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VOL. 1, NO.

2, Oct 2010 E-ISSN 2218-6301

Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences

©2009-2010 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.

Impact of Gender and Nationality on Acceptance of a Digital Library: An

Empirical Validation of Nationality Based UTAUT Using SEM
Rita Oluchi ORJI
Computer Science Department
University of Saskatchewan, Canada


Electronic Library Systems (ELS) has become an inevitable part of educational institutions. Though millions of dollars are
spent building and developing these systems, research findings indicates that millions of potential users may still be ignoring
them. Consequently, different Technology Acceptance Models have been applied towards understanding the effect of various
factors on end users acceptance of Information Systems (IS). Gender has been found to be an important factor and, as such, has
attracted a lot of attention from the research community. Our research, however, recognized the existence of a different cohort
group of users of ELS with different usage behavior not just based on gender but also based on nationality and, therefore,
developed a Nationality Based UTAUT (NUTAUT) adapted from UTAUT to account for the effect of gender and nationality
on acceptance, simultaneously. Nationality was introduced based on the assumption that the UTAUT independent constructs
will impact on acceptance and usage differently when moderated by gender and nationality simultaneously. The result obtained
from the analysis of data collected from 116 student participants provides support for NUTAUT by showing that the various
UTAUT constructs exert varying degree of effects when moderated by gender and nationality combined. It not only confirms
the NUTAUT robustness in predicting acceptance of both Male and Female Students (91% and 85% respectively) but also
determines the importance of each independent construct to each group, based on their nationality and gender. Social Influence
was found to be significant for both international males and females while effort expectancy is a more significant factor for
both national males and females. This result indicated that the effect of gender on adoption and use of technology also differ
based on nationality. The results of the study are expected to assist in understanding the use of ELS across different cohort
groups in society, particularly those in different gender and nationality groups, and serve as a mechanism in guiding the
development of ELS, as well as in aiding policy formulation regarding ELS and IS design for schools, research, commercial
and work places. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used as the main technique for data analysis.

Keywords: Digital Library, Technology Acceptance, Information Retrieval, UTAUT Model, Structural Equation Model, Gender,

1. INTRODUCTION referred to as Digital Library). Many Universities have

digitized their library systems. However, while many
There has been a continuous increase in investment resources have been devoted to developing these systems,
by various governmental and non-governmental library researchers have observed that digital libraries
organizations in new information technology and tools for remain underutilized [3] and if these systems are not widely
effective operation and management. The U.S. Department utilized, it will be difficult to obtain corresponding return on
of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis state that as investments. Therefore, there is a clear need to identify and
much as 50% of all new capital investment is made on compare factors that can affect ELS acceptance and use by
information technology (IT) [1]. Consequently, Electronic people from different cohort group especially people of
Library Systems (ELS) has become an inevitable part of different nationality and gender so that information system
today’s educational system; a qualitative library system can designers, school managers, library managers and others can
directly or indirectly improve the quality of education. ELS formulate strategies to design systems that can be acceptable
aims to acquire, store, organize and preserve information for by all (males, females, international, national).
easy access and retrieval. Leedy [2] found out that It has been shown that women are significantly less
information seekers often need the assistance of a Librarian, receptive to IT than men and it is also agreed that
especially when the catalogues and guides were not useful. understanding the gender differences on the acceptance of
In recognition of this, many attempts have been made information technology will help in improving the overall
towards the establishment and improvement of the structure quality of IS. Therefore, understanding the relationships
of the library to achieve high degree of usefulness, easier between gender related constructs like nationality will be
access and retrieval of information. This advancement gave helpful in explaining why female students have lower
birth to the concept of Electronic Library System (ELS) (also technology acceptance.

VOL. 1, NO. 2, Oct 2010 E-ISSN 2218-6301
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences

©2009-2010 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
The importance of this type of research is further 2.1 Digital Library System
underscored by United Nations’ recommendations:
“...research institutions should, as appropriate, promote There have been significant advances in the
research on the interrelationship between... gender and age” technical development of digital libraries in areas such as
[4]. information storage, information retrieval, and system
As a result, the adoption and use of ELS in integration, resulting in dramatic improvements in their
educational and research institutes has become a topic of performance. While many resources have been devoted to
broad interest to researchers and practitioners in developing these systems, library researchers have observed
management. that digital libraries remain underutilized [3]. Digital
Morris et al [5] found that the effects of gender on libraries have received a lot of attention from researchers.
individual adoption and use of technology differ based on Neuman [8] in her naturalistic inquiry detailed some of the
age. Specifically, they found that gender differences in difficulties 92 high school freshmen and sophomore
technology perceptions is more pronounced among older displayed as they interacted with digital library databases.
workers while there is unisex pattern of results among Her data revealed “basic difference between structures
younger workers and Wang et al [6] found that gender inherent in database and the conceptual structure that
moderated the effect of performance expectancy, effort students bring to searching-differences so compelling that
expectancy and self efficacy. In addition, the work by they seriously hamper students’ independent use of these
Venkatesh et al. [7] examined the simultaneous effects of resources” (p.74). The students’ lack of understanding of the
age and gender. In this paper however, we argue that the organization of information hampered them from accessing
effect exerted by gender on the independent constructs will the appropriate information for their research. The study
vary depending on whether the user is a national or demonstrated that information search has not become easier
international student. International males will exhibit with the advent of technology.
difference usage behavior from national males and likewise
international females from national females. Consequently, 2.2 Technology Acceptance Theories
we developed a NUTAUT adapted from UTAUT Model to
account for the simultaneous moderating effect of gender It is a common belief that introducing a new
and Nationality on UTAUT model. This was motivated by technology automatically results in service acceptance.
the observation that difference cohort groups of users However, several research findings dispute this claim,
(national and international students) exhibit different use showing that there are several other factors that affect
behavior towards ELS based on not only gender but on technology acceptance [9]. Many IS researchers have
nationality. Our research model not only predicts the investigated various theories that could explain the
varying degrees of acceptance for each user groups but also acceptance of information technology. These theories
shows the degree of importance of each independent include; the technology acceptance model (TAM) by Davis
construct in determining acceptance for each group. The [10]; the theory of reasoned action (TRA) by Fishbein and
study significantly contributes towards understanding the Ajzen [11]; the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by Ajzen,
acceptance of ELS in Academic environments and can also [12]. The TAM model is the most widely used and has
be useful to school managers, bank managers and other IS “perceived usefulness” and “perceived ease of use.” as its
designers that makes decision about IS that is used by people main elements. The model suggests that when users are
of different nationalities. presented with technology, “perceived usefulness” and
The rest of this paper is organized as follows: In “perceived ease of use” influence their decisions about how
Section 2 we discuss the theoretical background of the study and when they will use the technology. The Perceived
while Section 3 presents our NUTAUT model. Section 4 Usefulness is defined as “the degree to which a person
highlights methods employed in our research and Section 5 believes that using a particular system would enhance his or
presents the analysis of the result. Section 6 discusses our her job performance,” while Perceived Ease of Use is
finding followed by conclusions, limitations and defined as “the degree to which a person believes that using
recommendations for future work. a particular system would be free of effort” [10]. We
approached the adoption and discovery of critical factors
2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND RELATED that affect adoption of ELS from the perspective of
WORK technology acceptance.

This section provides the theoretical background 2.3 Gender and Nationality in Acceptance and
and related work in the area of digital library system, Usage of Technology
technology acceptance theories, gender in technology
acceptance and UTAUT model. Gender can be defined as “the way members of the
two sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behave.”

VOL. 1, NO. 2, Oct 2010 E-ISSN 2218-6301
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences

©2009-2010 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
[13]. Gender is a significant variable in explaining
differential outcome in consumer behaviour research [14,
15]. There has been a limited amount of gender-based study
in information technology research [16, 17, 18]. However,
the differences between men and women have been studied
in various contexts such as electronic mail [19], information
retrieval [18], e-learning [20], communication technologies
[21] and online purchasing behaviour [17].
Majority of the studies appear more favorably towards men
than women. Anandarajan et al. [22] stated that men are
more likely to access work pages than women. Nevertheless,
gender was not linked with individual factors such as ease of
use, frequency of use and time usage. Gefen and Straub [16]
found that the perceptions of men and women vary. The
perceived social usefulness of email was found to be lower
with males than females. Conversely, men perceived ease of
Figure 1: UTAUT Model Venkatesh et al., [26]
use higher than women. Nonetheless, the actual use of email
did not vary across gender. Venkatesh et al. [18] proposed s
that gender would moderate the association between Table 1: UTAUT Components
perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and subjective
norm on intention to use the technology. These factors were Determinant Description
more important for men than women [17].
Performance Degree to which an individual believes that using
Moreover, owning to the changes in the makeup expectancy (PE) the system will help attain gains in job
and diversity of the workforce, gender differences are performance.
becoming increasingly important in managing the
Effort The degree of ease associated with the use of the
development and implementation of new technology ([19], expectancy (EE) system.
[23]). As many have noted, gender and age are among the Social influence The degree to which an individual perceives that
most fundamental groups to which individuals can belong (SI) important others believe he or she should use the
and membership of such groups is likely to have a profound new system.
influence on individual perceptions, attitudes, and Facilitating The degree to which an individual believes that
performance [24]. conditions (FC) an organizational and technical infrastructure
exists to support use of the system.
2.4 The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Behavioral The measure of the likelihood of an individual to
Technology (UTAUT) Model Intention (BI) employ the application.
Use Behavior This measures the acceptance of the technology.
Attempts to develop a model with correct and high
prediction of technology acceptance gave rise to as many as
eight models, which have received support in recent Table 2: UTAUT Moderators
literature. These models use different determinants in Moderator Description
investigating acceptance of technology. A comparison of the Gender Gender roles have a strong psychological
determinants found in major acceptance and use models is basis and are enduring.
presented in [25, 37, 18, 7]. UTAUT model, as shown in Age Age has an effect on attitudes.
Figure 1, resulted from a study by Venkatesh [7] who Experience Deals with how long the user has used the
systematically compared the eight previous models and their system.
predictive factors. Determinants of acceptance in UTAUT Voluntariness of If usage is voluntary or mandated.
are: performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), use
social influence (SI) and facilitating conditions (FC) and the
model also integrates four moderating factors (gender, age,
Experience, and voluntariness) having varying influences on 3. MODEL FORMULATION
the primary constructs. The definition of the UTAUT This section summarizes the NUTAUT and
constructs and moderators are given in Table 1 and 2 proposed the hypothesis that guides this study.
respectively. The combinations of the constructs and
moderating factors have increased the predictive efficiency
of acceptance to 70% this is a major improvement over the
previous TAM model rates (35%) (Venkatesh et al. [7]).

VOL. 1, NO. 2, Oct 2010 E-ISSN 2218-6301
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences

©2009-2010 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
3.1 Nationality Based UTAUT (NUTAUT) flexibility to allow the introduction of new dimensions into
the model, was the major motivation for the use of UTAUT
Since the development of UTAUT model, it has
model in the current investigation.
attracted attention of many scholars in IS research because
NUTAUT was adapted from UTAUT by introducing a new
of its predictive efficiency of 70% this is a major
modulating variable nationality as shown in Figure 2.
improvement over the widely used TAM model with
Nationality was introduced based on the assumption that the
predictive capacity of 35% [26, 18]. The scholars [27, 28]
UTAUT independent variables PE, EE, SI will impact on BI
validated the model and others [26, 30, 37, 31] extended it in
differently and BI with FC will also impact on UB
different contexts, including multicultural studies [32], and
differently when moderated by nationality. The definition of
all found its constructs highly predictive [7]. This, in
these construct are given in Table 1 and Table 2.
addition to the fact that the moderating variables offer





Nationality Voluntariness Experience Gender Age

Figure 2: Nationality Based UTAUT (NUTAUT)

respond to opinions of their social group. Following from
3.2 Hypotheses these we formulated the following hypothesis:

The expectations are that the survey will provide H1: Gender and Nationality will moderate the effect
evidence of varying degree of acceptance by male and exerted on behavior intention by social influence in a way
female students and also prove that the independent that the importance of social influence will be more
variables will affect acceptance at different degrees for pronounced for males and females of international origin.
these groups. Four hypotheses have been postulated to .
guide this study. H2: Gender and Nationality will moderate the relationship
It has been found that gender differences moderate between performance expectancy and behavioral intention
the effect of independent constructs on technology such that the importance of performance expectancy will be
acceptance and that it is more important for males [5, 33, more pronounced within the national group when compared
34, 35], we expect that performance expectancy related to to their international counterpart
technology usefulness and its influence on acceptance will
be more important for international and national males than H3: Gender and Nationality will moderate the effect
their female counterpart, therefore, resulting in greater exerted on behavior intention by effort expectancy such that
influence on behavior intention in predicting ELS adoption. the influence of effort expectancy will be more pronounced
Again, Examining social influence from a gender for males and females of international origin than their
perspective, the literature on gender differences and gender national counterpart.
roles suggests that women have higher affiliation needs and
are thus more concerned with pleasing others and more H4: Facilitating condition will be a more important
likely to conform to majority opinions ([35], [36]) while determinant for international males and females than their
gender role theory suggests that women tend to value and national counterpart.

VOL. 1, NO. 2, Oct 2010 E-ISSN 2218-6301
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences

©2009-2010 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
of the services apart from Electronic Database which needs
4. METHODS adequate sensitization.

4.1 Survey Instrument

The data-gathering instrument used for this study
was a self-administered online questionnaire. The 5.1 Validation of the survey instrument and NUTAUT
questionnaire was based on the pre-existing tool developed
by Venkatesh [7] and has been used by Anderson and The data analysis was done using SPSS 17 and
Schwager [27], Moran [37] and Tibenderana & Ogao [31]. Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) structural equation
The research question was divided into three sections. modeling tool. SPSS 17 was adopted to conduct Principal
Section 1 contained 18 close-ended questions which Components Analysis (PCA) and to assess the validity of
collected the participant demographic information and their the scale. The Cronbachs’ Alpha was calculated to examine
experience with computers and ELS. Section 2 contained the reliability of each factor, the Alpha values of the
21 questions about ELS hardware and services provided by questionnaire exceeded 0.8 (Table 3, column 5),
Middle East Technical University (METU) library. These demonstrating the good reliability. Before conducting
questions collected the students’ awareness of these PCA, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett sphericity
facilities and services. The respondents chose either a test was checked to measure for the sampling adequacy
“Yes”, “No” or “Not Sure” answer in response to each ELS [38]. The KMO were all >0.700 and the result of Bartlett
services and facilities indicated. Section 3 contained 25 sphericity test was significant at <0.001 (Table 3, column 3
questions with a 5-point Likert scale where 1 represented and 4). Thus data were suitable to conduct factor analysis
‘strongly agree’ and a 5 represented ‘strongly disagree’. [11]. The factor loadings and the corresponding factor
scores (weights) for each variable were generated. The
dimensionalities of the twenty-five statement making up the
4.2 Participants six constructs of the instrument were each subjected to
factor analysis resulting in the removal of two questions
There were a total of 116 participants: 56 Males and the models re-estimated. Each factor has larger loading
(28 international and 28 national) and 60 Females (30 on its corresponding factor (>0.7) than cross-loadings on
international and 30 national) graduate students. The other factors (<0.4). Thus these items could effectively
participants were distributed across various departments reflect factors since they had good validity including
and the number of international graduates and National convergent validity and discriminant validity [40].
graduate students from each departments and schools were Structural Equation Model software LISREL on
fairly evenly distributed to ensure valid comparison. the other hand was employed to estimate the path
Moreover, the number of male and female participants was coefficients and to validate and test models hypotheses. We
also fairly evenly distributed. A pilot study was carried out used Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test for the
on 10 participants (4 international graduate students and 6 model fitness on the data. The results show that the
National graduate students) to ensure the clarity of the hypothesized model is recursive, uni-directional (Table 3 &
questions for the respondents and to eliminate problems 5). The fit indices of the model are listed in Table 4 and
that might arise while recording and analyzing the data. Table 5. The tables list the recommended value and actual
The results from the respondents were analyzed to ensure value of each fit index, the actual value was better than the
that it could answer the Hypothesis. The survey was recommended value. Thus the model was a good fit to the
confirmed adequate for the research; although some minor data. Table 5 summarizes the results of the t-test analysis
rephrasing was made on some questions to increase which further confirms the validity of the models. Also, as
understandability. shown in the Table 6 all the standardized loadings of items
on their corresponding factor were larger than 0.7 further
4.3 Electronic Library Services Offered in the proving good convergent validity [41].
5.2 Availability of ICT Hardware in the Library
Eleven ELS services were listed in the
questionnaire and respondents were asked questions about In response to the questions asked about the
their availability. Again more than 70% of all the availability of eight ICTs’ hardware in the Middle East
respondents confirmed the availability of all the listed Technical University (METU) library, more than 85% of all
services with the exception of Electronic Database which the respondents confirmed that computer, printers, internet,
has only 8% of the entire respondent confirming the bar code readers, CD-ROM readers/writers, security check
availability. This also indicates a high degree of awareness systems and photocopying machine are available in the
library. This indicates that students are aware of the ICT

VOL. 1, NO. 2, Oct 2010 E-ISSN 2218-6301
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences

©2009-2010 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
hardware. In response to the questions about the availability (Note: x2/df the ratio between Chi-square and degrees of freedom, GFI is Goodness
of Fit Index, AGFI is Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index, CFI is Comparative Fit Index,
of 11 ELS services listed in the questionnaire, more than NFI is Normed Fit Index, RMSEA is Root Mean Square Error of Approximation)
70% of all the respondents confirmed the availability of all
the listed services with the exception of Electronic
Database with only 8% of the entire respondent confirming Table 5: T Test and P Values for Participant Groups
its availability. This also indicates a high degree of Dependent Category T-test P-Value
awareness of the hardware apart from Electronic Database Variable
that needs adequate sensitization. Female Behavioral National 2.41 <0.001
Intention International 3.25 <0.001
5.3 International versus National Students Use National 4.30 <0.001
Behavioral International 4.20 <0.001
The four groups’ result estimation using LISREL are as Male Behavioral National 2.20 <0.001
Intention International 4.21 <0.001
shown in Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6. The comparison of the
Use National 4.37 <0.001
results from the two analyses is summarized in Table 7 and
Behavioral International 5.40 <0.001
8. The contributions of the various independent constructs
PE, EE FC and SI are shown in Table 7 column 3 and 4. It
shows that FC is the most important predictor of acceptance
for the two groups. The international female students model
Table 6: The factor-loading matrix with varimax
shows predictive efficiency of 32% and 56% for the
dependent construct of behavioral intent and use behavior
Factor Loading Matrix with Varimax rotation for All
(a total predictive capability of 88% for the dependent Students
variables) as shown in Figure 3 and Table 8, the national FC EE
female students’ model shows predictive efficiency of 20% PE1 .245 .068 .813 .253 .159 -.039

and 62% (a total predictive capability of 82% for the PE2 .219 .180 .779 .033 .084 .217

dependent variable) as shown in Figure 4 and Table 8, PE3. .232 .084 .815 .176 .075 .282
international male students’ model shows predictive PE4 .155 -.055 .641 .325 .167 .300
efficiency of 25% and 61% for the dependent construct of
EE1 .105 .707 .070 .076 .280 .135
behavioral intent and use behavior (a total predictive
EE2 .491 .605 .194 .008 -.019 .244
capability of 86% for the dependent variables) as shown in
Figure 5 and Table 8. The national male students’ model EE3 .230 .787 .293 -.006 .003 .006

shows predictive efficiency of 18% and 78% (a total EE4 .115 .767 .025 .312 .167 .191

predictive capability of 96% for the dependent variables) as EE5 .249 .811 .106 .164 .073 -.015

shown in Figure 6 and Table 8. This means that the four EE6 .171 .810 .102 .035 .190 .047

groups accept and use ELS though at varyingt degrees. SI1 .140 .133 .031 .825 .074 .179

SI2 .157 .271 .160 .801 .098 -.095

Table 3: Construct Validity and Reliability Measure SI3 .214 .152 .132 .792 .072 .045
Bartlett Cronba Chi-
Group P- Squ RAM FC1 .768 -.029 .364 .180 .063 .180
KMO Spheri ch’s
Comparison Value are/ SEA
city Alpha FC2 .673 .329 .112 .035 .354 .038
Recommend FC3 .828 .100 .125 .067 -.016 .202
>0.5 <0.05 ≥ 0.7 <0.05 <3 ≤0.08
ed Value FC4 .758 .069 .138 -.019 .144 .200
International 0.758 000 0.879 1.51 0.037 FC5 .730 .318 .154 .085 .306 .-129
Female BI1 .171 .197 .124 .026 .905 -.002
National 0.0000
0.702 000 0.921 1.56 0.071
Students 4 BI2 .125 .054 .126 .160 .895 .142

0.0000 UB1 .304 .410 .059 .104 .149 .711

International 0.730 000 0.883 1.56 0.071
Male Students UB2 .038 .481 .348 .042 .055 .723
National 0.0000
0.740 000 0.962 1.56 0.071 UB3 .366 .176 .160 .126 .067 .763
Students 4

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Table 4: Goodness-of-Fit Results of the LISREL General Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

a. Rotation converged in 6 iterations.


Recommended >0.90 >0.80 <0.08 <3 <0.05 >0.90 >0.90

Actual Value 0.956 0.860 0.069 1.45 <0.0001 0.974 0.943

VOL. 1, NO. 2, Oct 2010 E-ISSN 2218-6301
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences

©2009-2010 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.

Figure 5: International Male Participants Model

Figure 3: International Female Participants Model

Figure 4: National Female Participants Model

Figure 6: National Male Participants’ Model

VOL. 1, NO. 2, Oct 2010 E-ISSN 2218-6301
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Table 7: Comparison of National and International Model easily and conveniently access the ELS than the students
Contributions living outside the campus. To actually increase acceptance
Groups Constructs International National No.of No.of of ELS, the research suggest that the university and any
(N=58) (N=58) Questions Questions other university that is working towards increasing
Asked Retained acceptance of ELS should make accessibility (facilitating
Female PE 0.20 0.30 4 4 conditions and effort expectancy) of the ELS at both
(N=60) EE 0.48 0.58 6 5 outside and inside the campus easy.
SI 0.28 0.12 3 2
FC 0.78 0.63 6 2
H1: Gender and Nationality will moderate the effect
exerted on behavior intention by social influence in a way
BI 0.32 0.20 3 2
that the importance of social influence will be more
UB 3 2
pronounced for males and females in the international
Male PE 0.41 0.50 4 4
EE 0.35 0.51 6 5
SI 0.20 0.02 3 2 This hypothesis is supported. Though previous works
FC 0.74 0.60 6 2 on gender roles suggested that women have higher
BI 0.25 0.18 3 2 affiliation needs and are thus more concerned with
UB 3 2 pleasing others and more likely to conform to majority
opinions ([35], [36]), the result of our analysis in fact
shows that social influence has a more pronounced effect
on international students (both males and females) than
Table 8: Comparison of International and National Models their national counterpart by showing that social influence
Prediction predicts 28% for international females, 12% for national
females, 20% for international males and 2% for national
Gender Model Behavioral Use Total
Intention Behavior males as shown in Figure 3, 4, 5 and 6 and also
summarized Table 7. This is as expected since international
Female International 32% 56% 88% students are likely to move in group and, therefore, are
National 20% 62% 82% easily influenced to use this system by people that matters
to them in the environment. This can, to an extent, be
Male International 25% 61% 86%
likened to the effect of facilitating condition; through social
National 18% 78% 96% facilitation and social comparison the groups function as a
motivator and can provide necessary assistance especially
for does that are new to the system. . Practically, this study
6. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS results suggest that organizations should use different
strategies in motivating the use of a new technology for
This study reveals a rich set of pattern and results. Due different situations/groups. For some information systems
to space limitations, we will only highlight the most whose usage is mandatory, those factors contributing to
important findings without going into details on specific social influence such as the instructors/supervisor's
results. In general, the results suggest that Nationality and prodding might work. However, when the usage is
Gender considered simultaneously is a significant voluntary just like the case of ELS, the managers might
moderator that affects the acceptance of ELS and the effect want to think of better ways to promote usage probably
exerted by UTAUT constructs on individual groups through social facilitation and social comparison. As a
(International males, International females, National males matter of fact, though social influence is a significant factor
and National female students) vary considerably. for international students, the effect can greatly be reduced
Facilitating condition significantly influences the by training and probably experience and therefore should
acceptance and use of ELS for the four groups. not be used as a strong motivator. This is consistent with
the previous studies (e.g., Venkatesh & Davis [7]); the
In general, the NUTAUT does predict the successful effect of subjective norm to usage intention is significant
acceptance of ELS by graduate though at varying degrees under mandatory and inexperienced use situation.
Table 8. The participants showed higher inclination to use
ELS by showing higher percentage of use behavioral. The H2: Gender and Nationality will moderate the
researcher believes that this is as a result of the role played relationship between performance expectancy and
by readily available access and easy to use library facility behavioral intention to use technology, such that the
in-campus than out-campus since majority of the importance of performance expectancy will be more
participants stays inside the university campus and can

VOL. 1, NO. 2, Oct 2010 E-ISSN 2218-6301
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences

©2009-2010 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
pronounced within the national group when compared to students (both males and females) acceptance is more
their international counterpart. dependent on effort expectancy than international students
(both males and females). This is partially contrarily to
This Hypothesis is only partially supported. There is a some previous work [33, 34, 35] that shows that males have
significant difference in the effect exerted on behavior higher tendency to use the ELS system even when it is
intention by performance expectancy between the complex. In other words, Performance expectancy is an
international and national group. The model shows that important factor for males more than the effort expectancy
national male group has performance expectancy of 50% as while effort expectancy determines acceptance for the
opposed to 41% of international male group while national females more than performance expectancy. Examining
females have performance expectancy of 30% as opposed gender and nationality simultaneously shows that both
to the 20% of the international female counterpart as shown females and males in the national group attach more
in Figure 3, 4, 5 and 6 and also summarized Table 7. importance to the expected effort required to use the
Though the performance expectancy of national male group system. In other words national students are unlikely to use
is higher at 50%, the performance expectancy of the the system if it is difficult to use even if it is useful. This
national females (30%) is lower than performance can also be explained by the fact that availability of
expectancy of international males (41%). This means that alternatives or competition generates negative effect
within the gender groups, performance expectancy is a affecting perceived effort expectancy. The national students
significant factor for male than female. This shows that have other sources of getting materials for their research
males have higher tendency to use the ELS system as long easily than international students and might not afford to
as it is useful. In other words, performance expectancy is an spend a lot of time and energy searching through complex
important factor for males despite their nationality while ELS while international students can afford to spend an
effort expectancy determines acceptance for females more extra effort to use the system. This could also mean that in
than performance expectancy despite nationality. This the absence of alternative, performance expectancy might
finding follows the work of [33, 34, 35]. become as important as effort expectancy. This also agrees
with the work of Pontiggia and Virili [42] which shows that
More importantly, this result reveals that perceived technology acceptance is basically a choice among different
performance expectancy of a system does vary based on alternative technologies/tools to accomplish user tasks.
gender but not necessary based on nationality though the
degree of contribution still differs based on nationality of H4: Facilitating condition will be a more important
the students. The most plausible explanation is that determinant for international males and females than their
performance expectancy cannot be interpreted in isolation national counterpart.
without some other factors like effort expectancy and
facilitating condition; the usefulness of any system might This hypothesis is again supported with 74% and 78%
never get to be appreciated /discovered if the system is so prediction for international males and females respectively,
complex that end users hardly use it. Most international as opposed to 60% and 63% for national males and females
users (males and females) lack the technical knowledge respectively as shown in Figure 3, 4, 5 and 6 and also
needed to handle the complexity of the ELS especially at summarized Table 7. Though international students group
the early stage of their arrival. This is understandable since (males and females) shows high contribution from
difference policies guide the design and implementation of facilitating condition than their national counterpart, in
ELS in difference countries. Therefore training of new general, facilitating condition has the highest contribution
students especially the international students on the use of to acceptance than any other variables in all the groups.
ELS on arrival will surely increase acceptance. This means that irrespective of the group, facilitating
condition is very crucial. Our initial assertion that
facilitating condition will not be as important for national
H3: Gender and Nationality will moderate the effect students owing to the availability of alternatives which
exerted on behavior intention by effort expectancy such that includes resources from friends and families seems to be
the influence will be more pronounced for males and wrong. This can possibly be explained by the fact that the
females of national category than their international University invests considerable amount of resources to
counterpart. provide both online, offline and remote access to the ELS,
so international students as well as national students still
This is supported. Effort expectancy contributes 51% exhibits use behavior on the ELS despite availability of
and 58% for national males and females respectively as alternatives. This is consistent with the empirical studies of
opposed to 35% and 48% for international males and Thompson et al [43] that found the direct effect of
females respectively as shown in Figure 3, 4, 5 and 6 and facilitating condition on usage behavior and some others [
also summarized Table 7. This means that for national 7, 18].

VOL. 1, NO. 2, Oct 2010 E-ISSN 2218-6301
Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences

©2009-2010 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.

In general, the NUTAUT does predict the successful

acceptance of ELS by international males, national males, In conclusion, organizations, managers, designers and
international females, and national females with a total developers can raise intention to use ELS through
predictive capacity of 86%, 96%, 88% and 82% facilitating conditions, , effort expectancy and performance
respectively. The groups showed higher inclination to use expectancy. Institutions may arrange training programs to
ELS by showing higher percentage of use behavioral. The develop knowledge about the benefits and usage of ELS
researcher believes that this is as a result of the role played system compared to some other randomized searches. The
by readily available access and easy to use library facility training should be included as part of the event to feature
in-campus than out-campus since majority of the during the induction of new students especially for
participants stays inside the university campus and can international students. Also paring international students to
easily and conveniently access the ELS than the students pair leaders could also function as a social facilitation to
living outside the campus. To actually increase acceptance motivate them to use ELS.
of ELS, the research suggest that the university and any
other university that is working towards increasing This research was carried out in a university
acceptance of ELS should make accessibility (facilitating environment and may not reflect ELS acceptance outside
conditions and effort expectancy) of the ELS at both outside the university environment, although we plan to validate
and inside the campus easy. NUTAUT elsewhere. In the researchers’ opinion, 116
This study shows that the variables, facilitating participants are limited number for this type of study
condition, effort expectancy, performance expectancy and therefore proposes conducting similar study on larger
social influence which are the critical components that number of participants and in another environment.
affect acceptance and use of ELS exert varying effects on
acceptance not just depending on gender but also on ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
nationality of the users. Facilitating condition remains the The work reported in this paper was carried out
most important factors for the four group of user, however, when the Author was a graduate student of Middle East
for international female group effort expectancy, social Technical University, Turkey. The author appreciates their
influence and performance expectancy listed in decreasing provision of enabling environment for which the research
order of importance are the critical factors, and for the was conducted.
national female group listed in decreases order of
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