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India

Percentage of total power generated: 2.2 pc

Reactors Operable: 20
MWe net: 4,385

Reactors under contruction: 5


MWe net: 3,900

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 18


MWe net: 15,700

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 40


MWe net: 49,000

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 1,053 tons

China
Percentage of total power generated: 1.9 pc

Reactors Operable: 13
MWe net: 10,234

Reactors under contruction: 27


MWe net: 29,790

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 50


MWe net: 57,830

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 110


MWe net: 108,000

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 4,402 tons


Japan
Percentage of total power generated: 28.9 pc

Reactors Operable: 51
MWe net: 44,642

Reactors under contruction: 2


MWe net: 2,756

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 12


MWe net: 16,532

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 3


MWe net: 4,000

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 8,195 tons


France
Percentage of total power generated: 75.2 pc

Reactors Operable: 58
MWe net: 63,130

Reactors under contruction: 1


MWe net: 1,720

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 1


MWe net: 1,720

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 1


MWe net: 1,100

United States
Percentage of total power generated: 20.2 pc

Reactors Operable: 104


MWe net: 101,229

Reactors under contruction: 1


MWe net: 1,218

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 9


MWe net: 11,662

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 23


MWe net: 34,000

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 19,427 tons

Russia
Percentage of total power generated: 17.8 pc

Reactors Operable: 32
MWe net: 23,084

Reactors under contruction: 10


MWe net: 8,960

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 14


MWe net: 16,000

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 30


MWe net: 28,000

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 3,757 tons


South Korea
Percentage of total power generated: 34.8 pc

Reactors Operable: 21
MWe net: 18716

Reactors under contruction: 5


MWe net: 5800

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 6


MWe net: 8400

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 0

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 3586 tons

Canada
Percentage of total power generated: 14.8 pc

Reactors Operable: 18
MWe net: 12,679

Reactors under contruction: 2


MWe net: 1,500

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 3


MWe net: 3,300

Germany
Percentage of total power generated: 26.1 pc

Reactors Operable: 17
MWe net: 20,339

Reactors under contruction: 0

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 0

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 0

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 3,453 tons

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 3


MWe net: 3,800

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 1,884 tons


United Kingdom
Percentage of total power generated: 17.9 pc

Reactors Operable: 19
MWe net: 10,962

Reactors under contruction: 0

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 4


MWe net: 6,680

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 9


MWe net: 12,000

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 2,235 tons

Ukraine
Percentage of total power generated: 48.6 pc

Reactors Operable: 15
MWe net: 13,168

Reactors under contruction: 0

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 2


MWe net: 1,900

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 20


MWe net: 27,000

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 2,037 tons

Sweden
Percentage of total power generated: 34.7 pc

Reactors Operable: 10
MWe net: 9,399

Reactors under contruction: 0

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011):

Spain
Percentage of total power generated: 17.5
Reactors Operable: 8
MWe net: 7,448

Reactors under contruction: 0

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 0

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 0

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 1,458 tons

Belgium
Percentage of total power generated: 51.7 pc

Reactors Operable: 7
MWe net: 5,943

Reactors under contruction: 0

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 0

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 0

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 1,052 tons

Czech Republic
Percentage of total power generated: 33.8 pc

Reactors Operable: 6
MWe net: 3,722

Reactors under contruction: 0

Reactors Planned (as on April 2011): 2


MWe net: 2,400

Reactors Proposed (as on April 2011): 1


MWe net: 1,200

Uranium Required (as on 2011): 680 tons


Burning coal is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxics. In an average
year, a typical coal plant generates:

• 3,700,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary human cause of global warming--as
much carbon dioxide as cutting down 161 million trees.

• 10,000 tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2), which causes acid rain that damages forests, lakes,
and buildings, and forms small airborne particles that can penetrate deep into lungs.

• 500 tons of small airborne particles, which can cause chronic bronchitis, aggravated
asthma, and premature death, as well as haze obstructing visibility.

• 10,200 tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx), as much as would be emitted by half a million late-
model cars. NOx leads to formation of ozone (smog) which inflames the lungs, burning
through lung tissue making people more susceptible to respiratory illness.

• 720 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), which causes headaches and place additional stress
on people with heart disease.

• 220 tons of hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOC), which form ozone.

• 170 pounds of mercury, where just 1/70th of a teaspoon deposited on a 25-acre lake can
make the fish unsafe to eat.

• 225 pounds of arsenic, which will cause cancer in one out of 100 people who drink water
containing 50 parts per billion.

• 114 pounds of lead, 4 pounds of cadmium, other toxic heavy metals, and trace amounts
of uranium.

Solid waste

Waste created by a typical 500-megawatt coal plant includes more than 125,000 tons of
ash and 193,000 tons of sludge from the smokestack scrubber each year. Nationally, more
than 75% of this waste is disposed of in unlined, unmonitored onsite landfills and surface
impoundments.

Toxic substances in the waste -- including arsenic, mercury, chromium, and cadmium --
can contaminate drinking water supplies and damage vital human organs and the nervous
system. One study found that one out of every 100 children who drink groundwater
contaminated with arsenic from coal power plant wastes were at risk of developing
cancer. Ecosystems too have been damaged -- sometimes severely or permanently -- by
the disposal of coal plant waste.

Once the 2.2 billion gallons of water have cycled through the coal-fired power plant, they
are released back into the lake, river, or ocean. This water is hotter (by up to 20-25° F)
than the water that receives it. This "thermal pollution" can decrease fertility and increase
heart rates in fish. Typically, power plants also add chlorine or other toxic chemicals to
their cooling water to decrease algae growth. These chemicals are also discharged back
into the environment.
Much of the heat produced from burning coal is wasted. A typical coal power plant uses
only 33-35% of the coal's heat to produce electricity. The majority of the heat is released
into the atmosphere or absorbed by the cooling water.

Coal mining

About 60% of U.S. coal is stripped from the earth in surface mines; the rest comes from
underground mines. Surface coal mining may dramatically alter the landscape. Coal companies
throughout Appalachia often remove entire mountain tops to expose the coal below. The wastes
are generally dumped in valleys and streams.

In West Virginia, more than 300,000 acres of hardwood forests (half the size of Rhode Island)
and 1,000 miles of streams have been destroyed by this practice.

Underground mining is one of the most hazardous of occupations, killing and injuring many in
accidents, and causing chronic health problems.

Coal transportation

A typical coal plant requires 40 railroad cars to supply 1.4 million tons in a year. That's 14,600
railroad cars a year.

Railroad locomotives, which rely on diesel fuel, emit nearly 1 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx)
and 52,000 tons of coarse and small particles in the United States. Coal dust blowing from coal
trains contributes particulate matter to the air.

Coal storage

Coal burned by power plants is typically stored onsite in uncovered piles. Dust blown from coal
piles irritates the lungs and often settles on nearby houses and yards. Rainfall creates runoff from
coal piles. This runoff contains pollutants that can contaminate land and water.

A typical 500-megawatt coal-fired power plant draws about 2.2 billion gallons of water each year
from nearby water bodies, such as lakes, rivers, or oceans, to create steam for turning its
turbines. This is enough water to support a city of approximately 250,000 people.

Air pollution: Burning coal causes smog, soot, acid rain, global warming, and toxic air
emissions. Click on its photo to learn more.

Wastes generated: Ash, sludge, toxic chemicals, and waste heat create more environmental
problems. Click on its photo to learn more.

Fuel supply: Mining, transporting, and storing coal levels mountains and pollutes the land, water,
and air. Click on its photo to learn more.
Water use: Coal plants need billions of gallons of cooling water and harm wildlife. Click on its
photo to learn more.

A typical (500 megawatt) coal plant burns 1.4 million tons of coal each year. There are about 600
U.S. coal plants.

Coal pollutes when it is mined, transported to the power plant, stored, and burned. Click on the
pictures above left to see more about the kinds of environmental damage caused by coal.

Interestingly the production of coking and non-coking coals for 1962-1963 was just 55.23
million tons. About 75% of electrical energy is produced by the thermal power plants in
India. Emissions from the combustion of coal are one of the basic environmental
problems associated with the thermal power plants. The World Health Organisation has
prescribed the following emission factors for thermal power plants: Particulates- 3.5(A)
Kg. per ton of Lignite burnt; 8(A) Kg. Per ton of Bituminous coal burnt; 8.5 (A) Kg per
ton of Anthracite burnt. Here A is the ash content of combustible coal by weight. Sulfur
Dioxide- 15 (S) Kg. Per ton Lignite burnt; 19 (S) Kg. Of coal and Anthracite burnt. Here
S is the percentage combustible sulfur by weight. Nitrogen Oxides- 7 Kg. Per ton of
lignite burnt, 9 Kg. Per ton of Anthracite and 9Kg. Per ton of Bituminous coal.
Hydrocarbons- 0.5 Kg per ton of lignite, 0.015 Kg. Per ton of Anthracite burnt and 0.15
Kg. Per ton of bituminous coal burnt. Carbon monoxide- The emission of carbon
monoxide from all sources is prescribed as 0.15 Kg. Per ton. Indian coal has a high Ash
content sometimes exceeding 40%and a Sulfur content ranging from 0.2 to 8 % with an
average of 2%. With low conversion efficiency, thermal power plants release almost
about 1.5 to 2 MW of thermal energy per MW of power produced in the environment.
About 15 % of this is released along with the flue gases and the rest is discharged along
with cooling water. It is estimated that a 500MW coal fired power plant having no
pollution control equipment would emit nearly 100 tons of Sulfur Dioxide, 20 tons of
Nitrogen Oxides and 6 tons of Ash daily. Existing power plants produce about 50 million
tons of fly ash per annum needing 40000 acres of precious land for disposal of fly ash
during their span of 30 years. Combustion products from thermal power plants have great
environmental significance. Acidic gases have a tendency to form acid rain. While the
problem of acid rain is not yet severe in India yet the increasing use of coal is likely to
increase the possibility. Soot from chimneys has a low particle size and may tend to
deposit in the tissues of lungs where it embeds itself, may stay for two to six weeks and
in the process because of adsorbent capacities, adsorb acidic gases, heavy metals and
other particulate air pollutants which are inhaled. Heavy metals are an important
constituent of fossils and combustion of coal releases in the atmosphere a number of
heavy metals. These either come out as slag from boilers or are impregnated on the soot
particles and with the slightest of acidic conditions may resolubilise in the environment
causing metal pollution of air and water. This class of pollutants, because of
bioaccumulative properties needs special mention. Bioaccumulation leads to
magnification and long term exposure to very small concentrations may cause severe
problems. Episodal pollution of this kind is best exemplified by the Minamata Bay
incident where Methyl Mercury created problems of fish and human mortality. In a 200
MW power plant in India burning about 9000 tons of coal per day leaching of a mere
15% of heavy metals from the surface of Ash will cause a nearby river to receive daily
208 Kg of Iron, 56 Kg of Zinc, 45 Kg of Copper, 5 Kg.of Cadmium, 56 Kg of Nickel, 4.6
Kg. of Uranium, 16.5 Kg of Thorium, 60.6 Kg of Chromium and 11.2 Kg of Cobalt daily.
The transformation, which these metals undergo in the polluted anaerobic waters, the
effects of bioaccumulation on the flora and fauna and the impact of biomagnification
need special attention. Chlorine and Fluorine are also constituents of coal and it is
expected that photochemical reactions would trigger out a process of synthesis of
Chlorofluorocarbons which may have far reaching consequences. We all know by now
that Chlorofluorocarbons are causative in the catalytic breakdown of Ozone and the
consequent depletion of the ozone layer. The life of these molecules (Chlorine) is almost
100 years and it is for this extent of time that it would go on damaging the ozone layer.
We must be cautious. Most of the gases released from fossil fuel burning contribute to the
green house effect. Global warming is a consequence. It is also significant that every
three tones of carbon burnt consume 8 tons of oxygen and that we are drawing
excessively on the oxygen resource of earth. Fly Ash disposal is a major concern for the
thermal power plants. Generally, for every MW of installed capacity approximately one
acre of land is required for the ash generated, the material accumulating to a height of 8 -
10 metres. Fly ash is a harmful environmental pollutant. Being light it gets air-borne very
fast. Long inhalation causes silicosis, fibrosis of lungs, bronchitis and pneumonites etc. It
corrodes structural surfaces and deposition effects horticulture. Slurry disposal lagoons/
settling tanks become sources of mosquitoes and bacteria. It holds the potential to
contaminate the underground resources with traces of toxic metals present in it. The ash
handling system may account for 5% of the total cost of a power project.

The procedure involves public hearing also. The Ministry of Environment and Forest,
Govt. of India has also notified compulsory utilization of fly ash. Power plants are
expected to utilize fly ash in a phased and time bound manner. Brick kilns around 50
Kms. of power plants will have to utilize 25% by weight of fly ash failing which their
licenses could be cancelled.

These are then some of the options available for management of pollutants from power
plants. Thermal power plants are an essential part of all development activity, but the
operation is beset with many environmental problems. The environmental costs of
pollution and costs for pollution control are high. While curative strategies serve their
purpose but they enhance costs. Solutions would therefore have to be found in choosing
less polluting technology options, clean technology options, reuse and recycle of waste
fly ash and finally in regulating consumption. This will reduce both the costs on society
and the cost on the power plants. Power projects would increasingly have to augment and
upgrade technologies to be compatible with global costs and environmental standards.
Environmental conservation should develop as a culture in order to achieve the best
results.

http://www.srimaa.com/journal/thermal.htm

100 MWh plant 7 tonnes of coal is required and 18.66 tonnes of Oxygen is
needed

http://www.indiaenergyforum.org/iyb2010-11/bro-yearbook.pdf
All India Coal
Consumption by Power
Generation Utilities (in
million tonnes)
2001-02 240
2002-03 253
2003-04 263
2004-05 278
2005-06 280
2006-07 302
2007-08 330
2008-09 355

All India Annual per


Capita consumption of
Electricity (in kWh)
2002-03 566.69
2003-04 592.00
2004-05 612.50
2005-06 631.50
2006-07 671.89
2007-08 717.13
2008-09 733.54

All India Transformation,


T&D and AT&C losses
T&D AT&C
Year losses Losses*
2002-03 32.54 32.54
2003-04 32.53 34.78
2004-05 31.25 34.33
2005-06 30.42 33.02
2006-07 28.65 30.59
2007-08 27.2 29.24
2008-09 25.47 28.44