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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................................... A

1.0 INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................................1

2.0 RAINFALL ZONES .......................................................................................................................2

3.0 INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES ................................................................6

4.0 DRAINAGE DESIGN PARAMETERS .........................................................................................7

5.0 DESIGN FLOOD DETERMINATION FOR BRIDGES, BOX CULVERTS, ETC USING
THE RATIONAL METHOD ....................................................................................................................8
5.1 GUIDELINES FOR DRAINAGE STRUCTURE PROVISION.................................................... 11
6.0 EROSION CONTROL MEASURES ........................................................................................... 18
6.1 PROTECTION MEASURES ...................................................................................................... 18
7.0 CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES FOR DRAINAGE STRUCTURES ...................................... 20
7.1 REQUIREMENTS OF VARIOUS DRAINAGE STRUCTURES ................................................. 20
7.1.1 Mitre Drains ....................................................................................................................... 20
7.1.2 Catch-water Drains............................................................................................................. 21
7.1.3 Scour Checks ...................................................................................................................... 21
7.1.4 Grass Planting .................................................................................................................... 22
7.1.5 Turfing................................................................................................................................ 22
7.1.6 Lined Side Drains................................................................................................................ 22
7.1.7 Drainage for Roads with a 'Sunken' Profile.......................................................................... 23
8.0 COST EFFECTIVE DRAINAGE DESIGN ................................................................................ 25
List of Definitions
Term Definition

Catchment area Total area contributing runoff to the inlet of drainage structure. This area is
obtained from a topographical map by connecting the high and low points on the
map to delineate the area contributing runoff to the inlet of the drainage structure
being designed.

Runoff Coefficient (C) This is a factor that is applied in the flood discharge equation which is an
integrated value representing many factors that influence the runoff relationship
i.e. topography, soil permeability, vegetation cover and land usage.

Return Period Refers to the time interval during which a given rainfall depth/intensity is likely
to be equaled or exceeded once.

Rainfall Intensity Refers to the depth of rainfall over a given period of time.

Intensity-Duration- This is a representation of frequency data for storms of various durations. The
Frequency (IDF) Return Period usually denotes this frequency.
relationships

Areal Reduction Factor This is a factor that is multiplied by a point rainfall (as derived from the IDF
(ARF) curves) to represent or distribute it over the catchment area.

Mainstream The major stream collecting runoff in the catchment leading to inlet of drainage
structure.

Catchment Mainstream This is the gradient (%) of the Mainstream measured by the ratio: level difference
Slope (S) between the highest and lowest point divided by the mainstream length.

Time of Concentration The time of concentration of a catchment is the time it takes for water from the
(Tc) hydraulically most remote portion of the catchment to reach the point where flow
is being estimate i.e. drainage structure inlet. For small catchments (A < 10 Km2),
Tc = 10min while for larger catchments (A > 10 Km2), Tc is calculated using the
widely accepted Kirpich formula.

A
Design Storm This is the Maximum Storm depth/intensity that is likely to be equaled or
exceeded once or a little more (rarely) during the design period.

Design Discharge This is the Maximum Discharge that is likely to be equaled or exceeded once or a
little more (rarely) during the design period.

Contour Rate Number of ground level contours per kilometer.

B
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Drainage structures and associated works, such as scour protection, account for a
considerable part of the total cost of road works mainly because of the purpose they
serve to protect the investment in roads. To this end, the factors associated with
drainage design must receive due attention.

The design of drainage structures is based on the worst expected flood situation at the
drainage structure's proposed location. The area of land draining to the structure site is
the catchment and the drainage structure is located at the catchment exit.

When rain falls on a drainage catchment, some of the water may be prevented from
reaching the catchment exit, while some may be delayed en route. Other precipitation
losses may also arise from infiltration, evaporation, storage in surface depressions and
interception by vegetation cover. The excess precipitation then travels by the
hydraulically shortest route to the catchment exit.

The determination of the volume of this runoff and the rate at which it arrives at the
catchment exit is the prime objective of this manual. The factors affecting flood peaks
and volumes may be conveniently grouped as those affecting rainfall and runoff, which
are the Area Reduction Factor (ARF) and Runoff Coefficient (C). The principal factor
used in this manual to link rainfall and runoff is the time taken for the catchment to
respond to the rainfall input i.e. Time of Concentration (Tc). The time of concentration
has been adopted as the measure of the catchment response time i.e. time for surface
runoff from the hydraulically most remote part of the catchment area to reach the
catchment exit point under consideration. This remotest point is not necessarily the
most distant point in the drainage area.

The design flow is established by selecting the appropriate combinations of rainfall and
runoff characteristics that can reasonably be expected to occur. This is calculated in
consideration of a selected design return period. The design criterion is usually the
maximum flow carried by the drainage structure with no flooding or limited amount of
flooding to be exceeded on the average of once during the design return period.

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However, selection of a proper design storm does not preclude the possibility of a
larger storm destroying the drainage structure immediately after it is built since the
selection is based on statistical probabilities.

The accuracy with which flood estimates can be made depends on the amount and
quality of relevant information available. Practical experience under local conditions
and the application of sound judgment are particularly important in determining the
data needed for the design storm intensity.

2.0 RAINFALL ZONES


Because of the variability of rainfall in Uganda, delineation rainfall zones have been
adopted in this study using results of the study for Design of a Regional Minimum rain
gauge network. The method used was based on the Principal Component Analysis
(PCA). The principal components were rotated using the principal of orthogonal
varimax.

The spatial patterns of the dominant principal components were used to classify
Uganda into 14 homogeneous zones as shown in figure 1 below. The zones were
delineated following the analysis of monthly rainfall records at 102 rain gauges for the
period 1940-75. Within the delineated zones, rainfall characteristics are similar.

2
Figure A: Rainfall Zone Map

3
Table 1: Description of the Rainfall Zones

ZONAL AVERAGE RAINFALL, STD AND EVAPORATION ANALYSIS


Zone Districts, 2000 boundaries Annual Rainfall and its zonal Main rainy seasons Main dry seasons Evaporation verses rainfall
variability
NORTHEASTERN TO NORTH CENTRAL AREAS
G Moroto, Kotido and Average of 745 mm, STD 145 mm. One rainy season of about 5½ One long dry season of Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of over 10
Northeastern Kitgum High variability, from ~ 600 over the months, from April to early about 6 months, October to during the driest months, December to
north and northeastern parts to ~ 1000 September with the main peak March. Driest months February. During the rainy season
mm over the southern and western in July/August and a secondary December to February. evaporation is slightly > rainfall.
parts. peak in May.
H Kitgum, Eastern Lira, South Average of 1197 mm, STD 169 mm. One rainy season of about 7 One long dry season of Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of over 10
Kotido, Western Moroto and Moderate variability, from ~ 1000 over months, April to late October about 4 months, mid- during the driest months, December to
Katakwi the north and northeastern parts to ~ with the main peak in November to late March. February. During the rainy months, May;
1300 mm over western and southern July/August and a secondary Driest months December July and August rainfall is slightly >
parts peak in May. to February. evaporation.
I Adjumani, Gulu, Apac, Average of 1340 mm, STD 155 mm. One rainy season, about 7½ One long dry season of Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of up to 10
Western Lira and Eastern Moderate variability, from ~ 1200 over months, April to about mid about 4 months, mid- during the driest months, December to
Masindi northwestern and western parts to ~ November with the main peak November to late March. February. During the rainy months of May,
1500 mm over the southern parts. in August to mid October and a Driest months December August and September rainfall >
secondary peak in April/May. to February. evaporation.
NORTHWESTERN TO CENTRAL WESTERN AREAS
J Moyo and Arua Average of 1371 mm, STD 185 mm. One rainy season of about 7½ One long dry season of Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of ~ 10
Moderate variability, from ~ 1200 over months, April to about mid about 4 months, late during the dry months, December to March.
the eastern parts and highest ~ 1500 mm November with the main peak November to late March. During the rainy season, July to October,
over the western parts. August to October and a Driest months December rainfall > evaporation.
secondary peak in April/May. to February.
K Nebbi, Southwestern Gulu and Average of 1259 mm, STD 195 mm. Mainly one rainy season of One long dry season of Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of ~ 6
Western Masindi High variability, from ~ 800 within the about 8 months, late March to about 3½ months, during the driest months, December to
Lake Albert basin to ~ 1500 mm over late November with the main December to about mid March. During the rainy season, July to
the western parts peak August to October and a March. Driest months October, evaporation > rainfall.
secondary peak in April/May. December to February.
L Hoima, Kiboga, Western Average of 1270 mm, STD 135 mm. Two rainy seasons, main season Main dry season December Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of ~ 5
Luwero, Kibale, North High variability, from ~ 800 over August to November with peak to about mid March, during the dry months, December to March.
Kabarole and Bundibugyo eastern L. Albert parts to ~ 1400mm in October and secondary secondary dry season is During the rainy months, March and August
over the western parts. season March to May with peak June to July. to November rainfall > evaporation.
in April.

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ZONAL AVERAGE RAINFALL, STD AND EVAPORATION ANALYSIS
Zone Districts, 2000 boundaries Annual and its zonal variability Main rainy seasons Main dry seasons Evaporation verses rainfall

CENTRAL WESTERN AREAS TO CENTRAL REGION


MW Kabarole, Kasese, Northern Average of 1223 mm. High
Two rainy seasons, main season Main dry season December Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of ~ 5
Rukungiri, Bushenyi and variability, lowest ~ 800 mm Kasese
August to November with peak in to late March, secondary during the dry months, December to March.
Mbarara Rift Valley, highest over slopes of
September to November and dry season is June to July. During the rainy months, March, and August
Rwenzori mountains, over 1500mm.
secondary season March to May with to November rainfall > evaporation.
peak in April.
ME Mubende, West Mpigi, Average of 1021 mm. Two rainy seasons, main season Main dry season June to Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of ~ 6
Sembabule, and Northern March to May with peak in April and August, secondary dry during the dry months, June to August.
Rakai secondary season September to season is January to During the main rainy months, April and
December with a modest peak in February. May rainfall ~ evaporation.
November.
B Luwero, Mukono, Kampala, Average of 1250 mm. Two rainy seasons, main season Main dry season December Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of ~ 2
and Mpigi. March to May with peak in April and to February, secondary dry during the dry months, December to
secondary season August to season is June to July. February. During the peak of the rainy
November with a modest peak in seasons rainfall is greater and or equal to
October/November. evaporation.
SOUTH WESTERN AREAS TO WESTERN SHORES OF LAKE VICTORIA BASIN
CW Kisoro, Kabale, Ntugamo, Average of 1120 mm. Two rainy seasons, main season Main dry season June to Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of ~ 3
Southern Rukungiri September to December with peak in August, secondary dry during the dry months, June to August.
Bushenyi and Mbarara October/November and secondary season is January and During the rainy seasons rainfall is greater
season March to May with a peak in February. and or equal to evaporation.
April.
CE Rakai, West Masaka, and Average of 915 mm. Two rainy seasons, main season Main dry season June to Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of ~ 5
East Mbarara March to May with peak in April and August, secondary dry during the dry months, June to August.
secondary season September to season is January and During the main rainy season rainfall is
December with a peak in February. greater and or equal to evaporation.
October/November.
A1_ Western shores of Lake Average of 1057 mm. Two rainy seasons, main season Main dry season June to Evaporation > rainfall by a factor of ~ 3
W Victoria and Western March to May with peak in April and September, secondary dry during the dry months, June to August.
Masaka. secondary season October to season is January and During the main rainy season rainfall is
December with a peak in November. February. greater and or equal to evaporation.
These climatological zones are very useful for the presentation and analysis of features of the hydro-climatic regime and derivation of the
Intensity - Duration - Frequency relationships in an area.

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3.0 INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES
In the design process, two important characteristics of the 'design' storm are considered:
-

- The duration, and

- Intensity of rainfall.

To assist in arriving at the 'intensity of rainfall' for the design storm duration, Intensity-
Duration-Frequency relationships have been derived using the 'Watkins and Fiddes'
approach which uses the following relationship: -

Equation 1

a
itT n
t b

Where a, b and n are coefficients,

ttT is the intensity (in mm/hr) of duration t hours of rainfall and return period T years.

The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) graphs obtained for the zones of interest to


this study i.e. g, h & i, are as shown in annex 1 of this report. For Designers to
determine the intensity of rainfall to be used for design purposes as derived from the
time of concentration or otherwise they will use these IDF curves.

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4.0 DRAINAGE DESIGN PARAMETERS
The table below provides a guide towards the design of rural transport drainage
structures in terms of choice of return period and duration of design storm.

Table 2: Drainage Structure Design Return Periods

Drainage Return Design Storm The intensity of rainfall (mm/hr) is


feature Period (Yrs) duration equivalent to the indicated value or is
(min) to be determined from the indicated
graph

All Demarcated Zones

Side drainage 5 10 Read off the 5-year Return period 10min


and relief storm from the Intensity-Duration-
culverts. Frequency Curves in Annex 1
Drifts 10 10 (Tc) IDF IDF IDF
Bridges 25 or 50 Tc IDF IDF IDF

The parenthesis provide for alternative approaches to design when catchments are
mapped out for Drift crossings and bridges.

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5.0 DESIGN FLOOD DETERMINATION FOR BRIDGES, BOX
CULVERTS, ETC USING THE RATIONAL METHOD
The following step-by-step approach will be used by designers intending to determine
the design discharge from a catchment of interest as delineated from a topographical
map. Most of the parameters to be used are explained earlier.

Design Assumptions

The main assumptions inherent to this method are:

(i) The design storm produces a uniform rainfall intensity over the entire catchment

(ii) The relationship between rainfall intensity and rate of runoff is a constant for a
particular catchment.

(iii) Time of concentration (Tc) is the time taken for rainwater to flow from the
hydraulically must remote point to the catchment exit.

(iv) The flood peak at the catchment exit occurs at the time of concentration (Tc).

(v) The coefficient of runoff (C) is constant and independent of rainfall intensity.

Step 1: Determine the catchment area i.e. area that contributes runoff to the inlet
of drainage structure (A).

Step 2: Determine the runoff coefficient (C). The runoff coefficient can be
estimated by use of the table 3 below:

8
Table 3: Runoff Coefficient Parameters

Runoff coefficient (C) = Cs + Ck + Cv

Cs (topography) Ck (soils) Cv (vegetation)

Very flat < 1% 0.03 Sand & 0.04 Forest 0.04


gravel
Undulating 1 – 10% 0.08 Sandy clay 0.08 Farmland 0.11
Hilly 10 – 20% 0.16 Clay & loam 0.16 Grassland 0.21
Mountainous > 20% 0.26 Sheet rock 0.26 No 0.28
vegetable

Step 3: Estimate the time of concentration (Tc)

For larger catchments:

- Determine the Length (L) of the mainstream,


- Estimate the Slope (S) of the main stream,
- Using the formula given in equation 2 below, calculate Tc as
follows:

Equation 2

0.385
0.87 L2
TC Hours
1000 S

Where L = Length of main steam (Km)


S = Average slope of main stream (m/m)

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Step 4: Determine the corresponding rainfall intensity (I)

In order to determine the corresponding design rainfall intensity, the


following has to be done:

- Determine the drainage feature return period from table 2 above,


- Using the return period above determine the intensity of rainfall from
the Intensity – Duration – frequency curves (figures B - D) at the
time Tc. This is the rainfall duration expected to yield a maximum
flood at the drainage structure entry point.

NB. It should be noted at this stage that figures B, C and D provide IDF
curves for zones I, G and H respectively. Therefore, the particular zone
for which the drainage structure is being design should be taken note of
at this stage so that the correct intensity is obtained from the right IDF
curve.

Step 5: Estimate the Area Reduction Factor (ARF)

The following formula for ARF developed by Fiddes for East Africa
should be used to convert the maximum intensity (I) to an average
rainfall intensity covering the whole catchment:

Equation 3

ARF 1 0.044A0.275

Step 5: Calculate the Design peak flow (Q) by applying equation 4 below:

Equation 4

C ARF I A
Q (m 3 / s)
3.6

Where Q = The Maximum Design Flood

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5.1 GUIDELINES FOR DRAINAGE STRUCTURE PROVISION
1. For road sections with Unlined side drains in situations where only Turnouts or
Mitre drains can be provided for the longitudinal drainage system the table 4 below
provides guidelines on the maximum frequency of turning off water using mitre
drains or turnouts.

Table 4: Mitre Drain spacing for Unlined Side Drainage Channels

Contour Rate Slope or gradient MAXIMUM Spacing of Mitre drains (m)


(%)
(5m ground
contours)

2 1 200
4 2 150
6 3 100
>6 >3 Line with stone masonry or concrete lining or
apply scour checks

It is uneconomical to provide turnouts for side drainage gradients in excess of 3%


because then the required frequency of turnouts is very high (<= 20m).

NB. It should be noted that the frequency of turnouts for unlined drains is
more dependant on how much the erosive velocity threshold for bare
ground is exceeded and not the capacity of the drainage ditch. The
erosive threshold for unlined drains is approximately 0.9m/s and flow
velocity beyond this cause erosion damage to the road infrastructure.

The location of the mitre drains/offshoots shall be established in


cooperation and agreement with the Land Owners.

2. It is recommended that for all road alignments with grades > 3%, the side drainage
should be lined to avoid the consequences of severe erosion. For road sections
where some form of Lining (stone pitching or concrete lining) has been provided,
then the frequency of providing Offshoots/Turnouts/Mitre drains are as indicated in
the table 5 below.

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Table 5: Mitre Drain spacing for Lined Side Drainage Channels

Contour Rate Slope or gradient MAXIMUM MAXIMUM


(%) Spacing of Mitre Spacing of Mitre
(5m ground
drains (m) drains (m)
contours)

Type of Lining Stone Pitching Concrete Lining


2 1 450 950
4 2 650 1350
6 3 750 1700
8 4 900 1950
10 5 1000 2150
12 6 1100 2400
14 7 1200 2600
16 8 1300 2750
18 9 1350 2950
20 10 1450 3100

3. For special situations whereby both Relief Culverts OR Turnouts and 200mm
Scour Checks can be provided on the side drainage system, then following
guidelines in the table 6 apply to all alignments. The maximum spacing between
relief structures i.e. Culverts/ Mitre drains/offshoots will be 350m.

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Table 6: Considerations for Provision of Scour Checks (table Dwg No. WWP 001
Sheet 1/1)

Contour Rate Slope or Level difference between MAXIMUM


gradient (%) Sour Checks (mm)
(5m ground Spacing of Scour Checks
contours) (m)

2 1 60 25
4 2 30 12
6 3 15 7
8 4 10 5
10 5 10 4
>10 5 Line side drainage system

Other considerations need to be taken into account when providing for culverts
in this case as opposed to turnouts: -

- The majority of relief culvert locations require a single 600mm


diameter barrel with larger or multiple openings reserved for
permanent water crossings or larger catchments,

- Provision of culverts should only be considered for situations when


it is not possible to provide turnouts, and

- Stop end Drop inlet structures should be constructed as substitutes


for turnouts to channel water through the culvert structure from the
uphill side of the road to the lower side.

3. Culverts should be provided at the bottom or sag of any two straights with a
minimum diameter of 900mm.

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4. For the Design of single barrel culverts table 7 shows guide discharge
values and corresponding culvert diameters that can convey the discharge.
The assumption made is that 95% efficiency of discharge is achieved due to
inlet and outlet friction and other losses. For the design of multiple barrel
culverts the table 7 shows guide discharge values and corresponding culvert
diameters that can convey the discharge. The assumption made is that 80%
efficiency of discharge is achieved due to inlet and outlet friction and other
losses

Table 7: Capacity and Inlet Velocities for Piped Culverts

Diameter Number of Pipe Barrels


of Culvert
1 2 3 4 5
(mm)

V Q V Q V Q V Q V Q
(m/s) (m3/s) (m/s) (m3/s) (m/s) (m3/s) (m/s) (m3/s) (m/s) (m3/s)

600 1.51 0.4275 1.272 0.72 1.272 1.08 1.272 1.44 1.272 1.80
900 1.793 1.140 1.509 1.92 1.509 2.88 1.509 3.84 1.509 4.80
1000 1.997 1.568 1.682 1.32 1.682 3.96 1.682 5.28 1.682 6.60
1200 2.100 2.375 1.768 4.00 1.768 6.00 1.768 8.00 1.768 10.00
1500 2.312 4.085 1.947 6.88 1.947 10.32 1.947 13.76 1.947 17.20

*Main assumptions include that the pipes flow full at the inlet and the Headwater to
Culvert Diameter ratio is 1.2.

The Engineer will have to use his judgment for discharge flows that lie
between those indicated in the table above to interpolate and establish the
number of barrels needed to carry a given discharge. More so, for situations
demanding more than 5 barrels of a given culvert diameter given site cover
limitations or otherwise, the Engineer will have to extrapolate the
discharges for multiple culverts to arrive at the required number of barrels.

14
5. For the design of both vented and normal drift crossings will be based on
the over-flow peak discharge as determined from the contributing catchment
during the wet weather. The drift will be defined by the DIP (h) designed to
suit the overflow discharge and also prevent the flood flows spreading.
Figure E below provides a graphical guide for determining the Plan length
(L) of the approach slab for different DIP (h) values of 300, 500 and 700
mm and also deck slab lengths (B). The Engineer will have to use his
judgment of the maximum clearance acceptable for the drift crossing
depending of the traffic using that particular route. The maximum DIP (h) =
700mm can be used for routes where the most common traffic type are
Heavy trucks, Lorries and other Heavy Goods Vehicles which have high
chassis clearances. The normal DIP (h) value should be 300mm for small
design flood discharges with high flood design discharge taking on DIP (h)
values of 500mm. Therefore, in the design for drifts, the main variables will
be three i.e. DIP (h), deck slab length and slope of the approach slab.

The design of openings for vented drifts will be based on the dry weather
flow. Since culverts will form most openings, then the guide for single and
multiple barrel culverts can be used to determine the number of openings
required to convey the discharge.

Gabion mattresses will usually be required on the downstream side of the


drifts for erosion protection especially when high overflow velocities are
anticipated.

15
Figure B: Variation of Discharge (Q) with Approach Slab Plan Length (L) for Drift DIP value =
300mm

Figure C: Variation of Discharge (Q) with Aproach Slab Length (L) for Drift DIP value = 500mm

16
Figure D: Variation of Discharge (Q) with Aproach Slab Length (L) for Drift DIP value = 700mm

17
6.0 EROSION CONTROL MEASURES
Roads interrupt the internal drainage of an area by concentrating water discharge
through culverts and drains often leading to soil erosion if the drainage is not carefully
planned and constructed.

Good erosion control should preferably start from the top of the rainfall catchment with
the objective of reducing water run out towards the road.

Along the road, sufficient numbers of drifts, vented drifts, culverts and mitre drains
must be installed to avoid large concentrations of water discharging through the
structures. The best approach to date is “Land husbandry” using good land management
practices especially biological control measures

The most important soil erosion control measure is the careful selection of sites for
structures and mitre drains. A guiding principle should be the discharge of water “little
and often”, to avoid potentially harmful concentrations of flow.

6.1 PROTECTION MEASURES


a) Slopes and embankments

- Plant grass or grass turfs

The type of grass to be used should be strong, fast growing and develop
good cover (e.g. napier grass). Grass removed by grubbing can often be
used if collected and stored properly for reuse.

- Stone pitching

Especially for dry areas or very sleep slopes.

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b) Drains & waterways

- Grass

Should be established as soon as possible on the sides and inverts of new


drains and waterways.

- Scour checks

Such as wooden pegs, stones or grass sods to assist establish vegetation (low
growing creeping grasses are must suitable)

- “At-level” scour checks

For gently sloping channels in erodible soils.

c) Gullies

- Establish vegetation
This cover is to aid in the resistance to erosion
- Other structures made from stones or wooden materials

For places where grass and other vegetation – cover is not expected on it’s
own to resist erosion.

19
7.0 CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES FOR DRAINAGE
STRUCTURES
Various drainage measures are needed to satisfactorily deal with rainwater falling on or
near the road. Rainwater is the main cause of damage to district roads and as such a
good drainage system will significantly reduce rainwater damage and in the long run
minimize maintenance requirements.

Water damages district roads in two principal ways:

- Weakening road materials hence reducing traffic heavy bearing capacity.


- Erosion and silting which damages and reduces effectiveness of drainage
system.

An efficient drainage system must therefore collect all rainwater and dispose of it
quickly to minimize road damage. This enables the road materials to rapidly dry out
after the rains and regain traffic bearing strength.

The major components of the drainage system are the following:-

- Road surface camber: - sheds water from road surface


- Side drains: - collect water from road surface and adjoining land.
- Mitre drains: - lead water out of the side drains safely to adjoining land
- Catchwater drains: - intercept surface water flowing towards the road from
adjacent land leading it away.
- Scour check: - prevent erosion in side drains by slowing down water.
- Culverts/drifts/bridges:- allow water pass from one side of the road to the
other.

7.1 REQUIREMENTS OF VARIOUS DRAINAGE STRUCTURES


7.1.1 Mitre Drains

- Must be constructed in a manner to avoid erosion at discharge point,


- Must be provided as often as possible to avoid build up of water volume in
drain,
- Tables 4, 5 and 6 provide guidelines for the frequency of providing mitre
drains,

20
- Discharge should be channeled to garden/shamba/field boundaries and not
into farmland to course nuisance or damage,
- Minimum width of mitre drains should be 0.60m and x-section should have
at least same capacity as side drain,
- Some excavated soil should be used to block the downhill side of drain to
ensure water flows into mitre drain.

7.1.2 Catch-water Drains

- To be provided only for roads situated on hillsides with significant amount


of rainwater flowing from hill towards road,
- Catch-water drain should be constructed to intercept this surface water and
carry it to a safe discharge point usually a natural water course,
- Catch-water drain should have a satisfactory gradient throughout its length
(>2%),
- Catch-water drain should not be so close to the cut face because that will
increase the danger of a land slip,
- If steep gradients are unavoidable then scour checks should be provided,
- Excavated drain material should be placed on the downhill side to form a
bund,
- Vegetation cover should be established as soon as possible in the invert and
sloping sides of catch-water drain to resist erosion,
- Catch-water drains should normally be 0.6m wide, 0.4m deep with side
slope of 3:1

7.1.3 Scour Checks

- To be provided for longitudinal drain gradient steeper than 4% for erodible


soils,
- Should be constructed in natural stones or with wooden stakes,
- Scour check level should be a minimum of 0.2m below edge of
Carriageway,
- Scour checks should not be constructed on roads with grade < 4%,
- An apron should be constructed immediately downstream of scour check
using either stones or grass turfs pinned to the ditch invert with wooden
pegs,

21
- Grass sods should be placed against the upstream face of scour check to
prevent water seeping through scour check and to encourage silting behind
scour check,
- Table 6 provides guidelines for the frequency of providing scour checks.

7.1.4 Grass Planting

- To be used for effective prevention of erosion,


- Should be planted on all slopes where scouring is likely to occur,
- Grass type should be strong, fast growing and provide good coverage.

7.1.5 Turfing

- Excavating an area of live grass and lifting the grass complete with about
50mm of topsoil and roots still attached forms a grass turf. The turfs are
then replanted in another location,
- Grass turfs give a faster and more effective protection to slopes than planted
grass. They can be cut in the grubbing activity,
- The size of the turfs should not be smaller than 0.20x0.20m. Wooden pegs
may be required to secure them on steep slopes. They will require watering
to re-establish themselves.

7.1.6 Lined Side Drains

- If a side drain is more than 200m long without a mitre drain or relief culvert,
and its gradient is greater than 3%, there will be a serious risk of erosion. In
this situation consideration should be given to lining the ditch invert and
lower sides with hand packed stones. These should be well bedded and
wedged into place with smaller stones and soil,
- Side drain lining may be necessary for sections of road with “sunken”
profile,
- It is also effective for short steep sections of road where drains have a
gradient of more than 8% and there is an erosion risk.

22
7.1.7 Drainage for Roads with a 'Sunken' Profile

Roads with a “sunken profile” refers to roads that have been trafficked for many years,
subjected to poor grading practices or suffering from severe erosion such that they are
situated below the surrounding ground level for a considerable length.

This situation presents serious drainage problems as even after improvement


operations, they can still be impossible to drain. They will simply act as channels in
wet weather creating continuous maintenance problems.

Where a road with a sunken profile exceeds 200m in length without any possibility to
take away water to surrounding ground, the following drainage options should be
considered: -

a) Raise the level of the road, at least in some locations so that it may drain
to the adjoining land,
b) Where option (a) is difficult to achieve or where the earthworks
involved would be excessive and the road has a noticeable longitudinal
gradient, then ditch lining should be considered with a possibility of
increasing ditch cross-section area,
c) In some locations constructing additional drains parallel to the road
several metres offset from the side drains may relieve the volume of
water in the side drains. These should be 1m wide and excavated to a
level just below the side drains. Water should be channeled from the
side drain to the parallel drains by constructed mitre drains between
them at least every 20m. This option should be carefully considered as
it creates considerable additional drainage maintenance. Deep parallel
drains are difficult to desilt, can rapidly become overgrown and shelter
wildlife as a hazard to maintenance workers,
d) If the soil adjacent to the road is free draining e.g. sandy, mitre drains
can be constructed to soakaway ponds. These ponds may be constructed
of suggested dimensions 5m x 5m x 1m deep for example every 50m
along both sides of the road. This capacity would be able to hold water
falling on the road from a storm of at least 100mm of rain. If infiltration
to the surrounding ground is high, the spacing would be increased

23
correspondingly. The soakaway ponds need to be desilted in the dry
season. Smaller but deeper ponds filed with rocks and larger stones may
be more appropriate in some situations. Soakaway pond should be
located at least 10m from the side drains.

24
8.0 COST EFFECTIVE DRAINAGE DESIGN
The design and appraisal of rural transport infrastructure drainage interventions is field
that is not always properly articulated in most rural transport manuals. Whereas the
poor condition of rural roads will hinder poverty reduction efforts and stifle economic
growth, the poor condition of rural transport drainage systems often precludes
development altogether. The concept of low cost structures has often been misused as
we seek to spend as little as possible on rural transport network infrastructure. It is in
this regard that we should adopt the new notion of "Least Life Cycle Cost" which
means the option that will cost least in the life of the infrastructure taking into account
construction, maintenance, all-weather operability and access.

It has often been the norm in Uganda to associate the provision of cross drainage
infrastructure with only culverts, bridges or box culverts even where it is inappropriate.
It should be noted at this stage that other drainage infrastructure exists which is even
more amenable to the notion of Least Life Cycle Cost options by providing reliable and
efficient all-weather access. Therefore, for cost effective design options such as drifts
and vented drifts need to be considered because they provide more reliable all-weather
access and operability for least maintenance of rural networks compared to the
traditional options.

Various studies have provided evidence that poverty is more pervasive in areas with no
or unreliable motorized access (often referred to as unconnected areas). It should also
be noted that the poor drainage design is a major contributor to these problems by
creating isolated trouble spots on the network, which are often impassable during
inclement weather conditions. Research in this area has revealed that the long-term
improvement of trouble spots using submersible structures such as vented drifts and
drifts can yield considerable benefits by having roads that are open all year round to
bicycles, animal drawn carts and motorized transport. These structures provide the key
to keeping all previously unconnected areas open and accessible hence complementing
Government's poverty reduction strategies by way of increased access to economic
opportunities and social services. Without adequate rural transport networks, rural
communities lack the necessary physical access for domestic responsibilities,
agricultural activities, social and economic services, and job opportunities. Without
reliable access to markets and productive areas, economic development stagnates, and

25
poverty reduction cannot be sustained. Therefore, spot drainage improvements to the
rural network using long-term drainage solutions especially drift and vented drifts
crossings are a viable alternative available to the District Engineers and should be taken
into account.

Effective transport as a complementary input to nearly every aspect of rural activity is


an essential element of poverty reduction. The removal of surface water is crucial for
the success of rural networks because weather causes more damage that does traffic.
This means that adequate side drains and carefully designed cross drainage structures
are required. Usually, stone or concrete drifts are viable alternatives and substitutes for
culverts. It is always essential to remember that very limited resources will be available
for maintenance. As such, the use of structures that can be overtopped without damage
e.g. drifts or vented drifts, at minimal maintenance in the place of culverts, will most
likely be economically justified especially for areas prone to flooding. For small rivers
and streams with wet-weather flow only, a simple drift is usually adequate to secure
vehicle access. However, for continuous flows, vented drifts can be designed to pass
normal discharge, only submerging during floods.

To sum up from the above discussion, it is quite important to explore all available cross
-drainage options in view 'least life cycle cost' before any decision is taken on building
one. The notion of low-cost should be avoided for it leads to poor designs. It is
therefore very important that all drainage options be considered in light of maintenance
& construction costs and all-weather accessibility or passability.

26
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE J)

250

200
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

150 2 yr
5 yr
10 yr

100 25 yr
50 yr

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

I
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE I)

350

300

250
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

2 yr
200
5 yr
10 yr
150 25 yr
50 yr
100

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

II
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE G)

300

250

200
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

2 yr
5 yr
150
10 yr
25 yr
50 yr
100

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

III
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE K)

350

300

250
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

2 yr
200
5 yr
10 yr
150 25 yr
50 yr
100

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

IV
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE H)

250

200
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

150 2 yr
5 yr
10 yr

100 25 yr
50 yr

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

V
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE E)

300

250

200
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

2 yr
5 yr
150
10 yr
25 yr
50 yr
100

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

VI
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE F)

250

200
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

150 2 yr
5 yr
10 yr

100 25 yr
50 yr

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

VII
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE L)

200

180

160

140
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

120 2 yr
5 yr
100
10 yr

80 25 yr
50 yr
60

40

20

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

VIII
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE MW)

180

160

140

120
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

2 yr
100 5 yr
10 yr
80
25 yr
50 yr
60

40

20

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

IX
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE ME)

250

200
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

150 2 yr
5 yr
10 yr

100 25 yr
50 yr

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

X
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE B)

300

250

200
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

2 yr
5 yr
150
10 yr
25 yr
50 yr
100

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

XI
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE A1)

600

500

400
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

2 yr
5 yr
300
10 yr
25 yr
50 yr
200

100

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

XII
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE A2)

300

250

200
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

2 yr
5 yr
150
10 yr
25 yr
50 yr
100

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

XIII
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE D)

300

250

200
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

2 yr
5 yr
150
10 yr
25 yr
50 yr
100

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

XIV
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE CE)

250

200
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

150 2 yr
5 yr
10 yr

100 25 yr
50 yr

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

XV
Annex 1 Intensity – Duration – Frequency Curves for all the Demarcated Rainfall Zones

INTENSITY - DURATION - FREQUENCY CURVES (ZONE CW)

200

150
INTENSITY (mm/hr)

2 yr
5 yr
10 yr
100
25 yr
50 yr

50

-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
DURATION (min)

XVI