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c c

p

Pp ~ pp ~
 p p ppp
Pp Ypp ~Y  pp
Pp app ~a  pp
Pp
 pp p p ~
 pp
Pp Ôpp p pp
Pp pp  p
p ppp

c c c 


p

Pp Yp p a ~ ppppp


Pp
p p p
 ~ p pppp
Pp  p p a~ ~ pp ppp
Pp Ê p p pÊ ~ p pppp pp
Pp Ê pppp p  p  pp

An 6  (from the Latin 6 6  meaning  [1]) is a substance which reacts with a base. Commonly, acids can be
identified as tasting sour, reacting with metals such as calcium, and bases like sodium carbonate. Aqueous acids have
pHs of less than 7, and turn blue litmus paper red. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be
6  .

A 6 in chemistry is an aqueous substance that can accept hydronium ions. Bases are also the oxides or hydroxides of
metals. A soluble base is also often referred to as an 66 if hydroxide ions (OHо) are involved. This refers to the
Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases. Alternative definitions of bases include electron pair donors (Lewis)[1], and as
sources of hydroxide anions (Arrhenius).[2] In addition to this, bases can commonly be thought of as any chemical
compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity lower than that of pure water, i.e.
a pH higher than 7.0 at standard conditions. Examples of common bases are sodium hydroxide and ammonia. Type of
solution that has a surplus of OH- ions.

In chemistry, 6 are ionic compounds that can result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. They are
composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral
(without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic such as chloride (Clо), as well as organic such as acetate
(CH3COOо) and monatomic ions such as fluoride (Fо), as well as polyatomic ions such as sulfate (SO42о).Examples include
amino acids, many metabolites, peptides and proteins.

An
 is a chemical compound consisting of molecules in which at least one oxygen atom is bonded to other
elements. Most of the Earth's crust consists of oxides. Many oxides are produced when elements react with oxygen in
the air. Several materials that are considered "pure elements" have an oxide coating. For example, aluminum foil has a
thin skin of aluminum oxide (alumina, Al2O3) that protects the foil from further corrosion. The two principal oxides of
carbon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, are produced by the combustion of hydrocarbons. Water (H2O) may be
considered an oxide of hydrogen.