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Digital Signal Processing

Instructor: Jen-Hui Chuang

Department of Computer Science


National Chiao Tung University
 Textbook: Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms
and Applications, by John G. Proakis and Dimitris Manolakis,
4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2007.
 Grading:
 Homework: 20%
 Midterm Exam: 35%
 Final Exam: 45%
 Course Content
 Discrete-Time Signals and Systems
 The Z-Transform
 Frequency Analysis of Signals and Systems
 Sampling and Reconstruction of Signals
 Discrete Fourier Transform (and FFT)
 Implementations of Discrete-Time Systems
 Digital Filter Design
 Why DSP?
 Flexibility in system redesign
 Better control over accuracy requirements
 Easy storage and transmission of data
 Sophisticated processing algorithms
 Low cost (cheap hardware, higher flexibility)

 Applications …
 Applications
 Speech processing and signal transmission on
telephone channels
 Image processing and transmission
 Seismology and geophysics
 Oil exploration
 Detection of nuclear explosion
 Processing of signals received from outer space
 Other applications …
2 Discrete-Time Signals and Systems

2.1 Discrete-Time Signals


2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.4 Discrete-Time Systems Described by Difference Equations
2.5 Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems
2.6 Correlation of Discrete-Time Signals

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2.1 Discrete-Time Signals

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2.1 Discrete-Time Signals
2.1.1 Some Elementary Discrete-Time Signals (1/2)
Unit sample sequence

δ(t) = ?

Unit step signal

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2.1 Discrete-Time Signals
2.1.1 Some Elementary Discrete-Time Signals (2/2)
Exponential Signal ─ x(n) = an , –∞ < n < ∞

a = re jθ ?
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2.1 Discrete-Time Signals
2.1.3 Simple Manipulations of Discrete-Time Signals (1/2)
Transformation of the independent variable (time)

+2 +2
← →

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2.1 Discrete-Time Signals
2.1.3 Simple Manipulations of Discrete-Time Signals (2/2)
Addition, multiplication, and scaling of sequences

y(n) = Ax(n)
y(n) = x1(n) + x2(n)
y(n) = x1(n) x2(n)

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.1 Input-Output Description of Systems
Ex. Determine the response of the following systems to

x(n) = { …0, 0, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 0, 0, …}

1. y(n) = x(n)
2. y(n) = x(n – 1)
3. y(n) = x(n + 1)
4. y(n) = [x(n + 1) + x(n) + x(n – 1)]/3
5. y(n) = median [x(n + 1), x(n), x(n – 1)]
6. y(n) = x(n) + x(n – 1) + x(n – 2) + …
= y(n – 1) + x(n)

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.2 Block Diagram Representation of Discrete-Time Systems
Ex.

y(n) = 0.25 y(n – 1) + 0.5 x(n) + 0.5 x(n – 1 ) Initial condition?

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.3 Classification of Discrete-Time Systems

1. Static (memoryless) vs. dynamic: y(n) = T[x(n), n]

2. Time-invariant vs. time-variant: x(n – k) → y(n – k)

3. Linear vs. nonlinear: T[a1x1(n) + a2x2(n)] = a1T[x1(n)] + a2T[x2(n)]

4. Causal vs. noncausal: y(n) = F[x(n), x(n – 1), x(n – 2), …]

5. Stable vs. unstable: |x(n)| ≤ Mx < ∞ → |y(n)| ≤ My < ∞

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.3 Classification of Discrete-Time Systems

Ex. Time-invariant versus time-variant: x(n – k) → y(n, k) =? y(n – k)

1. y(n) = x(n) – x(n – 1) y(n, k) = x(n – k) – x(n – k – 1) = y(n – k )

2. y(n) = nx(n) y(n, k) = n x(n – k) ≠ y(n – k )

3. y(n) = x(– n) y(n, k) = x(– n – k) ≠ y(n – k )

4. y(n) = x(n) cos ω0n y(n, k) ≠ y(n – k )

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.3 Classification of Discrete-Time Systems
? a T[x (n)] + a T[x (n)]
Ex. Linear versus nonlinear: T[a x (n) + a x (n)] =
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2

1. y(n) = nx(n)

2. y(n) = x(n2)
Let: x(n) ≡ a1x1(n) + a2x2(n)
3. y(n) = x2(n) ?
Check: T[x(n)] = a1T[x1(n)] + a2T[x2(n)]

4. y(n) = Ax(n) + B

5. y(n) = e x(n)

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.3 Classification of Discrete-Time Systems
? F[x(n), x(n – 1), x(n – 2), …]
Ex. Causal versus noncausal: y(n) =

1. y(n) = x(n) + x(n – 1)

2. y(n) = ∑k=n –∞ x(k)

3. y(n) = ax(n)

4. y(n) = x(n) + 3x(n + 4)

5. y(n) = x (n2)

6. y(n) = 2x (n)

7. y(n) = x(– n)

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.3 Classification of Discrete-Time Systems
Ex. Stable versus unstable: |x(n)| ≤ Mx < ∞ →? |y(n)| ≤ My < ∞

y(n) = y2(n – 1) + x(n)

x(n) = { …0, 0, 2, 0, 0, …}

y(n) = { …0, 0, 2, 22, 24, 28, …}

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.2 Resolution of a Discrete-Time Signal into Impulses (1/2)

x(n) = ∑∞k= –∞ x(k)δ(n – k)

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.2 Resolution of a Discrete-Time Signal into Impulses (2/2)
Ex. x(n) = {2, 4, 0, 3}

x(n) = 2δ(n + 1) + 4δ(n) + 3δ(n – 2)

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.3 Response of LTI Systems to Arbitrary Inputs: the
Convolution Sum
y(n, k) ≡ h(n, k) = T[δ(n – k) ]

y(n) = ∑k= –∞ x(k) h(n, k) (Linear)

= ∑k= –∞ x(k) h(n – k) (Time-invarient)

h(n) : Impulse Response


Completely characterizes the LTI system


Ex. y(n0) = ∑k= –∞ x(k) h(n0 – k)

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Ex.

→4

→8

→1
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Ex. Convolution is commutative: y(n) = ∑ x(k) h(n – k) = ∑ x(n –k) h(k)

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.4 Properties of Convolution and the Interconnection of LTI Systems

Commutative law

y(n) = x(n) * h(n) = ∑ x(k) h(n – k)

y(n) = h(n) * x(n) = ∑ h(n – k) x(k)

Identity and Shifting Properties

x(n) *δ(n) = x(n) δ(n) * h (n) = h(n)

x(n) *δ(n – k) = x(n – k) δ(n – k) * h(n) = h(n – k)

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.4 Properties of Convolution and the Interconnection of LTI Systems

Associative law (upper)

Distributive law

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.5 Causal LTI Systems


y(n) = ∑k= –∞ x(k) h(n – k)


y(n) = ∑k=0 h(k) x(n – k)
n
= ∑k= –∞ x(k) h(n – k)

Ex. x(n) = u(n), h(n) = anu(n)


n
y(n) = ∑k=0 ak = (1 – a n+1)/(1 – a)

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.6 Stability of LTI Systems


Sn ≡ ∑k= –∞ |h(k)| < ∞

A LTI system is stable if its impulse response is absolutely summable.

2.3.7 Systems with Finite-Duration and Infinite-Duration


Impulse Response

y(n) = ∑k=0 h(k) x(n – k) (IIR)

M–1
y(n) = ∑k=0 h(k) x(n – k) (FIR)

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2.5 Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems
2.5.1 Structures for the Realization of LTI Systems (1/2)
Ex. A first-order system: y(n) = – a1y(n – 1) + b0x(n) + b1x(n – 1)

Direct form I

Direct form II

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2.5 Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems
2.5.1 Structures for the Realization of LTI Systems (2/2)
N M
Ex. General case: y(n) = – ∑k=1 ak y(n – k) + ∑k=0 bk x(n – k)

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2.5 Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems
2.5.2 Recursive and Non-recursive Realization of FIR Systems
Ex. A 2nd-order system:

y(n) = – a1 y(n – 1) – a2 y(n – 2)


+ b0 x(n) + b1 x(n – 1) + b2 x(n – 2)

FIR System

Purely recursive System


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2.5 Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems
2.5.2 Recursive and Non-recursive Realization of FIR Systems
Ex. An FIR moving average system

Non-recursive
Realization

Recursive
Realization

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