. This pushes the train upward so that it
can levitate 10 cm above the track.
The train does not levitate until it reaches 50 mph, so it is equipped
with retractable wheels.

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LATERAL GUIDANCE

When one side of the train nears the side of the guideway, the super
conducting magnet on the train induces a repulsive force from the
levitation coils on the side closer to the train and an attractive force
from the coils on the farther side. This keeps the train in the center.

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POWER SUPPLY

Batteries on the train power the system and also its propulsion.
Levitation system uses less power than the trains air conditioning.
Onboard batteries are rechargeable and are done using its linear
generators.

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MATERIALS USED IN BUILDING OF TRAIN

## The train’s chassis will be mainly made up of aluminum to ,with an

iron cage to shield electronic circuitry from strong magnetic fields.
The other parts including the body of maglev will be made of Fiber
Reinforced Plastic.
The train will have basic ambience and rechargeable batteries
onboard similar to the existing models.
The train’s motion and ambience will be controlled from ground
stations similar to real ones.

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APPLICATION INFORMATION

Safety
The trains are virtually impossible to derail because the train is
wrapped around the track.
Collisions between trains are unlikely because computers are
controlling the trains movements.

Maintenance
 There is very little maintenance because there is no contact
between the parts.

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The linear generators produce electricity for the cabin of the train.

Speed
 Can travel at about 300 mph.
For trips of distances up to 500 miles its total travel time is equal to
a planes.
 Can accelerate to 200 mph in 3 miles, so it is ideal for short jumps.

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ENVIRONMENT

##  Uses less energy than existing transportation systems.

 For every seat on a 300 km trip with 3 stops, the gasoline used per 100
miles varies with the speed.

## At 200 km/h - 1 liter,

300 km/h - 1.5 liters
400 km/h - 2 liters.
 1/3 the energy used by cars and 1/5 the energy used by jets per mile.

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ENVIRONMENT (landscape)

##  Less impact on the environment

 Uses less land than conventional
trains,
 Follow the landscape better than
regular trains since it can climb 10%
gradients (while other trains can only
climb 4 gradients) and can handle
tighter turns.

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Comfort
 Ride is smooth while not
accelerating..
Economic Efficiency
The initial investment is similar to
Operating expenses are half.
 Composed of sections- each
contain 100 seats,
 Can have between 2 and 10
sections.

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Magnetic Field:
The magnetic field created is low, therefore there are no adverse
effects.

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Noise Pollution
The train makes little noise because it does not touch the track and
it has no motor. Therefore, all noise comes from moving air. This
sound is equivalent to the noise produced by city traffic.

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SALIENT FEATURES

## It’s top speed with people aboard is 350 mph.

The super conducting magnets create a strong magnetic field that could
be a problem for some passengers.
The train is earthquake proof because the greater space (10 cm) between
the track and the train leaves more room for track deformation
Linear generators will produce all the electricity needed in the train’s
interior.
Only the part of the track that is used will be electrified so no energy is
wasted.

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REFERENCES

## Integrated electromagnetic levitation and guidance system for

the Swiss Metro project, by D’ARRIGO Aldo, RUFER Alfred, Swiss
Federal Institute of Technology.

Wikipedia.

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QUERIES??????