Anda di halaman 1dari 4

Anthony Araracap

Period 4 AP Bio
AP Lab 10 Physiology of the Circulatory System

Background:
(Part A) An arthropod has its heart on its back, Daphnia are ectotherms, their body temperature
changes with the surrounding environment. Chemicals which enter their bodies can affect their heart rate
by interfering with the chemicals nerves use to transmit signals. Chemicals that speed up heart rate are
called stimulants, whereas chemicals that slow down heart rate are known as depressants.
(Part B) The circulatory system is responsible for internal transport of vital substances in humans
(including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients). The components of the circulatory system include the
heart, blood vessels, and blood. Heartbeats result from electrical stimulation of the heart cells by the
pacemaker. Heart rate is affected by physical fitness of the individual, presence of drugs in the blood, and
age of the person. The maximum heart rate of all individuals of the same age and sex is about the same,
however the time it takes individuals to reach maximum level while exercising varies. Physically fit people
have less of an increase in their heart rate during exercise and their heart rate recovers to resting rate
rapidly compared to unfit people.

Purpose:
(Part A) The purpose of this lab was to test how the presence of a depressant or stimulant affects
the Daphnia’s heart rate. Temperature was another factor which was tested to see how it affected the
heart rate of the Daphnia.
(Part B) The purpose of this lab was to test the effect of body position on heart rates, exercise on
heart rates, determine fitness level, and correlate fitness level of individuals with factors such as smoking,
amount of daily exercise, and other factors identified by students.

Hypothesis:
(Part A) The rate of metabolism and heart rate will decrease in the presence of ethanol (a
depressant).
(Part B) A subject’s heart rate and blood pressure will change during rest and exercise based on
how physically fit they are. If the subject is in good shape the heart rate will not increase significantly and
the blood pressure will increase. The opposite is true of someone in poor shape.

Materials:

(Part A)
● Daphnia in culture liquid
● transfer pipette
● clean depression slide
● compound microscope
● small container for “used” Daphnia
● 1% ethanol in a dropper bottle
(Part B)
● computer
● Vernier computer interface
● LoggerPro
● Vernier Hand-Grip Heart Rate Monitor
● stepping stool
Procedure:
(Followed Daphnia Heart Rate lab handout & “Using a Hand-Grip Heart Rate Monitor”
procedures)

Data & Observations:


(Part A) During this lab, several observations we made. Firstly, when the microscope was left on
for a long period of time, heat caused the heart rate to increase. Another observation was that the
daphnia would try to move off the depression slide. Furthermore, when one of 1% ethanol solution was
added to the slide.
(Part B) During the second part of this lab, heart rate of a human subject was tested. In doing so,
it was observed that our test subject was relatively fit, since after exercising her heart rate did not
increase dramatically during the step test. Also, the recovery time for was a minute and thirty-three
seconds for our test subject.
Data Table 1 - Results of Daphnia Heart Rate
Water Ethanol

10 sec BPM (x6) 10 sec BPM (x6)

Trial 1 26 156 22 132

Trial 2 27 162 25 150

Trial 3 32 192 23 138

Average 28.3 170 23.3 140

+/- 10% Range - X - X

Accept Data? Y X Y X
(Y/N)

Data Table 2 - Results of Heart Rate and Physical Fitness of an Individual


Table 6

Condition Rate or Time Points

Standing heart rate 89 beats/min 10

Reclining heart rate 67 beats/min 11

Reclining to standing 101 beats/min 4

Pre-exercise heart rate 92 beats/min 10

After 5 steps 102 beats/min 10

Recovery time 120 seconds 8

Endurance 102 beats/min 8


Total points: 61

Analysis:
(None indicated)

Error Analysis:
(Part A) During this lab few errors may have occurred. First off, the daphnia may have received
too much light from the microscope, causing the heart rate to increase more than it normally would. Also,
too many drops may have been added to the daphnia, causing a major decrease in heart rate.
(Part B) In this part of the lab some errors may have occurred while using the hand-grip heart rate
monitor. For example, not holding the handles of the hand-grip correctly may have caused the computer
to yield incorrect data. Also, the test subjects may not have held the handles vertically, which affects heart
rate. Another error may have been being too far from the receiver, not allowing data to be collected.

Discussion:
The hypothesis for part A was that “The rate of metabolism and heart rate will decrease in the
presence of ethanol (a depressant)” was accepted. By conducting the lab, this was found to be true since
the daphnia’s heart rate decreased to an average of 23.3 beats/min after three trials. Firstly, the daphnia
was placed on a clean depression slide and placed under the microscope to be observed. Secondly, the
daphnia’s heart rate was counted based off of how many heart beats occurred within 10 secnods. Then,
that number was averaged over three trials (average heart rate of 28.3 beat/min). After, we multiplied this
number by six in order to get the beats per minute (an average of 170 BMP). Therefore, the hypothesis
that “The rate of metabolism and heart rate will decrease in the presence of ethanol (a depressant)” was
proven true and accepted.
The hypothesis for part B was that “A subject’s heart rate and blood pressure will change during
rest and exercise based on how physically fit they are. If the subject is in good shape the heart rate will
not increase significantly and the blood pressure will increase” was accepted. After conducting several
tests with different conditions, such as standing heart rate (89 beats/min) and after the 5 steps exercise
(going up and down steps), heart rate increased (102 beats/min) we concluded that with a recovery time
of 120 seconds that our test subject with a total of 61 fitness points was fit. Thus, the hypothesis “A
subject’s heart rate and blood pressure will change during rest and exercise based on how physically fit
they are. If the subject is in good shape the heart rate will not increase significantly and the blood
pressure will increase” was accepted.

Discussion Questions:
1. Heart rate slowed down after going from a standing position to a reclining position because your
heart has to work harder when standing, the blood that reaches your legs must travel back up
through veins in your legs as gravity tries to pull it down.
2. Heart rate increased after going from reclining to standing because the circulatory system is not
working very hard when a person is at rest so when that person stands up suddenly the blood
pressure and heart rate of that person increase.
3. Heart rate would increase even more if we had exercised for twice the length of time because the
heart would be working twice as long to pump blood through the body.
4. My maximum heart rate was 202 beats/min, which is relatively close to other students, as the
class has 17 and 18 year old students and age accounts for maximum heart rate.
5. Fit individuals, such as athletes can deliver a greater volume of blood to their working muscles
more efficiently than someone untrained. Their heart rate decreases because their hearts can
store larger volumes of blood before pumping this blood throughout the body, this is called
increased stroke volume and cardiac output.
6. After examining results of the physical fitness test, I would keep exercising to stay healthy, as well
as stay on a good diet in order to get essential vitamins and nutrients.
7. Most heart attacks occur as people get out of bed after sleep most likely due to the increase of
heart rate after going from reclining to standing; leading to a heart attack since the heart is
working hard to pump blood.