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CHAPTER 13

SPECIAL DUCT SYSTEMS

Ductwork requiring special attention is sometimes combustible walls, partitions, etc., adequate clear-
encountered by the designer. It is of utmost impor- ance or protection must be provided. In the event of
tance that the duct designer be aware of the different a fire, temperatures in excess of 2000°F (1100oC)
requirements existing in regards to the geographical may be experienced. Fire extinguishing systems may
area of the installation. be required by local codes. Long, straight runs of
Before design of special systems, the designer must duct should have a means for expansion.
acquaint himself thoroughly with local practices and Local codes governing range and grease hood duct
concerned governing authorities. systems vary widely; therefore, it is imperative that
Industrial process or material handling systems are the designer be familiar with these codes and con-
appropriately covered in other SMACNA publications struction requirements of NFPA 96.
and will not be considered herein. This section con-
tains a general description of some of the special duct
systems frequently encountered in HVAC work.
SYSTEMS HANDLING
SPECIAL GASES
KITCHEN AND MOISTURE 1. Corrosive Vapors and Noxious
LADEN SYSTEMS Gases
1. Dishwasher Exhaust and Ducts which convey these gases should be fabricated
Moisture Laden Ducts from materials impervious to all the gases that may
be handled, and must be sealed air tight. They must
Exhausting moist air should be accomplished through terminate outside the building, maintaining adequate
ducts fabricated from non-corrosive materials. These clearances from walls, roof, adjacent buildings, traffic
ducts should be sloped toward the source of moisture areas or equipment. The discharge airflow should not
or provided with proper drains. All seams and joints contaminate outside air intakes and other building
must be sealed watertight. The temperature of the openings under any conditions.
vapor may be excessively high and, therefore, may
require the use of duct insulation or other treatment. 2. Flammable Vapors
All duct penetrations should be avoided. Ducts conveying these vapors must be sealed air
tight and terminate outside the building, maintaining
2. Range and Grease Hood adequate clearances from building construction and
Exhaust Ducts other objects. Nonflammable materials must be used
for the ducts and duct supports.
Vapors from cooking equipment must be exclusively
handled through ducts designed specifically for that
purpose. Care must be taken to assure that these
ducts will contain fire and smoke. Materials used SOLAR
must be heavier than standard and are usually con-
tinuously welded to provide a liquid-tight system.
Cleanouts should be provided at each change of di-
C SYSTEMS
rection in the duct. The system should be constructed 1. Solar System Sizing
such that grease cannot be trapped and the duct
should be sloped toward the hood or a grease res- Successful application of solar heating systems re-
ervoir. Ducts within the building should lead as directly quires careful selection and sizing of components.
as possible to the exterior. Where ducts pass through Collectors, heat storage units, fans and pumps, con-

13.1
SPECIAL DUCT SYSTEMS

trols, heat exchangers, and auxiliary heaters must be plished using the method that the designer is most
effectively integrated. Unlike the selection of a fur- comfortable with for the air volume required. How-
nace or boiler, a solar space heating system may be ever, the designer shall be responsible for correctly
sized to provide a selected portion of the annual heat- sizing the duct system so that its total external static
ing load. Generally 30 to 70 percent is reasonable. pressure (ESP) shall not exceed the manufacturer's
The size of the solar system basically depends on ESP rating for the air handling equipment.
the collector area. The collector area then determines Ducts connecting solar air collector inlets and outlets
the quantity of solar heat delivery or the amount of shall be sized to meet the air quantities that are re-
fossil fuel savings. quired by the airflow characteristics of the collector.
Guidelines for sizing components of integrated air- Review the collector manufacturer's literature to de-
based solar systems for space and potable water termine the correct flow rates. Connections to the
heating are listed in Table 13-1. A typical arrangement collectors shall be in accordance with the manufac-
for which the guidelines apply is shown in Figure 13- turer's recommendations.
1. When auxiliary heating equipment is used, the airflow
volume of the duct distribution system must provide
2. Duct System Layout an air temperature rise through the equipment that is
below the maximum temperature rise noted on the
A layout of the duct distribution system should be
equipment nameplate.
prepared and sizing of all ductwork should be accom-

Table 13-1 GUIDELINES FOR SIZING COMPONENTS OF AIR-BASED SOLAR SYSTEMS


FOR SPACE AND POTABLE WATER HEATING

*For potable water heating only the collector slope should be at latitude angle, and the recommended range is
Lat - 5° to Lat + 5°
**For potable water heating only systems, pebble bed storage is not required.

13.2
CHAPTER 13

dards which will essentially provide the required de-


gree of air tightness in the PSDS.
Ducts may be sealed using mastic, or mastic plus
tape or gasketing as appropriate. The selection of the
most appropriate sealant depends on joint configu-
ration, clearances, surface conditions, temperature,
the direction of pressure and preassembly or post
assembly placement. Tapes should not be applied to
Figure 13-1 TYPICAL AIR-HEATING SYSTEM bare metal nor to dry sealant. Foil tapes are not suit-
able. Liquids and mastics should be used in well-
ventilated areas and the precautions of manufactur-
ers followed. Oil base caulking and glazing com-
pounds should not be used. Gasketing should be ma-
3. Solar Collecting Systems terial with long life and suitable for the service.
The duct system between the solar collectors and the
thermal storage containers, and the ductwork con- 4. Solar System Dampers
necting to the space distribution system shall be
known as the primary solar duct system (PSDA). The a. CONTROL DAMPERS (Motorized)
PSDA shall be designed using the criteria described Dampers that open or close to divert, direct, or shut-
above. Care shall be used to assure balanced airflow off airflow in the Primary Solar Duct System shall
in the PSDS for the various operational modes of the have "sealing" edges on the blades with a suitable
system. material such as felt, rubber, etc., to insure tight cutoff
All ducts and duct linings composing the PSDS shall of the air stream when closed.
be installed in strict conformance with the SMACNA
HVAC Duct Construction Standards and Fibrous b. SHUT-OFF DAMPERS
Glass Duct Construction Standards. All materials (Not Motorized)
used in the PSDS shall be able to withstand temper- Shut-off dampers installed to prevent air flow, as in
atures up to 250°F (121°C) without degradation or the summer by-pass duct in the Primary Solar Duct
release of odor-causing or noxious gasses. System, shall be sealed tightly to prevent air flow
Air leakage from PSDS should not exceed 5 percent. when pressurized from either side of the damper.
It is not the intent of these Standards to test the PSDS Slide dampers shall have suitable seals on the guides
for compliance with the 5 percent duct leakage re- to prevent leakage around the blade and through the
quirement, but simply to assure construction stan- guide.

Table 13-2 SOLAR AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

13.3
SPECIAL DUCT SYSTEMS

c. VOLUME DAMPERS Where space prohibits the use of an opposed blade


Volume control of balancing dampers shall be in- damper behind the grille face, an opposed blade
stalled in each branch or zone duct. Single leaf dam- damper may be installed in the register stack at a
pers which are a part of a manufactured air grille do location where it is accessible from the grille opening.
not meet the requirements of the SMACNA solar in- Volume dampers installed in branch ducts where the
stallation standards found in the SMACNA "Installa- total estimated system static pressure is less than
tion Standards for Residential Heating and Air Con- 0.5 in. w.g. (125 Pa) should be of a single leaf type.
ditioning Systems." Opposed blade dampers which Volume dampers installed in ductwork where the total
are a part of a manufactured air grille meet the re- estimated system static pressure exceeds 0.5 in. w.g.
quirements of the Standards if sufficient space is pro- (125 Pa) shall be manufactured in accordance with
vided behind the grille face for proper operation of the Figure 13-2.
damper.
d. BACK-DRAFT DAMPERS
Back draft dampers shall be installed to close under
the action of gravitational force when there is no air
flow, and open when there is a drop in pressure
across the damper in the direction of desired air flow.
Multi-bladed back-draft dampers shall have suitable
seals on the blade edges, and appropriate seals
along the sides. Light-weight rubberized fabric dam-
pers of the type shown in Figure 13-3 shall be tilted
sufficiently to ensure closure when there is no airflow.
Single blade dampers shall have seals along the seat
and the pivot shall be off-center and horizontal to
ensure closure when there is no airflow.

Figure 13-3 RUBBERIZED FABRIC


BACK-DRAFT DAMPER

Figure 13-2 MULTI-BLADE VOLUME DAMPERS

13.4
CHAPTER 14

Table 14-15 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, ENTRIES (Cont.)


Use the velocity pressure (Vp) of the downstream section. Fitting loss (TP) = C x Vp

E. Conical, Converging Bellmouth, Round and Rectangular, with End Wall (15)

F. Intake Hood (15)

G. Hood, Tapered, Flanged or Unflanged(2)

Note 9: With screen in opening at Ds, Cs = C (from table) + C (Screen coef. Table 14-17)
where: A= Area at D; As = Area at Ds As)2
14.43
DUCT DESIGN TABLES AND CHARTS

Table 14-15 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, ENTRIES (Cont.)


Use the velocity pressure (Vp) of the downstream section. Fitting loss (TP) = C x Vp

H. Hood, Canopy Island or Range

I. Hood, Slot (Dishwasher)

Table 14-16 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, EXITS


Use the velocity pressure (Vp) of the upstream section. Fitting loss (TP) = C x Vp

A. Exhaust Hood (15)

14.44