Anda di halaman 1dari 6

Rotation of Axes

2 ■ ROTATION OF AXES

Rotation of Axes ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

▲ For a discussion of conic sections, see In precalculus or calculus you may have studied conic sections with equations of the
Calculus, Fourth Edition, Section 11.6 form
Calculus, Early Transcendentals,
Fourth Edition, Section 10.6 Ax 2  Cy 2  Dx  Ey  F  0

Here we show that the general second-degree equation

1 Ax 2  Bxy  Cy 2  Dx  Ey  F  0

can be analyzed by rotating the axes so as to eliminate the term Bxy.

In Figure 1 the x and y axes have been rotated about the origin through an acute
angle  to produce the X and Y axes. Thus, a given point P has coordinates x, y in
the first coordinate system and X, Y in the new coordinate system. To see how X and
Y are related to x and y we observe from Figure 2 that

X  r cos  Y  r sin 

x  r cos   y  r sin  

y P(x, y) y
Y Y
P(X, Y) P
X Y X
r y
˙
¨ ¨
0 x 0 x X x

FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2

formulas:

3 X  x cos   y sin  Y  x sin   y cos 

ROTATION OF AXES ◆ 3

EXAMPLE 1 If the axes are rotated through 60 , find the XY -coordinates of the point
whose xy-coordinates are 2, 6.
SOLUTION Using Equations 3 with x  2, y  6, and   60 , we have
X  2 cos 60  6 sin 60  1  3s3

The XY -coordinates are (1  3s3, 3  s3 ).

Now let’s try to determine an angle  such that the term Bxy in Equation 1 disap-
pears when the axes are rotated through the angle . If we substitute from Equations 2
in Equation 1, we get

AX cos   Y sin 2  BX cos   Y sin   sin   Y cos 

B  2C  A sin  cos   Bcos2  sin2

 C  A sin 2  B cos 2

To eliminate the XY term we choose  so that B  0, that is,

A  C sin 2   cos 2

or

AC
5 cot 2 
B

SOLUTION Notice that the equation xy  1 is in the form of Equation 1 where A  0,

B  1, and C  0. According to Equation 5, the xy term will be eliminated if we
choose  so that
AC
cot 2  0
B
4 ■ ROTATION OF AXES

xy=1 or
X@ Y @
- =1 This will be true if 2  2, that is,   4. Then cos   sin   1s2 and
2 2
y Equations 2 become
X
Y
X Y X Y
x  y 
s2 s2 s2 s2
π
4
x Substituting these expressions into the original equation gives

  
0
X Y X Y X2 Y2
  1 or  1
s2 s2 s2 s2 2 2

We recognize this as a hyperbola with vertices (

s2, 0) in the XY -coordinate sys-
FIGURE 3
tem. The asymptotes are Y 
X in the XY -system, which correspond to the coor-
dinate axes in the xy-system (see Figure 3).

73x 2  72xy  52y 2  30x  40y  75  0

SOLUTION This equation is in the form of Equation 1 with A  73, B  72, and
C  52. Thus

AC 73  52 7
cot 2   
25 B 72 24
24
From the triangle in Figure 4 we see that

7 cos 2  257

FIGURE 4 The values of cos  and sin  can then be computed from the half-angle formulas:

cos    1  cos 2
2
  1  257
2

4
5

sin    1  cos 2
2
  1  257
2

3
5

The rotation equations (2) become

x  45 X  35 Y y  35 X  45 Y

Substituting into the given equation, we have

2 2
73( 45 X  35 Y)  72( 45 X  35 Y)( 35 X  45 Y)  52( 35 X  45 Y)

 30( 5 X  5 Y)  40( 5 X  5 Y)  75  0
4 3 3 4

which simplifies to 4X 2  Y 2  2Y  3
Completing the square gives

Y  12
4X 2  Y  12  4 or X2  1
4

and we recognize this as being an ellipse whose center is 0, 1 in XY -coordinates.

ROTATION OF AXES ◆ 5

Since   cos1( 45 )  37 , we can sketch the graph in Figure 5.

y X
Y

(0, 1) ¨Å37°
0 x
73≈+72xy+52¥+30x-40y-75=0
or
FIGURE 5 4X @+(Y-1)@=4

Exercises ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

system.
1–4 ■ Find the XY -coordinates of the given point if the axes
14. (a) Use rotation of axes to show that the equation
are rotated through the specified angle.
1. 1, 4, 30 2. 4, 3, 45 2x 2  72xy  23y 2  80x  60y  125
3. 2, 4, 60 4. 1, 1, 15 represents a hyperbola.
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
(b) Find the XY -coordinates of the foci. Then find the
xy-coordinates of the foci.
5–12 ■ Use rotation of axes to identify and sketch the curve. (c) Find the xy-coordinates of the vertices.
5. x  2xy  y 2  x  y  0
2 (d) Find the equations of the asymptotes in the
xy-coordinate system.
6. x 2  xy  y 2  1 (e) Find the eccentricity of the hyperbola.
7. x 2  xy  y 2  1 15. Suppose that a rotation changes Equation 1 into Equation 4.
8. s3 xy  y 2  1 Show that

9. 97x  192xy  153y  225

2 2 A  C   A  C

10. 3x 2  12s5 xy  6y 2  9  0 16. Suppose that a rotation changes Equation 1 into Equation 4.
11. 2s3 xy  2y 2  s3 x  y  0 Show that

12. 16x  8s2 xy  2y  (8s2  3) x  (6s2  4) y  7

2 2 B2  4AC   B 2  4AC

17. Use Exercise 16 to show that Equation 1 represents (a) a

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

13. (a) Use rotation of axes to show that the equation parabola if B 2  4AC  0, (b) an ellipse if B 2  4AC 0,
and (c) a hyperbola if B 2  4AC 0, except in degenerate
36x 2  96xy  64y 2  20x  15y  25  0 cases when it reduces to a point, a line, a pair of lines, or no
graph at all.
represents a parabola.
(b) Find the XY -coordinates of the focus. Then find the 18. Use Exercise 17 to determine the type of curve in
xy-coordinates of the focus. Exercises 9–12.

Answers ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

1. ((s3  4)2, (4s3  1)2) 9. X 2  Y 29  1, ellipse

y
3. (2s3  1, s3  2)
X
5. X  s2 Y 2, parabola Y

4
sin–! ” 5 ’
y
0 x
Y X

1 1
x
0 11. X  12  3Y 2  1, hyperbola
y
Y

7. 3X 2  Y 2  2, ellipse
X

X 0 x
Y

0 x

17 17 51