Anda di halaman 1dari 19

A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

The Civil Engineering Center 1 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Introduction:

We use this test to design the asphalt mixture : ( Aggregate gradation + Quality of asphalt ).

☺ Aggregate :
1) Shape : tough, bulky, high density, low porosity, angular & los-angeles<25% .
2) Grading :
a) Coarse : retained on NO.8 .
b) Fine : Passing NO.8 & retained on NO.200 .
c) Filler : Passing NO.200 .

☺ Asphalt cement :
AC 60 – 70 For hot weather
AC 80 – 100 For middle weather
AC 120 – 150 For cold weather

Note:
- The temperature degree that we take viscosity on it is ( 25oc – 175oc ) to give ( 150 300 )cst. .
- Mixture = Bitumen + Aggregate

A) Voids terminology:

VIM: voids in mix should be between (4-6) percent of the mix.


1- For good for workability.
2- To allow the expansion of the mix.
VMA: voids in mineral aggregates after rolling it must be greater than 14%.
VFB: voids filled with bitumen, it’s a percent f the VIM and it must be in the range of (65-78) %.

B) Stability:
It is the max load at failure, and the value of stability depends on traffic condition:
1- For heavy traffic >750 kg use 75 strokes @ both sides of sample
2- For medium traffic >550 kg use 50 strokes @ both sides of sample
3- For light traffic >350 kg use 35 strokes @ both sides of sample

C) Flow ( Flexibility ):
The vertical (axial) deformations at failure.
The value of the flow should be in the range of (0.08-0.16) inch= (2-4) mm.

D) Durability :
is needed for an asphalted specimen. This is measured by finding the voids percentage in the specimen,
or the Voids In Mix. These voids are the voids in the mix after compaction having the range of( 3 -5 )%
with ( 4 )% for medium load. If void > ( 6 )% that lead to bleeding. Less than( 3 )% voids ratio means
no enough space for bitumen to fill the sample and therefore carry the load. While more than ( 5 )%
ratio means a very high porous specimen, thus, ease for water and air to flow inside and therefore
segregation. It has been noticed that after long term use of the road, the voids ratio will decrease

The Civil Engineering Center 2 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

because of compression under load. So a correction for the limit is used, that is ( 4-6 )% so that the
voids ratio will go back to its original limit after compaction.

E) Skid resistance:
When the road surface become rough ,the skid resistance will increase .

F) Stiffness factor :

S.F. = [ Stability / Flow ] .

To determine the AC%, we can use EXTENTION METHOD .

The Civil Engineering Center 3 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

A:

Object:
To determine the stability and resistance to plastic flow of bituminous mixtures using the Marshall
apparatus.

Theory:
The Marshall method of mix design has been widely used with satisfactory results. Developed by the
corps of engineers. The test is relatively a simple one and uses simple apparatus. In the test a sample
specimen 4in in diameter and 2½in high is prepared by compacting in a mould on both faces with a
compacting hammer that weighs 10lb and has a free fall of 18in depending upon the design traffic,
either 75blows for heavy traffic (≥750Kg), 50blows for medium traffic (≥550Kg) or 35blows for light
traffic (≥350Kg). After overnight curing, the density and voids are determined and the specimen is
heated to 140ºF (60ºC) for the Marshall stability and floe tests. Our test will be made on a medium
loading criteria.

The specimen is then placed in a cylindrically shaped split breaking head and is loaded at a rate of
2in/min. The maximum load registered during the test in newtons or pounds is designated as the
Marshall stability of the specimen. The stability we want to get is bigger than or equals 550Kg. The
stability gained from the apparatus is in divisions. This value should be evaluated in Kg for the
standard height of a specimen which equals 63.5mm (2.5”). The height of the specimen may not be
standard, so a correction factor must be multiplied by the stability value we gained. We use the
following eqs:

Stability ( Kg ) = Stability (div.) × 1.64


Stabilitycorrected = Stability( Kg ) × C
Where
C: Factor of height

The amount of movement, or strain, occurring between no load and the maximum load, in units of
0.01in, is the flow value of the specimen. The specimen is needed to be flexible, not too hard so it will
disintegrate nor too liquid. The limits of flow is 0.8”-0.16” (2-4mm).

Durability is needed for an asphalted specimen. This is measured by finding the voids percentage in the
specimen, or the Voids In Mix. These voids are the voids in the mix after compaction having the range
of 3-5% with 4% for medium load. Less than 3% voids ratio means no enough space for bitumen to fill
the sample and therefore carry the load. While more than 5% ratio means a very high porous
specimen, thus, ease for water and air to flow inside and therefore segregation. It has been noticed that
after long term use of the road, the voids ratio will decrease because of compression under load. So a
correction for the limit is used, that is ( 4-6 )% so that the voids ratio will go back to its original limit
after compaction. There are five measurements we can use them :

The Civil Engineering Center 4 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

1- VIM ( voids in mix ) is calculated as follows:

Vtot − (Vagg + Vbit )


VIM = × 100%
Vtot
where:
Vtot: The total volume of specimen

Vtot = Wt SSD − Wtinwater


as
WtSSD: Weight of the sample Saturated-Surface-Dried
Vagg: The volume of aggregates used

(1 − AC %) × Wt inair
Vagg =
SG agg
as
AC%: The Asphalted Cement Ratio

PHA
AC % = × 100%
100 + PHA
as
PHA: Per Hundred Aggregate. The cement ratio we used
SGagg: Specific Gravity of aggregates = 2.45
Vbit: The volume of bituminous material used

AC % × Wt inair
Vbit =
SGbit
as
SGbit: Specific Gravity of bitumen = 1

2- VMA is the Voids in Mineral Aggregates, and it is defined as the voids between the
aggregates added to the VIM. It is higher than VIM and should be at least 14%. VMA
equals:

Vtot − Vagg
VMA = × 100%
Vtot

3- Another voids ratio VFB (Voids Filled with Bitumen). It is a ratio of the VMA and it is
bounded by the limit 65-76% (of the 14%). It is:

VMA − VIM
VFB = × 100%
VMA

4- Density of the specimen is another useful piece of information that will help us finding the
optimum AC%. The bulk Density is found using the following eq.:

Wt air
D=
Vtot

The Civil Engineering Center 5 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

where
D: Bulk Density

5- An additional useful term is Stiffness.

Stability
Stiffness =
Flow

To find opt. AC%, two ways are used. The first is to find the average AC% for values taken from
Stability, VIM and Density. Then we compare it with other terms to see if it satisfies them. The second
one is the method used by MPWH. We draw a diagram for the ranges of the values of AC% taken from
each term and then take the most right and the most left ones. These two values bound the limit. We
find the average for the two values to get the Opt. AC%.

We will make 4 samples of mixes, each mix with a specific PHA. From each sample we will make 3
specimens and do the tests upon it. The values we get for the 3 specimens of each sample will be
averaged to get one value for each sample. So we will have four points for each term for each sample.

Apparatus:
1) Specimen mould assembly. The cylindrical moulds are 101.6mm in dia. and 76.2mm in height.
2) Specimen extractor.
3) Compaction hammer weighing 4.54Kg and having a free fall of 457mm.
4) Compaction pedestal.
5) Specimen mold holder.
6) Breaking head.
7) Loading jack.
8) Ring dynamometer assembly.
9) Flow meter.
10) Oven and/or hot plates.
11) Mixing apparatus.
12) Water bath.
13) Containers, thermometers, balance, mixing tools, spoons, heat proof gloves etc.

Procedure:

Prepare aggregates to a particular grading specification. Dry the aggregates at 105ºC.


Bring three pans. Weigh into each pan an amount of the prepared aggregate that will
produce a specimen having a height of about 63.5mm depending on the following table (each
pan has 1100gm aggregates):
Sieve Size Percentage Retained Wt. (gm)
20 0 0
12.5 20 220
9.5 12 132
4.76 23 253
2.36 15 165
0.425 21 231
0.075 4 44
Pan 5 55
Total 100% 1100gm

The Civil Engineering Center 6 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Heat the aggregates to the specific mixing temperature (170ºC).


Place the heated aggregates into the mixing bowl and put them on the balance.
Determine the weight of the bitumen, which has been heated to the same temperature,
depending on the PHA used and pour the bitumen on the aggregates.
Place the bowl on the heater and start mixing the ingredients thoroughly and quickly
so that all aggregate particles are coated.
Bring the pre-heated to the same temperature mold and place a filter paper in the
bottom of it.
Place the mixture in the mold and compact it with a rod 15strikes around the
perimeter and 10strikes in the center.
Remove the collar, smooth the surface of the specimen and place it on the pedestal.
Apply 50blows.
Remove the base plate and collar and reverse and re-assemble the mold, then apply
the same number of blows to the other face.
Allow the sample to cool then extrude it from the mold and allow it to cool at room
temperature overnight.
Measure the height of the sample and weigh it in the air, in the water and at SSD
condition for the measurements of bulk density.
Place the sample in a hot path for 30min and then apply the stability and flow tests on
it (Place it in the Marshall apparatus). Take readings for stability and flow at the failure of
each sample.
Repeat the above procedure with different PHA’s and record your calculations in the
table at Data Sheet.

Result & Calculation :

For Stability conversion:


Kg Division
0 0
300 115
600 236
900 357
1200 478
1500 602
1800 727
2100 853
2400 980
2700 1107

The Civil Engineering Center 7 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Wt (in Wt (in Flow Stiffness


PH AC (%) H (mm) air) water) S.S.D Stability(Kg)*correction (mm) Factor
5 4.761905 71.75 1154 630 1170 755.69 0.96 787.1770833
5 4.761905 72 1147 622.5 1165 766.3 0.96 798.2291667
5 4.761905 71.25 1138 612 1161 681.97 0.96 710.3854167
AVE. 4.761905 71.66667 1146.333 621.5 1165 734.653333 0.96 765.2638889
5.5 5.21327 67.51 1148 634.5 1153 1023.97 0.89 1150.52809
5.5 5.21327 67.2 1141 630 1154 1198.65 1.09 1099.678899
5.5 5.21327 71.17 1144 645 1168 742.61 1.13 657.1769912
AVE. 5.21327 68.62667 1144.333 636.5 1158 988.41 1.0366667 969.1279934
6 5.660377 72 1154 621.5 1173 631.79 1.13 559.1061947
6 5.660377 68.8 1142 621.5 1156 811.89 1.04 780.6634615
6 5.660377 69.3 1148 623.5 1160 948.35 0.98 967.7040816
AVE. 5.660377 70.03333 1148 622.166667 1163 797.343333 1.05 769.1579126
6.5 6.103286 66.6 1137 611.5 1144 1018.12 1 1018.12
6.5 6.103286 65.33 1144 616.5 1146 967.2 0.86 1124.651163
6.5 6.103286 66.63 1117 601.5 1121 989.63 1.02 970.2254902
AVE. 6.103286 66.18667 1132.667 609.833333 1137 991.65 0.96 1037.665551
max 6.103286 72 1154 645 1173 1198.65 1.13 1150.52809
min 4.761905 65.33 1117 601.5 1121 631.79 0.86 559.1061947

Total
Vol γb Vb AC (%) V agg V air VIM % VMA % VFB %
540 2.137037 54.4083 4.761905 448.5909 37.00084 6.852007 16.92762 59.52173
542.5 2.114286 54.07826 4.761905 445.8698 42.55196 7.843679 17.81202 55.96413
549 2.07286 53.65394 4.761905 442.3712 52.97483 9.649331 19.42236 50.31844
543.8333 2.108061 54.04683 4.761905 445.6106 44.17587 8.115006 18.054 55.2681
518.5 2.214079 59.25578 5.21327 444.1435 15.10068 2.912378 14.34069 79.6915
524 2.177481 58.89447 5.21327 441.4353 23.67019 4.517212 15.75661 71.33133
523 2.18738 59.04932 5.21327 442.596 21.35469 4.083114 15.37361 73.44077
521.8333 2.19298 59.06652 5.21327 442.725 20.04185 3.837568 15.15697 74.8212
551.5 2.092475 64.67401 5.660377 444.3589 42.46711 7.700292 19.42722 60.36339
534.5 2.136576 64.00149 5.660377 439.7382 30.76035 5.754976 17.72906 67.53931
536.5 2.139795 64.33775 5.660377 442.0485 30.11373 5.612997 17.60512 68.11725
540.8333 2.122949 64.33775 5.660377 442.0485 34.44706 6.356088 18.2538 65.33998
532.5 2.135211 68.70729 6.103286 435.7574 28.03531 5.264846 18.16762 71.02072
529.5 2.160529 69.13029 6.103286 438.4402 21.92954 4.141557 17.19732 75.91744
519.5 2.150144 67.49872 6.103286 428.0924 23.90891 4.602293 17.59531 73.84364
527.1667 2.148628 68.44544 6.103286 434.0966 24.62459 4.669565 17.65342 73.59393
551.5 2.214079 69.13029 6.103286 448.5909 52.97483 9.649331 19.42722 79.6915
518.5 2.07286 53.65394 4.761905 428.0924 15.10068 2.912378 14.34069 50.31844

Corrected Stability Flow (.01 in) V air


5.21327 5.660377 5.21327 6.103286 4.761904762 5.21327
1 1 2 2 3 3

VIM VMA VFB


4.761905 5.21327 5.660377 5.21327 5.21327 4.761905
4 4 5 5 6 6

The Civil Engineering Center 8 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Extention Method

7
VFB 6

VMA 5

Range
VIM 4
Vair 3

Flow 2
Stability 1
0
8 6 AC% 4 2 0

Marshall

50
40
30 Vair
20
10
0
5.4 5.2 5 4.8 4.6
AC%

marshall

10
8
VIM%

6
4
2
0
5.3 5.2 5.1 5 4.9 4.8 4.7
AC%

The Civil Engineering Center 9 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Marshall

20
15

VMA%
10
5
0
5.3 5.2 5.1 5 4.9 4.8 4.7
AC%

Marshall

100
80

VFB%
60
40
20
0
5.4 5.2 5 4.8 4.6
AC%

Discussion & Conclusions:


• The extrusion of the sample from the mold could cause some deformation to it. Cooling the
specimen before extruding it will keep us away from such mistakes, because the deformation
happens in this stage will effect the flow readings from the Marshall apparatus when calculating it.
• The bowl should be cleaned by means of metal brushes etc. Not cleaning the bowl will cause
an error in the weight of the specimen and thus a big error in determining the optimum AC%.
• It must be clear that the AC% is less than PHA. They are not the same amount because some
of the PHA will be lost during mixing. Some of the bitumen will stick into the bowl or the mixing
tool we are using.

10

The Civil Engineering Center 10 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Objective:

This method describes coating and static immersion procedures intended to determine
the retention of bituminous film by an aggregate in the presence of water. It is applicable
to cutbacks, emulsions and semisolid asphalt.

Theory:

The aggregate is coated with the bitumen at a temperature appropriate to the grade of
bitumen used. In the case of cutbacks asphalt, the bitumen coated aggregate is subjected
to a curing period at 60 oc. In the case of emulsified asphalt, the aggregate is coated with
bitumen and subjected to a curing period at 135 oc. After coating the coated aggregate is
immersed in distilled water for 16 to 18 hour. At the end of soaking period. And with the
bitumen – aggregate mixture under water, the total area of aggregate on which the
bituminous film is retained is estimated below 95 percent.

Condition :

Passing 3/8 & retained open grade mix .


Passing 9.5 NO.(1/4)

Note :
Stripping on the surface of road lead to ‫ﺗﻘﺸﺮ‬
Stripping on the under surface of road lead to Bleeding .
95% > Full coated .
95% < Uncoated ( rejected sample ) .
Hydrophobic aggregate : the agg. That resist the water effect .( well agg. )
Hydrophilic Aggregate : the agg. That react with water . ( bad agg. )

Apparatus:

1. Mixing containers.
2. Scales.
3. Spatula.
4. Constant temperature oven.
5. Set of sieves.

Procedure:

1. Weigh a 100 g of aggregate that passes the 9.5 mm sieve and retained on 6.3mm and it
must be dried in oven temperature.

11

The Civil Engineering Center 11 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

2. Bring a 5 g asphalt (cutback) and pour it on the aggregate and mix them.
3. be sure that all the aggregate is coated with asphalt.
4. Put the mixture in water for 24 hour.
5. After 24 h use a source of light to know how many as a percent by weight that the
water stripped the asphalt from as 95 % from area must be coated if not the piece of
aggregate is not good.

Conclusion:

There is two types of aggregates one have a high density so it has a low value of
absorption and it is could hydrophobic, and when the aggregate a low density and high
absorption it is could hydrophilic.
In dynamic stripping the percent rise to 25 % due to motion.

Results:

Weight of coated aggregate = 100 g


Weight of AC = 5.5 g
Weight of non-stripping = 99g
Weight of stripped aggregate = 3 g.
Value of stripping =3/103 = 0.02913 < 5%
The sample is hydrophobic .

12

The Civil Engineering Center 12 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Objectives :

This method the determination of the maximum specific gravity of uncompacted bituminous paving
mixture .

Theory :
The maximum specific gravity of a bituminous paving mixture represents the maximum theoretical
mass of a unit volume of mixture composed entirely of impermeable aggregate coated with asphalt ,
that is no air voids present in the mixture . This value is required to determine a mixture s asphalt
absorption , percent air voids and percent air voids in mineral aggregate .

Max. Specific gravity [ Practical ] = G.S.(max) theo. = A / (A + B – C )


where:
A : mass of dry sample in air > 500g ..
B : mass of flask filled with water.
C : mass of flask filled with water and sample.
Also there exist another method to obtain this value
Theoretically the max. theo,SG can be obtained by knowing the parts of the mix ( bitumen and
aggregates ( coarse , fine & filler ) by two means. The first one is using the weights, we have the
following formula :
MTSG = [ Wt.sample /((Wt.bit/SGbit) + ( Wt.filler/SGfiller) + (Wt.fine/SGfine) + ( Wt.coarse/SGcoarse))]
The second one is to use ratios, we have the following formula :
MTSG = [ 100% / (( Bit%/SGbit ) +( Filler%/SGfiller ) + ( Fine%/SGfine ) + ( Coarse%/SGcoarse ))]
We can use the practical way .\
Procedure :
1.separate the particles of the sample taking care not to fracture the mineral particles place it a large
flat pan and warm it in an oven only until it can be manually separated.
2.cool the sample to room temperature and place it in the flask and weigh (A).
3. add water then remove the entrapped air by subjecting the contents to a partial vacuum continuously
agitate the container manually by vigorous shaking in 2 min intervals. (B – C ).

RESULTS :
We have that A = 600 g g. B = 3423 g g . C = 3760 g .
Specific gravity (max) theo = A / A + B – C
( 600 ) / ( 600 + 3423 - 3760) = ( 0.0771 )

CONCLUSION :

1.Some error s may be made due to entrapped air was not completely released .
2.to decrease the entrapped air we may use suitable wetting agent

13

The Civil Engineering Center 13 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Object:

To determine the bitumen content of a sample of bituminous paving mix

Theory:

A sample of paving mixture is placed in the bowl which may be revolving, at various
speeds. A bitumen solvent is added to the sample which to allowed to stand for
approximately one hour during which some. The bowl is then revolved at high speed and
the centrifugal force causes the extract to the removed via the drai pipe. More solvent is
added to the sample and the cycle is repeat at least 3 times. Finally the aggregate is
collected from the bowl and dried . it can also sieved to determine the grading of the
aggregate in the mix. A sample of extract is also taken and the mass of mineral matter in
it is determined by evaporating the extract sample and finally carrying out as ash
determination. The percent bitumen content is then calculated.

Apparatus:

1. Oven /muffle furnace


2. Flat pan
3. Balance
4. Hot plate
5. Graduated slender
6. Ignition dish
7. desiccators
8. Analytical balance
9. Extraction apparatus with bowl which can be rotated at speeds up to 3600R.P.M
10. Filter ring
11. Solvent (note: only trichloroethan, methelene chloride, or other relatively one non-
taxic solvents should be used and only proper procedure for disposing of waste
solvent should be carried out)

14

The Civil Engineering Center 14 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Procedure :
1.place the sample (350g ) in the bowl.
2.cover it with a solvent and allow it to disintegrate the sample.
3.weigh a dry ring filter and the put it on the top of the bowl.
4.use a pipe to allow the extracted material to go out.
5.start the centrifuged revolving at 1500 rpm.
6. use another amount of solvent (200ml).
7.repeat step 6 until the solvent is not dark.
8.dry the sample and the filter in an oven.
9.weigh the sample and the filter .

Calculation :

A : Wt. of filter
B : Wt. of dry aggregate .
C : Wt. of filler in the sample .
- Wt.bit. = 350 – (A+B+C)
- AC% = [Wt.bit. / 300 ]
- PHA = [ Wt.bit. / ( A+B+C ) ]
Wt. Of filter = 14.55 g
☺ Wt. of filter + dry filler=14.68 g A= 1.0 g
☺ Wt. of pan = 1323
☺ Wt. of pan + dry aggregates = 1652 B = 329 g
☺ Wt. of 100 ml container = 32.25 g
☺ Wt. of 100 ml container + filler = 32.55 Wt. of filler in 100 ml = 0.3 g
☺ C = 0.3
☺ Wt. of bitumen = 350 – ( 0.3 + 329 + 1 ) = 19.7 g
☺AC% = (Wt. of bitumen /Wt. of sample350 )x100% =
☺PHA = [(Wt. of bitumen / (A+B+C)) ]x100%
= [((350 – (0.3+1+329 )/ ( 0.3 + 1 + 329 ) )]x100% = 5.96 %

Discussion and conclusion:

1.the paving mixture is extracted with a suitable reagent using the extraction
equipment .the difference between the original mass of the asphalt mixture and the
mass of the dry aggregate after extraction is used for determining the portion of the
asphalt and aggregate in mixture.
2.other materials could be used as solvent as carbon disulfide ,trichloroethylene ,
since it make safety reaction and it does not change the properties of asphalt.
3.the value for AC % is then compared with the value given in marshal with
maximum error of 0.01 %.
4. Quality Control is made upon the AC% not on PHA , because PHA > AC5 and this
may cause some cheating in the ratios .

15

The Civil Engineering Center 15 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Object:

To determine the skid resistance of a surface using the British pendulum tester.

Theory:

The tester is dynamic pendulum impact type tester, which is based on the energy loss
occurring when a rubber slider edge is propelled across the test surface. The apparatus
may be used for both laboratory, and field test on flat surface, and also for polished
stone value measurement on curved laboratory specimens from accelerated polish wheel
test. The values measured are referred to as British pendulum (tester) numbers (BPN)
for flat surfaces, and polished stone values (PSV) for specimens subjected to accelerated
polishing tests. Note that temperature 20 c so we must or subtract the factor shown in
graph.
6
4
correction to be

2
added

0
correction
-2 0 20 40 60
-4
-6
-8
temperature

Apparatus:

1- British pendulum tester, this includes a pendulum with slider mount weighing
1500g. the device can be adjusted vertically to provide a slider contact path of
125mm for testing flat surfaces .
2- Slider , this is an aluminum basting plate to which is bonded a 6mm by 25 m by
75mm rubber strip for testing flat surfaces.
3- Contact path gauge which is a thin ruler which marked for measuring the contact
length on the flat surface (125mm)
4- Water container , surface thermometer and a brush

16

The Civil Engineering Center 16 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Results :

On a smooth surface @ 20 c .
25, 25, 24, 24, 24 BPN and average to be 24.4 BPN
Corrected value = 34.25 + 0 = 34.25 BPN
On road (rough) surface @ 25 c .
65, 66, 67, 70 BPN and average to be 67 BPN
Corrected value 67 +1 = 67 BPN

DISSCUSION AND CONCLUSION:

1.factors affect skid resistance:

a. Type of aggregate: more density gives more skid resistance.(granite is heist rock
density ).
b. AC % : more AC % gives less skid resistance.
c. Volume, speed and: more volume and speed gives less skid resistance.
d. Weight and temperature: more weight and temperature gives more skid resistance.
e. Wet or dry surface: wet surface gives less skid resistance.

2.types of roads:

a. When BPN ≥ 65 and this value must be maintained in main roads, curved roads,
round about, highways, at traffic light, steep road.
b. When BPN ≥ 55 and this value is the critical value so more than this value its rough
road below it its smooth surface, then it must be maintained in roads with low
velocities and high cars density about 2000 car per hour.
c. When BPN ≥ 45 for low important rods as agricultural roads.

3.to increase the skid resistance of a road we must:

1.use seal coat: which consist of RC 800 & aggregate passing sieve #8.
2.grooving: with depth of 3/8 in and width of 1/4 in.

17

The Civil Engineering Center 17 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Object:

To measure the surface texture depth

Apparatus:

1. small cylindrical container


2. rubber bung
3. steel ruler or meter stick
4. fine band

procedure:

1. fill the small cylinder with sand having previously determined the volume of sand contained by
the cylinder
2. place this known volume of sand on the surface of the area to be tested
3. using the rubber bung rub the sand into the road surface using circular motion, and spreading it
outwards over circular area
4. continue spreading the sand in this manner until a circular area , in which all the indentation
have been filled with sand , is obtained , and the sand is exhausted
5. using the ruler measure the diameter of the sanded area mean surface texture depth H(mm) =
volume(mm)/cross sectional area of circle (mm)
it is normal to carry out this test in the wheel track on the road , in this case however carry out
measurements both in the wheel tracks and in between the wheel tracks.

Results :

To calculate surface texture depth use volume =


area =
STD = volume / area

Discussion and conclusion :

1.the sand used must be passing sieve 300 μ and retained on 150 μ
2.the STD value is more than .65 mm when BPN ≥65 OR 55 .
3.this value gives a good indication about the surface texture is it flat or with a big number of gabs .

18

The Civil Engineering Center 18 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!
A H M 531 Marshall test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific Gravity By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

Object:

To record the transverse profile of a road pavement

Theory:

The profilograph records the profile of a surface on a chart and can indicate wheel path ruts and
surface imperfections, as well as road camber and super elevation. It consists of a 4.25m straight
reference beam a long which a carriage, fitted with a sensor wheel in contact with the road surface,
travels. The vertical displacement of the sensor wheels and the horizontal movement of the carriage
along the beam are recorded on a rotating drum which is also attached to the carriage.

Apparatus:

1- transverse profilograph
2- A brush for cleaning the road surface.
3- Recording charts (216mm * 356mm) either plain or with graph.

Results :

S =

Discussion and conclusion :

the road have a lot number of slope variance and a crack in mid span .

19

The Civil Engineering Center 19 Visit www.AHM531.com for more lecture notes and E-book!