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Respiration

1. A group of students built a model of the human respiratory system to investigate the
mechanism of breathing in and breathing out.

Which of the following pairs is correct?

Model of respiratory system Human respiratory system


A .Balloon .Lungs
.Rubber sheet .Diaphragm
.Bell jar .Thoracic cavity
B .Rubber sheet .Diaphragm
.Air space inside bell jar .Thoracic cavity
.Balloon .Lungs
C .Rubber sheet .Lungs
.Balloon .Diaphragm
.Bell jar .Thoracic cavity
D .Balloon .Thoracic cavity
.Air space inside bell jar .Rib cage
.Rubber Sheet .Diaphragm

(PMR 2004)

2. The diagram shows part of the human respiratory system.

What will happen when structure x contracts and becomes flattened?

A Air from outside enters the lungs


B The rib cage goes down inwards
C The volume of the thorax cavity decreases
D Air pressure inside the thorax cavity increases
(PMR 2005)
3. Which features help gas exchange between the alveolus and capillaries to take place
efficiently?

Alveolus wall Number of blood


Thickness Condition capillaries
A Thick Moist A few
B Thin Moist Many
C Thick Dry A few
D Thin Dry Many

(PMR 2006)

4. Diagram 17 shows the passage of air through the human respiratory system while
exhaling.

Diagram 17

Which of following represents X, Y and Z?

A
B
C
D
(PMR 2006)
6. Diagram 15 shows the structure of human lungs.
5. The following statements are about the transportation of oxygen in the human body.

K- Oxyhaemoglobin breaks into oxygen and hemoglobin


Q
L- Oxygen diffuses through alveoli into the blood capillaries

M-POxygen combines with hemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin


R
N- Oxyhaemoglobin is transported to all parts of the body
S
Which of the following is the correct sequence of the transportation?

A. M, K, L, N
Diagram 15
B. K, L, M, N
Which of the following is represented by P, Q, R and S?
C N, K, L, M
.
D L, M, N, K
.
(PMR 2007)

(PMR 2008)

1 Figure 1.1 shows a model of the lungs to study the human breathing mechanism.
(PMR 2005)

Figure 1.1

(a) Using the model, explain the process of inhalation.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………….
( 2 marks)

(b) Figure 1.2 shows a model of the lungs and a human respiratory system. On
Figure 1.2 draw lines to match the parts of the model with the part of the
human respiratory system
( 2 marks)

Figure 1.2

(c) Figure 1.3 shows the structure of some alveoli and blood capillaries.

Figure 1.3

Explain the transportation of oxygen gas to the body cells, starting from the
alveolus.
…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………
( 3 marks)

(d) Smoking is dangerous to human health.


State one reason.

……………………………………………………………………………………..….

………………………………………………………………………………………….
( 1 mark)

2 Diagram 2.1 shows a human respiratory system.


( PMR 2006)
Diagram 2.1

(a) Using the letters in diagram 2.1 complete the diagram below to show the air
flow during inhalation.

( 2 marks)

(b) What will happen to structure K during the process of exhalation?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………
( 1 mark)

(c) Diagram 2.2 shows a worker in a cement factory wearing a mask.


Diagram 2.2

What is the effect on the lungs of the worker if he neglects to wear the mask
while working?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………
( 1 mark)

(d) Diagram 2.3 shows the structure of an alveolus.

Alveolus

Blood
capillaries

Diagram 2.3

The process of gaseous exchange happens between the alveolus and the
blood capillaries.

(i) Name the gases involved.

…………………………………………………………………………………………
(2 marks)
(ii) Explain how this process can happen.

…………………………………………………………………………………………
(1 mark)

Respiration
Paper 1

1. B
2. A
3. B
4. A
5. D
6. B

Paper 2

1. a) When the rubber sheet is pulled down, the pressure inside the bell jar decreases.
Air from outside the bell jar decreases. Air from outside enter the ballons and the
ballons inflates.

b)

c) The inhaled oxygen taken into the alveolus wall diffuse into the blood capillaries.
The oxygen will combine with the haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin. which
is carried to the heart from the lungs to the whole body.
Later it decomposes to release oxygen and diffuses into cells.

d) Smoking can damage the lungs/ Smoking can cause cancer.