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Digital Signal Processing

Department of Computer Science

National Chiao Tung University
 Textbook: Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms
and Applications, by John G. Proakis and Dimitris Manolakis,
4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2007.
 Homework: 20%
 Midterm Exam: 35%
 Final Exam: 45%
 Course Content
 Discrete-Time Signals and Systems
 The Z-Transform
 Frequency Analysis of Signals and Systems
 Sampling and Reconstruction of Signals
 Discrete Fourier Transform (and FFT)
 Implementations of Discrete-Time Systems
 Digital Filter Design
 Why DSP?
 Flexibility in system redesign
 Better control over accuracy requirements
 Easy storage and transmission of data
 Sophisticated processing algorithms
 Low cost (cheap hardware, higher flexibility)

 Applications …
 Applications
 Speech processing and signal transmission on
telephone channels
 Image processing and transmission
 Seismology and geophysics
 Oil exploration
 Detection of nuclear explosion
 Processing of signals received from outer space
 Other applications …
2 Discrete-Time Signals and Systems

2.1 Discrete-Time Signals

2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.4 Discrete-Time Systems Described by Difference Equations
2.5 Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems
2.6 Correlation of Discrete-Time Signals

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2.1 Discrete-Time Signals

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2.1 Discrete-Time Signals
2.1.1 Some Elementary Discrete-Time Signals (1/2)
Unit sample sequence

δ(t) = ?

Unit step signal

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2.1 Discrete-Time Signals
2.1.1 Some Elementary Discrete-Time Signals (2/2)
Exponential Signal ─ x(n) = an , –∞ < n < ∞

a = re jθ ?
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2.1 Discrete-Time Signals
2.1.3 Simple Manipulations of Discrete-Time Signals (1/2)
Transformation of the independent variable (time)

+2 +2
← →

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2.1 Discrete-Time Signals
2.1.3 Simple Manipulations of Discrete-Time Signals (2/2)
Addition, multiplication, and scaling of sequences

y(n) = Ax(n)
y(n) = x1(n) + x2(n)
y(n) = x1(n) x2(n)

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.1 Input-Output Description of Systems
Ex. Determine the response of the following systems to

x(n) = { …0, 0, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 0, 0, …}

1. y(n) = x(n)
2. y(n) = x(n – 1)
3. y(n) = x(n + 1)
4. y(n) = [x(n + 1) + x(n) + x(n – 1)]/3
5. y(n) = median [x(n + 1), x(n), x(n – 1)]
6. y(n) = x(n) + x(n – 1) + x(n – 2) + …
= y(n – 1) + x(n)

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.2 Block Diagram Representation of Discrete-Time Systems
Ex.

y(n) = 0.25 y(n – 1) + 0.5 x(n) + 0.5 x(n – 1 ) Initial condition?

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.3 Classification of Discrete-Time Systems

5. Stable vs. unstable: |x(n)| ≤ Mx < ∞ → |y(n)| ≤ My < ∞

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.3 Classification of Discrete-Time Systems

4. y(n) = x(n) cos ω0n y(n, k) ≠ y(n – k )

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.3 Classification of Discrete-Time Systems
? a T[x (n)] + a T[x (n)]
Ex. Linear versus nonlinear: T[a x (n) + a x (n)] =
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2

1. y(n) = nx(n)

2. y(n) = x(n2)
Let: x(n) ≡ a1x1(n) + a2x2(n)
3. y(n) = x2(n) ?
Check: T[x(n)] = a1T[x1(n)] + a2T[x2(n)]

4. y(n) = Ax(n) + B

5. y(n) = e x(n)

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.3 Classification of Discrete-Time Systems
? F[x(n), x(n – 1), x(n – 2), …]
Ex. Causal versus noncausal: y(n) =

3. y(n) = ax(n)

4. y(n) = x(n) + 3x(n + 4)

5. y(n) = x (n2)

6. y(n) = 2x (n)

7. y(n) = x(– n)

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2.2 Discrete-Time Systems
2.2.3 Classification of Discrete-Time Systems
Ex. Stable versus unstable: |x(n)| ≤ Mx < ∞ →? |y(n)| ≤ My < ∞

y(n) = y2(n – 1) + x(n)

x(n) = { …0, 0, 2, 0, 0, …}

y(n) = { …0, 0, 2, 22, 24, 28, …}

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.2 Resolution of a Discrete-Time Signal into Impulses (1/2)

x(n) = ∑∞k= –∞ x(k)δ(n – k)

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.2 Resolution of a Discrete-Time Signal into Impulses (2/2)
Ex. x(n) = {2, 4, 0, 3}

x(n) = 2δ(n + 1) + 4δ(n) + 3δ(n – 2)

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.3 Response of LTI Systems to Arbitrary Inputs: the
Convolution Sum
y(n, k) ≡ h(n, k) = T[δ(n – k) ]

y(n) = ∑k= –∞ x(k) h(n, k) (Linear)

= ∑k= –∞ x(k) h(n – k) (Time-invarient)

h(n) : Impulse Response

Completely characterizes the LTI system

Ex. y(n0) = ∑k= –∞ x(k) h(n0 – k)

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Ex.

→4

→8

→1
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Ex. Convolution is commutative: y(n) = ∑ x(k) h(n – k) = ∑ x(n –k) h(k)

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.4 Properties of Convolution and the Interconnection of LTI Systems

Commutative law

x(n) *δ(n – k) = x(n – k) δ(n – k) * h(n) = h(n – k)

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.4 Properties of Convolution and the Interconnection of LTI Systems

Associative law (upper)

Distributive law

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.5 Causal LTI Systems

y(n) = ∑k= –∞ x(k) h(n – k)

y(n) = ∑k=0 h(k) x(n – k)
n
= ∑k= –∞ x(k) h(n – k)

Ex. x(n) = u(n), h(n) = anu(n)

n
y(n) = ∑k=0 ak = (1 – a n+1)/(1 – a)

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2.3 Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems
2.3.6 Stability of LTI Systems

Sn ≡ ∑k= –∞ |h(k)| < ∞

2.3.7 Systems with Finite-Duration and Infinite-Duration

Impulse Response

y(n) = ∑k=0 h(k) x(n – k) (IIR)

M–1
y(n) = ∑k=0 h(k) x(n – k) (FIR)

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2.5 Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems
2.5.1 Structures for the Realization of LTI Systems (1/2)
Ex. A first-order system: y(n) = – a1y(n – 1) + b0x(n) + b1x(n – 1)

Direct form I

Direct form II

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2.5 Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems
2.5.1 Structures for the Realization of LTI Systems (2/2)
N M
Ex. General case: y(n) = – ∑k=1 ak y(n – k) + ∑k=0 bk x(n – k)

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2.5 Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems
2.5.2 Recursive and Non-recursive Realization of FIR Systems
Ex. A 2nd-order system:

y(n) = – a1 y(n – 1) – a2 y(n – 2)

+ b0 x(n) + b1 x(n – 1) + b2 x(n – 2)

FIR System

Purely recursive System

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2.5 Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems
2.5.2 Recursive and Non-recursive Realization of FIR Systems
Ex. An FIR moving average system

Non-recursive
Realization

Recursive
Realization

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