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c Inhibit action of Used in the Hypersensitivity Diarrhea, '(c")
Assessment:
 histamine of the H2 management of dizziness, #'
 receptor sites of parietal various GI Tiredness, 1. History: allergy to
 cells, decrease gastric disorders such as headache and Rarely, malaise, ranitidine, impaired renal
c
 c acid secretions. dyspepsia, GERD, rashes. Reversible dizziness,
 peptic ulcer and confusional states somnolence, or hepatic function,
 zellinger ellison usual in the insomnia, and lactation, pregnancy.
 syndrome. elderly or vertigo. Rare cases
 Prophylaxis of seriously ill of reversible 2. Physical: skin
 Gihemmorhage fr. patients such as mental confusion, lesions, orientation,
 Stress ulceration those ĉ agitation,
 and in patient at renal failure. depression and affect, liver evaluation,

c risk of developing hallucinations have abdominal examination,
 c
 acid aspiration been reported,
c
 during general predominantly in normal output, renal
 
c anesthesia severely ill elderly function tests, CBC
c c patients. Rare
  cases of reversible Interventions:
 blurred vision 1. Administer oral
 suggestive of a
 change in drug with meals and at
 accommodation bedtime.
 have been
 reported. Rare 2. Decrease doses in
!"#$%& reports of renal and liver
 reversible
 involuntary motor failure.
 disturbances have 3. Provide concurrent
 been received.
 '''( antacid therapy to relieve
 Constipation, pain.
 diarrhea,
 nausea/vomiting, 4. Administer IM
 abdominal dose undiluted, deep
 discomfort/pain, into large muscle group.
 and rare reports of 5. Arrange for
 pancreatitis. regular follow-up
 including blood test, to
 evaluate effects









Cefuroxime is
 Cefuroxime is a semi Urinary tract Sensitivity to CNS: Dizziness, Assess patient
generally well
*)+ synthetic cephalosporin infections, Otitis cephalosporines headache, fatigue, For signs and symptoms
tolerated and side
 antibiotic, chemically media,
effects are usually paresthesia, fever, of infection
 similar to penicillin. It is ‡
transient. chills,
 effective against a wide Severe infection
Reported side Assess for
 variety of bacteria confusion
effects include anaohylaxis:
 organisms, such as GI: Diarrhea,
diarrhea, nausea,
)+ Staphylococcus aureus, nausea, rash, urticaria,
vomiting,
('* Streptococcus vomiting, chills, fever,
abdominal pain,
+' pneumoniae,
headache, rash, anorexia, dyspnea
*)+ Haemophilus influenza,
hives, vaginitis,
 E. coli, N. gonorrhea, glossitis, bleeding,
headache, and Identify urine
, !"#$ and many others increased AST,
mouth ulcers. output
%&
ALT, bilirubin,

 Certain LDH, alkaline Assess bowel
 cephalosporins, phosphatase, pattern daily
 including
cefuroxime axetil abdominal pain, Monitor for

 (Y can alter loose stools, bleeding
 the colon's flatulence,
 normal bacteria,
heartburn,
 leading to
overgrowth of a stomach cramps,

 bacterium called colitis, jaundice
 Y 
     GU: vaginitis,
 Overgrowth of pruritus,
 this bacterium candidiasis,
 leads to the increased
 release of toxins BUN,
 that contribute to nephrotoxicity,
 the development renal failure,
 of Y 
   pyuria, dysuria,
  -associated reversible
 diarrhea, which interstitial
 may range in nephritis
 severity from
 mild diarrhea to
 fatal colitis.












 Hypersensitivity.
The most
c Azithromycin blocks Assessment
common side
-'%# transpeptidation by Treatment of Mild to moderate History: Hypersensitivity
effects are:
 binding to 50s infections of the nausea, vomiting, azithromycin,
c ribosomal subunit of upper & lower abdominal pain, erythromycin or any
.'%+ susceptible organisms resp tract, skin & Nausea dyspepsia, macrolide antibiotic;
 and disrupting RNA- soft tissues & flatulence, gonorrhea or syphilis,
 dependent protein infections of the Loose stools or diarrhoea, pseudomembranous
 synthesis at the chain genitals due to diarrhea cramping; colitis, hepatic or renal
 elongation step. Y   angioedema, impairment, lactation
V
  !! 2;'Reduced 
   Vomitting cholestatic Physical: Site of
(#*/#& by food (capsule    jaundice; dizziness, infection, skin color,
(''"(# !! formulation); peak 

  headache, vertigo, lesions; orientation, GI


Abdominal pain
('%0' plasma concentrations 
  somnolence; output, bowel sounds,
#*((12#3 ! after 2-3 hr.    transient liver evaluation, culture
(#*4#& '2)'Extensive 
  Headache elevations of liver and sensitivity tests of
Y 56'%0!789 into the tissues     enzyme values. infection, urinalysis, liver
0 :3 83!!936:/  (concentrations higher Y   Unexplained rash and renal functions test
8/!!9/6:4 84!! than those in blood),  

& '2'8 WBC (high 
  Interventions
(#*/#& concentrations), CSF )( 1.| Culture site of
V
 (small amounts). )( '" infection
Uncomplicated genital '2(Liver )' before therapy
infections due to Y   (demethylation). ''#;% 2.| Administer on

   +'Via the bile *") an empty
 0( (as unchanged drug and 2#    stomach 1 hr
& metabolites); via the before or 2-3
V
 urine (6% of the dose). after meals.
Uncomplicated gonorrhoea Elimination half-life: Food affects
 3( about 68 hr. the absorption
& of this drug
V
 Counsel patients being
Prophylaxis of treated for STDs about
disseminated 
  appropriate precautions
 complex (MAC) and additional therapy
infections
 0&3"#
18& '''
#;;%#(+
!!(#1'%
'%
'#2'(&
Y 56'%0!78
(#*/#&
V

Granuloma inguinale
 '((#0
*((12# !!
(#& (''"(#0
18*'('/
18)'((((%"
;('(#%(&

  
Active immunisation
against typhoid
fever caused by   

  !!(#
*,#&
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