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Voice Over Internet Protocol

Muhammad Zulfan Azhari
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Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a new way to make and receive telephone calls using a
broadband internet connection rather than a regular phone line. A VoIP service may offer
unlimited local and long distance calls for a fixed price, as well as features like integrated
calls and email, and access to your phone line from many location.

Geywords: VoIP, H.323, Internet telephony.

I.‘ INTRODUCTION open protocols and standards. Examples of

Voice over Internet (VoIP) is a general technologies used to implement Voice
term for a family of transmission over IP include:
technologies for delivery of voice
communication over IP networks such as [‘ H.323
the internet or other packet-switched [‘ IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
networks. Other terms frequently [‘ Media Gateway Control Protocol
encountered and synonymous with VoIP (MGCP)
are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice [‘ Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
over broadband (VoBB), broadband [‘ eal-time Transport Protocol (TP)
telephony, and broadband phone. [‘ Session Description Protocol (SDP)
Internet telephony refers to
communications services - voice, The H.323 protocol was one of the first
facsimile, and voice messaging VoIP protocols that found widespread
applications ± that are transported via the implementation for long-distance traffic,
internet, rather than the public switched as well as local area network services.
telephone network (PSTN). The basic However, since the development of newer,
steps involved in originating an Internet less complex protocols, such as MGCP
telephone call are conversion of the analog and SIP, H.323 deployments are
voice signal to digital format and increasingly limited to carrying existing
compression/translation of the signal into long-haul network traffic. In particular, the
Internet protocol (IP) packets for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has
transmission over the internet. gained widespread VoIP market
VoIP allows both voice and data penetration.
communications to be run over a single A notable proprietary implementation is
network, which can significantly reduce the Skype protocol, which is in part based
infrastructure costs (Peter Korzeniowski, on the principles of Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
2009). networking.


Voice over IP has been implemented in Communication on the IP network is
various ways using both proprietary and inherently less reliable in contrast to the

circuit-switched public telephone network, VoIP is quickly becoming readily
as it does not provide a network-based available across much of the world,
mechanism to ensure that data packets are however many problems still remain. For
not lost, or delivered in sequential order. It the time being transmission networks
is a best-effort network without involve too much latency or drop too many
fundamental Quality of Service (QoS) packets, this effects quality of service
guarantees. Therefore, VoIP sometimes severely deteriorating the
implementations may face problems quality of the call. Also VoIP contains
mitigating latency and jitter. many security risks, sending out packets
A VoIP packet usually has to wait for that any person may intercept. Although
the current packet to finish transmission, VoIP may offer cheaper solutions for
although it is possible to preempt (abort) a many the PSTN offers a high Quality of
less important packet in mid-transmission, Service and greater security that makes up
although this is not commonly done, for its higher prices.
especially on high-speed links where
transmission times are short even for REFERENCES
maximum-sized packets. An alternative to
preemption on slower links, such as dialup Voice over IP retrieved on March 30, 2011
and DSL, is to reduce the maximum from the World Wide Web at:
transmission time by reducing the
maximum transmission unit. But every _IP
packet must contain protocol headers, so
this increases relative header overhead on Valdes. 2007. VoIP Conclusion retrieved
every link along the user's Internet paths, on March 30, 2011 from the World
not just the bottleneck (usually Internet Wide Web at:
access) link.
VoIP telephone systems are susceptible
to attacks as are any internet-connected
devices. This means that hackers who
know about these vulnerabilities (such as
insecure passwords) can institute denial-
of-service attacks, harvest customer data,
record conversations and break into voice
Another challenge is routing VoIP
traffic through firewalls and network
address translators. Private Session Border
Controllers are used along with firewalls to
enable VoIP calls to and from protected
networks. For example, Skype uses a
proprietary protocol to route calls through
other Skype peers on the network,
allowing it to traverse symmetric NATs
and firewalls. Other methods to traverse
NATs involve using protocols such as