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Lower Secondary Science (Chemistry)

St. Joseph’s Institution Secondary 2


1. Salts are produced during the reactions of acids.

2. Salts are ionic compounds – it is made up of metal part and non-metal part.
 The metal part comes from the base /alkali /carbonate and
 The non-metal part comes from the acid.

3. When salts dissolve in water, mobile ions (charged particles) are formed thus
salt solutions are able to conduct electricity.

ALL Sodium,
Potassium & (Barium, Lead, Calcium) sulphates
Ammonium salts
(Silver, Lead) chlorides
 Method (1) Titration EXCEPT
Most carbonates
 Acid + Alkali reaction

ALL nitrates salts  Method (3) Ionic precipitation

Most chlorides & sulphates  1) Add 1 salt solution & 1 acid OR
 2) Add two salt solutions together
 Method (2) Adding insoluble
solid in excess to acid Salt solution (i) Salt solution (ii)
contains or Acid contains
(i) Acid + metal metal ion non-metal ion
 NOT for unreactive metals (use nitrates) (use SPA salts)
(e.g. Cu) or very reactive
metals (e.g. Na, K)  Precipitate formed (insoluble salt)
(ii) Acid + base (heat required)  Filter the mixture
NOT for NaO or K2O  Wash and dry with filter paper.
(soluble in water)
(iii)Acid + carbonate E.g. Silver chloride is produced by
(Heat not required)
Silver nitrate + Sodium chloride
 Filter excess solids solution solution or
Hydrochloric acid
 Crystallization

Lower Secondary Science (Chemistry)
St. Joseph’s Institution Secondary 2


Method (1) Titration:

a. How can you tell that the acid is used up (the end of the reaction)?

An indicator (e.g. methyl orange or phenolphthalein) is added and when

it changes colour to show that neutralization is complete.

b. How do you know the exact volume of acid or alkali used?

Use of pipette and burette.

Method (2) Adding insoluble solid in excess to acid

a. Why must you add excess solids to the acid?

To make sure all the acid has been reacted so that no excess acid will
contaminate the salt.

b. What are the visible observations to show that the reaction is over?

When the solid reactant stop dissolving or when effervescence stops.

Method (3) Ionic precipitation

a. Why must you add two solutions in this method?

If a solid reactant is added, the insoluble salt will form a coating around
the reactant and the reaction will stop.

b. What should the two solutions contain in order to produce the insoluble salt?

One solution contains the metal ion of the insoluble salt and the other
solution contains the non-metal ion of the insoluble salt.