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DEVELOPMENT OF COMMON WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

(WBS) FOR SCHOOL PROJECT

AZHAR BIN ABDULLAH

University of Technology Malaysia


DEVELOPMENT OF WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
(WBS) FOR SCHOOL PROJECT

2006/2007
AZHAR BIN ABDULLAH

No.28 JALAN AU 1B/ 2C


TAMAN KERAMAT PERMAI PM DR MOHAMAD IBRAHIM MOHAMAD

54200 KUALA LUMPUR


DEVELOPMENT OF COMMON WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
(WBS) FOR SCHOOL PROJECT

AZHAR BIN ABDULLAH

A Project Report submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of


The Requirement for The Award of
The Degree of Master of Science (Construction Management)

Faculty of Civil Engineering


University of Technology Malaysia

November 2006
“I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this

thesis is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the

degree of Master of Science (Construction Management)”

Signature : ……………………….......................

Name of Supervisor I : PM Dr. Mohamad Ibrahim Mohamad

Date : . .
ii

DECLARATION

“I declare that this master’s report entitle “Development of Work Breakdown


Structure (WBS) for School Projects” is the result of my own effort and research
except as cited in references. This report has not been accepted for any degree and
is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

Signature : ………………………………………

Name of writer : AZHAR BIN ABDULLAH

Date : 8 Disember 2006


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To my wife
Naziah bt. Yusoff
Thank you for your everlasting trust
To my sons and daughter
Ahmad Wildan, Ahmad Addeen, Ahmad Khaldun, Ahmad Uwais, Ainna Falihin
Abah will keep on trying to be the best father in the world.
To my self
Syukur Alham dulillah
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project was never an individual effort, because in completing it, the author
was assist with many good and supportive people. The author was in contact with many
academicians from the University of Technology Malaysia and Mara University of
Technology , practitioners, consultants and people who are involve directly or indirectly
in the construction industry.

First and foremost, the author would like to extend his greatest thank you to the
project supervisor, Associate Professor Dr Mohamad Ibrahim Mohammad for his
enthusiastic effort and concern in guiding the author through this project. Without his
continuous advise and support, this thesis would never been the same as presented here.

The author would also like to extend his deepest gratitude to his family especially
his wife and children for their continuous understanding, patient, encouragement and
supports to the author through out the completion of this thesis.

May Allah blessed you all.


v

ABSTRACT

A lot have been said about delayed school projects. Among the main factors that
contribute to the problem are lacking of experience among the contractor, adopting non
suitable and non detailed scheduling method for project monitoring. Ministry of Works
and The Ministry of Education are two main bodies that offer school tender. They used
two different methods of tendering procedure which come out with two different methods
of project scheduling and monitoring.

Bear in mind that every scheduling technique has its own limitation. Proper
preparation of scheduling however will help in avoiding delay of completion. This
project explore the potential of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) as a tool to enhance
the current scheduling method. Focus is given only on school projects. Among the
objectives of this project are to identified the normal steps in preparing WBS in the
project scheduling and to develop a common Work Breakdown Structure specifically for
school projects.

The methodology adopted involving literature search, interview with authorities,


consultants and contractors who have experienced in school projects. Analysis based on
the structured interview was used to identify the main reason for project delay. Result
from the survey has shown that reasons for school delayed are no proper scheduling tools
and lack of experience and bad site management. A newly developed common WBS for
school project is also proposed and used by contractors in assisting them during the
preparation of work scheduling on site.
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ABSTRAK

Banyak yang telah diperkatakan mengenai projek sekolah di Malayisa. Antara


factor utama yang di katakana menyumbang kepada masalah ini ialah kekurangan
pengalaman di pihak kontraktor dan penggunaan teknik penjadualan yang tidak betul di
tapak bina. Dua badan utaman yang menganugerahkan tender projek sekolah adalah
Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kementerian Kerja Raya. Mereka menggunakan kaedah
tender yang berbeza yang menghasilkan beberapa kaedah penjadualan tapak yang
berbeza beza di kalangan kontraktor.

Perlu di ingatkan bahawa setiap teknik penjadualan mempunyai had mereka


masing-masing. Penyediaan penjadualan yang betul dilihat boleh mengelakkan
kelewatan melaksanakan kerja. Kajian ini meneroka potensi Work Breakdown Structure
(WBS) sebagai satu alat untuk menambahbaikan kaedah penjagualan semasa. Tumpuan
hanya akan diberi keatas projek sekolah. Antara objektif kajian ini adalah untuk
mengenalpasti kaedah yang di gunakan untuk meyediakan Work Breakdown Structure
(WBS) dalam penjadualan projek dan membangunkan satu Work Breakdown Structure
(WBS) khusus untuk projek sekolah.

Metodologi kajian melibatkan kajian literatur dan temubual dengan pegawai


kerajaan, perunding, dan kontraktor yang mempunyai pengalaman dalam projek sekolah.
Analisa terhadap hasil temubual terancang dengan individu-individu berkenaan
digunakan untuk mengenal pasti punca kelewatan dan tertangguh projek sekolah. Dalam
kesimpulan kajian, masalah utama kontraktor dalam kelewatan untuk melaksanakan
projek sekolah telah di kenalpasti. Punca utama nya ‘Work Breakdown Structure’ yang
umum untuk projek sekolah telah berjaya di bangunkan. Ianya boleh diguna pakai oleh
kontraktor dalam penyediaan proses penjadualan kerja di tapak bina.
vii

CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

DECLARATION ii
DEDICATION iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
ABSTRACT v - vi
CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES xii
LIST OF FIGURES xiv
LIST OF APPENDICES xiii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background 1
1.2 Problem Statement 2
1.3 Objectives 4
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study 4
1.5 Brief and Methodology 5
viii

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7

2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Malaysian School Projects 8
2.3 Method of Awarding Contract 9
2.3.1 Traditional Design, Tender and Construct
Contract 9
2.3.2 Design and Build Contract 10
2.3.3 Construction Management Contract 11
2.4 Main Contract Document 12
2.5 Project Planning and Scheduling for School
Construction 13
2.5.1 Project Scheduling 14
2.6 Types and choice of Scheduling Method 15
2.6.1 Computer Application on Project
Scheduling 15
2.6.2 Microsoft Project (MSP) Software 16
2.6.3 Primavera Project Planner (P3) Software 17
2.7 Basic Scheduling Technique 17
2.7.1 Gantt Chart 18
2.7.2 Arrow Diagram Method 21
2.7.3 Precedence Diagramming Method 22
2.7.4 Project Evaluation Review Technique
(PERT) 23
2.7.5 Line of Balance 24
2.8 Summary 25
ix

CHAPTER 3 ROLE OF WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE


IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT 26

3.1 Introduction 26
3.2 Work Breakdown Structure 27
3.3 Level of Works Breakdown Structure 28
3.4 Application of Work Breakdown Structure 30
3.5 Purposes and Benefits of WBS 32
3.5.1 WBS in Work Identification and
Assignment 36
3.5.2 WBS in Schedule Management 36
3.5.3 WBS in Plans 37
3.5.4 Status Reporting 37
3.5.5 Cost Management 38
3.5.6 Cost Estimating 38
3.5.7 Budgeting and Cost Control 39
3.6 WBS as a Performance Management 41
3.7 Failure of Works Breakdown Structure 41
3.8 Summary 43

CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY 45

4.1 Introduction 45
4.2 Determination of the Research Objective 46
4.3 Case Study on School Projects 47
4.3.1 Research Materials 47
4.3.2 Development of Questionnaire for the
x

Survey 48
4.4 Interview with Panel of Experts (Client) 49
4.4.1 Methodology of the Panel of Expert
Interview 50
4.4.2 Structured Questionnaire Discussion 50
4.5 Analyzing the WBS (Case Study) 51
4.6 Preliminary Guidelines for Preparing WBS for
Project Scheduling/ Construction Programme 52
4.7 Recommendation of a WBS for a Sample Project 54

CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 55

5.1 Introduction 55
5.2 Effect of Registration Grade and Type of
Documentation on the Completion of School
Projects 70
5.3 Lack of Experience Affecting School Projects
Delay 70
5.4 Effect of Work Programme on the Completion
Of School Project 70

CHAPTER 6 DEVELOPMENT OF WBS FORMAT AND


GUIDELINES 72

6.1 Introduction 72
6.2 Preparation of WBS 73
6.3 Proposed Format of WBS Presentation 74
6.4 Guidelines for the Designing of WBS 78
6.5 Criteria in Developing the WBS 81
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6.6 Checklist for the Preparation of WBS 82


6.7 An Example of a WBS for a School Construction
Project 84
6.7.1 Project Brief 84
6.7.2 WBS on Construction of Sample Project
(School Building) 85

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 95

7.1 Introduction 95
7.2 Managing School Projects in the Future 96
7.3 Concept and Application of WBS in School
Project Scheduling 96
7.4 Application of WBS in Construction Schedules
for Selected School Projects 97
7.5 To Initiate/ Propose Format and Guidelines for
WBS 98
7.6 Example of WBS for a Building School Project 99
7.7 Conclusion 99
7.8 Recommendation 101

REFERENCES 102

APPENDIX I 104

APPENDIX II 105
xii

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE

3.1 A typical of six-level project WBS 29


3.2 Work Breakdown Structure Outline 31
5.1 The summary of CIDB Registration grade and Type of
Contract documentation for delayed and non-delayed
school projects. 56
5.2 Summary of the expert panels and contractors involved
in the case study 58
5.3 Content Analysis – Summary of views from twenty
respondence towards the causes of school project delay 56
5.4 Comparison of construction activities generated from
Contract Document and Contract Sum Analysis 63
5.5 Comparison of construction activities based on WBS
element in project schedule generated from contract
document 66
6.1 Example of WBS for a school building project 85
xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX TITLE PAGE

I Detailed background of respondence 104

II Questionnaires for the expert panels and contractors 105


xiv

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE

1.1 Brief Methodology 6


2.1 Contractual Relationship between every party involve
under the traditional design, tender and construct contract 10
2.2 Contractual Relationship of all party involved under the
Design and Build Type of contract 11
2.3 Contractual Relationship of all party involved under the
Construction Management contract 12
2.4 Example of Gantt Chart 20
2.5 Example of Arrow Diagramming Method 21
2.6 Example of Precedence Diagramming Method 22
3.1 A typical work breakdown structure 30
3.2 An example of WBS 35
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Construction industry is very unique and complex due to the


involvement of many parties and consumption of varieties of resources.
According to Ballard and Howell (1998) construction covers a spectrum ranging
from slow, certain, and simple project to quick, uncertain and complex project.
In addition, Koskela(1992) stated that construction is unique in the sense of it is
one-of a kind nature of projects, site production and temporary multi-
organization. However, failure of establishing a good management system in
construction project will lead to many problems that would cause cost of project
increases, late completion of project and low quality which finally reduce the
profit of the contractor.

According to Hendrickson (1989) good scheduling can eliminate


problems due to production bottlenecks, facilitate the timely procurement of
necessary materials, and otherwise insure the completion of a project as soon as
possible. In contrast, poor scheduling can result in considerable waste as
laborers and equipment wait for the availability of needed resources or the
completion of preceding tasks. Delays in the completion of an entire project due
2

to poor scheduling can also create havoc for owners who are eager to start using
the constructed facilities.

Currently, projects in Malaysia were monitored using several types of


project scheduling technique, where the most common approach is by using
Gantt Chart, Line of Balance or Networking technique such as Arrow Diagram
Method, Precedence Diagramming Method and Project Evaluation Review
Technique (PERT). However, Hendricson (1989) stated that there are several
limitations to these methods. These limitations has lead to a lot of problems as
mentioned by Koskela (1992). Therefore this research work focused on project
delay which is one of the contributing factor to project failure. However, only
school project has been chosen for the case study of this research work.

1.2 Problem Statement

Malaysia experiences a high growth in construction that lasted more than


one decade. In less than twenty years, Malaysia was crowned as having the most
developed infrastructure in East Asian countries, from what was once a
backward third world facility. Many success stories made it to the front page of
world press but very little of the major flop in construction sector ever make it to
the publics’ knowledge. Malaysian has it fair share of project cost overruns,
delays and uncompleted infrastructure development.

One only needs to pay more attention to realize that a large portion of the
development was not completed as planned, especially in the less “public-
aware” segment like government schools construction programs. In general,
among the prime factor that contributes prominently to project cost overrun and
delayed in project completion, is failure to continuously monitor the project
timely and diligently. Issues of abandoned uncompleted school construction
3

project or worse, completed but unfit for occupation should be given more
attention.

In Malaysia, the two relevant bodies that are responsible for handling out
schools construction works are The Ministry of Works or commonly known as
JKR and The Ministry of Education (MOE). While JKR utilizes the “Open
Tendering” method, MOE uses the Design and Build (Turnkey) system.
Although in this context the method of awarding the schools construction
projects can not be argued as a predetermined outcome of the particular project,
it is nevertheless undeniable that each of this mentioned method of awarding
projects has their benefits and their weakness.

Delayed or sometimes, abandoned school projects were always related to


poor site management, inexperienced contractors, poor mobilization of resources
such as man power and machineries, poor communication among parties
involved and most important of all is lack of knowledge in using the appropriate
scheduling technique. Although there are several scheduling technique practiced
by contractors, it seems that delays still occurs. Issues related to the limitation of
current practice in scheduling, lack of having good and relevant Work
Breakdown Structures in project schedule, consistency and coordination
between the process in preparation of Bill of Quantities and project schedule
must be given priority in order to minimized such cause. Often, these forgotten
element is remembered only when the project is underway and required the
missing element. In most cases, forgotten works has serious influence on the
development schedule and delivery, and may impact the project cost severely.
The WBS is one tool that if used correctly, helps everyone involved avoid such
occurrence by ensuring that nothing significant has been forgotten.
4

1.3 Objectives

The aim of this study is to develop a common work breakdown structure


(WBS) for school construction projects. This study will look into the current
approach in preparing of WBS elements in school construction project. It will
also investigate and analyzes the limitation of current scheduling method
commonly used in school construction project.
The objectives of this study are as follows:

i. To analyse the work breakdown system in current school


construction contract.
ii. To investigate the actual requirement in project breakdown and
to facilitate the work process at site.
iii. To develop a common Work Breakdown Structure system for
school construction project.

1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scopes and limitation of this study are as follows:

i. The focus of this study confine within the school construction


projects only.

ii. Observation done on contract documents produced by the


Ministry of Works and Ministry of Education, all related to
school construction projects.

iii. Observation was also done on work program used by contractors


for these school construction projects. Attention was focused on
how the work is being divided on site and on how these normal
5

methods are used by contractors on guiding them in terms of


project scheduling reports, managing resources and controlling
budget.

iv. Structured interview with professionals, panels of expert,


consultant and contractors within the industries. Findings from
these interviews will be utilized to develop a common WBS that
can be used to better guide, control and manage sub-contractors,
contractors and the clients specifically for school construction
projects.

1.5 Brief Methodology

The flow chart of research methodology for this study is shown in Figure 1.1
6

Problem Statement, Objectives & Scope of Study.

Identification of current procedures, their advantages and limitations.


Studies on scheduling techniques used to monitor project performance.
Factor that contribute to unperformed or delay in schools project
scheduling method and site management.

Literature Search

Comparison on contract documents, work programs and WBS elements


on selected school projects. Interview and discussion with Panels of
Experts in the industry and contractors.

Analysis and
Validation of a common WBS

Study on elements in current WBS


Each element will be break down into further levels of detail until they
reach the level of work packages, which are portions of the project.

Discussion, Conclusion &


Recommendation.
Analysis of the proposed Common Work breakdown Structure, conclusion
and recommendations. Proposed of a new
Common Work Breakdown Structure specifically
for school construction projects.

Figure 1.1 Brief Methodology


CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

The project schedule is one of the most important components of a


school project development plan. This plan is often the first formal document
generated within the school project, and includes not only the scheduling of
development activities but also the scheduling of project resources. The project
development plan describes in detail how the project manager plans to develop
the project, what resources will be required, and how these resources will be
applied (Martin 1996).

A schedule is a list of activities and their anticipated time of


implementation. There are many ways of representing a schedule: lists of
activities, diagrams, graphs, etc. The most common methods of schedule
representation are precedence network diagrams, Gantt charts, and lists of
milestones. The schedule, as part of the overall project development plan, must
be periodically updated. In order to enable the project manager to maintain an
updated schedule, current update-to-date information must flow regularly from
the development team. This is achieved through periodic reports, reviews, and
other monitoring activities (Martin 1996).
8

2.2 Malaysian School Projects.

Malaysian Government has always put a lot of emphasis on the nation’s


education development. Educational spending thus has always been substantial
in comparison to other government spending. Under the recently approved
annual budget, The Ministry of Education has identified 54 new schools
construction projects for year 2007. On a grander scale, more development was
proposed under the new Ninth Malaysia Plan (9MP).

Besides new school construction projects planned for year 2007, the
Ministry has further ascertained another 220 schools for upgrading development.
With the advent of these projects and the fact that, historical records on school
construction projects show poor completions, the Ministry has no other choice
but to adopt a tougher stance on irresponsible contractors.

Under this year school construction project master plan, the Ministry will
construct 9 new primary schools in various part of Malaysia at a cost of around
RM82million. The Ministry also set their sight on building additional 10 full
boarding schools costing an estimated RM400million. The major part of the
master plan goes to constructing 35 secondary schools on a budget of
RM353million. As for the 220 school upgrading programs, it is estimated to
cost RM195million. All in all, government spending on school constructions and
school upgrading programs will be in excess of RM980million. With so much
money and responsibility at stake, the government has always been in the look
out for a better monitoring and administration tool.
9

2.3 Method of Awarding Contract

There is no single project organization chart that will represent the entire
organizational structure for all the players in the construction industry,
regardless of type of contract. The current practice allows different agencies in
Malaysia to practice different ways of contract award procedure. The three most
common types of construction contracts are;

a) Traditional (design – bid – built) contract


b) Design & Build contract
c) Construction Management contract.

2.3.1 Traditional design, tender and construct contract

The Ministry of Works has been adopting this type of contract awarding
technique for years. Under this traditional contract the Ministry usually engages
the services of a professional architect or qualified engineer to execute the
planning and design work, which includes the preparation of the tender
documents. Upon completion of the tender documents, contractors are normally
invited to tender for the project. Successful contractor will be awarded the
contract. Upon awarding of the project, the successful contractor will carry out
the construction works. During the construction stage, the role of architect or
engineer whose previous task was to prepare the tender documents switch their
role to function as the client representative to oversee the construction works
done by the contractor and at the same time, to ensure that the works are
completed to the specified contract terms and conditions.
10

Figure 2.1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the contractual relationship


between every party involved operating under the traditional design, tender and
construct contract.

Client

Project
Consultant
Contractual Relationship

Supervision/Contract
Architect/ Administration
Engineer Main (Prime)
Contractor

Nominated Domestic Nominated Direct


Subcontractor Sub-contractors Suppliers labour

Figure 2.1 Contractual Relationship between every party involved under the
traditional design, tender and construct contract

2.3.2 Design and Build Contract

Ministry of Education has their own authorization over awarding school


construction project to contractors. The sole holder of this authority was
Ministry of Works before the authorization of school construction project
awarding was co-shared. Since taking over some of the task in awarding
contracts to contractors, the Ministry of Education has preferred the Design and
Built Contract concept. Under the Design the Build, the client enters into an
agreement with one single construction company to execute the whole process
of planning, design and construct. Although sometimes, this single company
11

will need to arrange for financing of the project under a turnkey package, but for
this case, financing will be from the ministry itself.

Figure 2.2 shows a diagrammatic illustration of the contractual


relationship of all party involved under the Design & Build type of contract.

CLIENT
Contractual Relationship

Contractual Relationship Project Manager from


Project Management
Consultant

Design and Build


Contractor

Design Team Construction Team


Architect/Enginee (Main Contractor)

Suppliers Sub-contractors Direct Labour

Figure 2.2 : Contractual Relationship of all party involved under the Design
and Build Type of Contract

2.3.3 Construction Management Contract

Under the Construction Management type of contract, the client engages


a construction management company to manage the direct contractors appointed
by him, while retaining the appointment of the architect and engineer. In the
Malaysian context, this type of contract is sometimes also known as Project
12

Management Consultant (PMC) Contract. In this scenario, the construction


management company is responsible for reviewing the design outputs and
coordinating and supervising the works of the direct contractors appointed by
the client. The construction management company is also responsible for the
project meeting the dateline, costs and quality parameters.

Figure 2.3 shows a diagrammatic illustration of the contractual relationship of


all party involved under the Project Management Consultancy.

CLIENT

Contractual
R l ti hi Contractual Relationship

Construction
Working Relationship Management
Company

Working Relationship

Architect
/Engineer
Direct contractors Suppliers Direct contractors

Figure 2.3 Contractual relationships of all party involved under the


Construction Management contract

2.4 Main Contract Document

Upon awarding contract to the specific contractor, the Ministries will


then furnished the contractors, list of document known as the Main Contract
Document. It will explained the overall aspect of the project in terms of time
frame given, cost, responsibilities, laws and project specifications.
13

Main Contract Document shall consist of :

• PWD Form of Contract (Form PWD 203A Rev. 10/83);


• Form of Tender (Form PWD 203B Rev. 3/2003);
• Letter of Acceptance of Tender (Form PWD 203D Rev. 5/2003);
• Special Provisions to the Condition of Contract as listed in the
PWD Form of Contract;
• Contract Drawings;
• Specification;
• Summary of Tender;
• Bill of Quantities;
• Treasury Instructions as set in the Appendix to the Contract.

Every item in the Main Contract Document is essential when preparing a


work program and choosing the best scheduling method. In this regards, failure
to complete and implements the school construction projects on time will create
havocs and chaos to the public and community indirectly. In order to properly
implement of a project, proper management and using the best method in
planning is required. One of the important tools in planning is by using the
project schedule for the school construction project. Each scope of works and
activities in a particular construction will be break-down into smaller scope for
monitoring, control, costing and reporting purposes.

2.5 Project Planning and Scheduling for School Construction

Planning has a purpose, that is, to prepare for an enabling process that
can lead to a desired result (Young, 1993). Project planning and scheduling is
part of the project management processes. Project Management processes can
be organized into five groups of one or more processes each (PMI, 2000):

(i) Initiating Process – authorizing the project or phase.


14

(ii) Planning processes – defining and refining objectives and


selecting the best of the alternative courses of action to attain the
objectives that the project was undertaken to address.
(iii) Executing processes – coordinating people and other resources to
carry out the plan
(iv) Controlling processes – ensuring project objectives are met by
monitoring and measuring progress regularly to identify
variances from plan so that corrective action can be taken when
necessary.
(v) Closing processes – formalizing acceptance of the project or
phase and bringing it to an orderly end.

2.5.1 Project Scheduling

Scheduling school project work is an essential element of project


management. A project schedule makes clear to all participants when work is
expected to be completed. It also shows the time-related dependencies between
different project tasks. In a school project, several schedules may be necessary,
covering different levels of detail or different parts of the project.

Setting overall completion dates must be done by the government, which


in this case is the Ministry of Works and the Ministry of Education. The project
manager assists in this by digesting information about scope, deliverables, and
resources, and estimating times for completion of project tasks. Once an overall
schedule is set, the project manager is responsible for monitoring the progress of
the project and revising the schedule if needed. This must be done in
consultation with project team members who are doing the work. Working with
team members to produce accurate time estimates is one of the high mysteries of
the art of project management. The project manager must balance the needs for
honesty and realism with appropriate motivation to keep the project on track
despite inevitable surprises.
15

There will typically be give-and-take as a project proceeds among budget,


features, and schedule. It is essential for the project manager to keep all
participants informed as to current schedule status.

2.6 Types and choice of Scheduling Method

Since the invention of scheduling technique, various method had been


develop from time to time, Some scheduling method are very simple to use but
have limitation in their application. On the other hand there are technique which
requires some training before the contractors can be familiarized with the system.
Some of the factors that governed the choice of the technique are familiarity on
the technique to be used, type and size of the school projects and purpose of
scheduling.

2.6.1 Computer Application of Project Schedule

In Malaysia, it is the practice of the government agency requesting the


contractor to submit the project schedule using Microsoft Project (MSP) for
school project cost les than Rm10million. Project scheduling using Primavera is
requested for school project worth more than Rm10million. At present, most
computer softwares are using the Precedence Diagram Method and Critical Path
Method. The most popular softwares are the Microsoft Project for project
valued less then RM10 million and the Primavera Project Planner for more than
Rm10million. Among the other software available in the market for project
scheduling and planning are Suretrak, Artimis, Milestone and Proplan.

Generally, every scheduling program software package run on micro-


computer. Most of the software today like Microsoft Project, Time Line and
Primavera are currently available on Window’s version and user friendly. One
of the most important contribution of the computer base scheduling technique is
16

in term of the report that can be generated. Another important advantage of


using computer base scheduling technique is the capabilities to instantly
reschedule and updating project progress. Obviously these cannot be practically
accomplished manually.

However it must be realized that it is very important for the planners and
contractors to understand basic scheduling principle such as computation of
project duration, critical path method resource leveling and many others prior to
the use of computer base scheduling software for their school projects.

2.6.2 Microsoft Project (MSP) Software

Using MSP for scheduling is very common in small projects since the
WBS items is not many. Microsoft Project is the world’s most popular project
management software developed and sold by Microsoft. The application is
designed to assist project managers in developing plans, assigning resources to
tasks, tracking progress, managing budgets and analysing workloads. Microsoft
Project creates critical path schedules, although a critical chain third-party add-
ons is available from ProChain and Spherical Angle. Schedules can be resource
leveled. The chain is visualised in a Gantt chart.

Resource definitions (people, equipment and materials) can be shared


between projects using a shared resource pool. Each resource can have its own
calendar which defines what days and shifts a resource is available. Resource
rates are used to calculate resource assignment costs which are rolled up and
summarized the resource level. Each resource can be assigned to multiple tasks
in multiple plans and each task can be assigned multiple resources. Microsoft
Project schedules task work based on the resource availability as defined in the
resource calendars. All resources can be defined in an enterprise resource pool.
Microsoft Project creates budgets based on assignment work and resource rates.
17

As resources are assigned to tasks and assignment work estimated, Microsoft


Project calculates the cost equals the work times the rate. This rolls up to the
task level, then to any summary tasks and finally to the project level. It is an
user-friendly software and designed to interface with other Microsoft
programmes such as Excell and Words

2.6.3 Primavera Project Planner (P3) Software

It is the most popular computer scheduling software practiced in the


construction industry. Many contracts for goverment projects require the
contractors to submit project schedules using this programme. With a maximum
capacity of 100,000 activities on a single project plus the ability to group
projects together, Primavera is so powerful and applicable on virtually any
projects (Hinze, 1998).

Data input is done through various assistants, called Wizards. Project


performance can be measured according to earned value, BCWS and costs.
Cash flow diagram can be displayed showing costs, revenues, and the nett
amount as a function of time. Primavera programme offer 200 different reports
and related graphic representation of the schedule.

Primavera offers sample projects as reference and guidance. Schedules


can be run through more than one baselines. Each activity of the WBS can be
related to more than one type of logical relationship. It is compatible to other
softwares such as ‘Suretrak’ and can be updated from the construction site
through internet. Module attachments to P3 provide additional project
management tools for reports, cost control, resource management and estimating.
Due to its many functions and features that makes it the most powerful
management software ever, the programme price tag of several thousand dollars
and it is a costly investment
18

2.7 Basic Scheduling Technique

There are a few method of project scheduling technique practices in


managing the projects. Some of the techniques are;

i. Gantt Chart (Bar Chart)


ii. Linked Bar Chart
iii. Networking Technique
(a) Activities on Arrow (AOA)
- Critical Path Method (CPM)
- Project Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
(b) Activities on Node (AON)
- Precedence Diagram Method (PDM)
(c) Line of Balance

2.7.1 Gantt Chart

A Gantt chart is a matrix which lists on the vertical axis all the tasks to
be performed. Each row contains a single task identification which usually
consists of a number and name(Fig. 6). The horizontal axis is headed by
columns indicating estimated task duration, skill level needed to perform the
task, and the name of the person assigned to the task, followed by one column
for each period in the project's duration. Each period may be expressed in hours,
days, weeks, months, and other time units. In some cases it may be necessary to
label the period columns as period 1, period 2, and so on.

The graphics portion of the Gantt chart consists of a horizontal bar for
each task connecting the period start and period ending columns. A set of
markers is usually used to indicate estimated and actual start and end. Each bar
19

on a separate line, and the name of each person assigned to the task is on a
separate line. In many cases when this type of project plan is used, a blank row
is left between tasks. When the project is under way, this row is used to indicate
progress, indicated by a second bar which starts in the period column when the
task is actually started and continues until the task is actually completed.

Comparison between ‘estimated start and end’ and ‘actual start and end’
should indicate project status on a task-by-task basics. Variants of this method
include a lower chart which shows personnel allocations on a person-by-person
basis. For this section the vertical axis contains the number of people assigned to
the project, and the columns indicating task duration are left blank, as is the
column indicating person assigned. The graphics consists of the same bar
notation as in the upper chart indicates that the person is working on a task. The
value of this lower chart is evident when it shows slack time for the project
personnel, that is, times when they are not actually working on any project.
20

ID Task Name Duration Baseline TF % Complete


Jun '05 Jul '05 Aug '05 Sep '0
Duration
29 5 12 19 26 3 10 17 24 31 7 14 21 28 4
1 OVERALL WORK 129 days 0 days 0 days 0%
2 Start 0 days 0 days? 0 days 0% 8/1
3 Prelim. Works 30 days 0 days 0 days 0%
4 Site Clearing 2 days 0 days? 0 days 0% 8/1 8/2
7 Hoarding 14 days 0 days 11 days 0%
8 excavate Footing 3 days 0 days? 11 days 0% 8/3 8/5
9 Inst. Column 3 days 0 days? 11 days 0% 8/6 8/9
10 Boards 6 days 0 days? 11 days 0% 8/10 8/16
11 Painting 2 days 0 days? 11 days 0% 8/17 8/18
12 Temporary works 28 days 0 days 0 days 0%
16 Temporary Road 6 days 0 days? 0 days 0% 8/3 8/9
15 Site Offices 3 days 0 days? 0 days 0% 8/10 8/12
14 Kongsi House 7 days 0 days? 0 days 0% 8/16 8/23
13 Canteen 5 days 0 days? 0 days 0% 8/25 8/30
17 Temporary water supply 2 days 0 days? 0 days 0% 8/31 9/1
18 Temporary Power supply 2 days 0 days? 0 days 0% 9/2 9/3
19 Excavate to Working Platform 12 days 0 days 8 days 0% 8/3 8/16
5 Mobilisation 2 days 0 days 123 days 0%
6 Portable Offices 2 days 0 days? 123 days 0% 8/5 8/6
20 Piling 73 days 0 days 0 days 0%
21 Piling Mobilisation 3 days 0 days? 8 days 0% 8/23 8/25
22 Test Pile 22 days 0 days? 0 days 0%
23 Fabrication of steel bar 1 day 0 days 0 days 0% 9/5 9/
24 Boring Works (Test Pile) 1 day 0 days 0 days 0% 9/6 9
25 Rebar Works (Test Pile) 1 day 0 days 0 days 0% 9/6 9

Figure 2.4 Example of Gantt Chart


2.7.2 Arrow Diagram Method

Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) (Fig. 2.5) is once-popular but


disappearing method of representing project activities with arrows, with a node
shown as a circle, representing events at the ends of the arrows. In arrow
diagram, project task or activities are represented by the arrow and connected by
the node to express their logical relationship. The tail of the arrow is the
beginning and the head represents the completion. While it is less flexible than
PDM, it has the advantage of defining the logical relationships between
activities entirely by the activity numbers.

Figure 2.5: Example of Arrow Diagramming Method


22

2.7.3 Precedence Diagram Method

Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) (Fig. 2.6). Developed in the


early 1960s into current form by H.B. Zachry in cooperation with IBM, this
popular and flexible technique avoids using the dummy activities to maintain
logic relationships needed in Arrow Diagram Method. Unlike the Arrow
Diagram Method, in Precedence Diagram, activity is place on the node instead
of on arrow. The arrow or linked is then used to connect between project task in
orderly manner to show their logical relationship. It represents activities as
boxes that are assigned properties of the activities they represent. Includes the
four types of lag relationships: finish-to-start, finish-to-finish, start-to-start and
start-to-finish.

Figure 2.6 : Example of Precedence Diagramming


Method
23

2.7.4 Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)

PERT of Program Evaluation Review Technique is basically similar to


Arrow Diagram method. However PERT employs three time estimate instead of
one deterministic time as in other technique.

• Optimistic Time - generally the shortest time in which the


activity can be completed. It is common practice to specify
optimistic times to be three standard deviations from the mean so
that there is approximately a one percent chance that the activity
will be completed within the optimistic time.
• Most likely time – the completion time having the highest
probability. Note that this time is different from the expected
time.
• Pessimistic time – the longest time that an activity might require.
Three standard deviations from the mean is commonly used for
the pessimistic time.

In order to combined the three estimates time the expected mean duration for the
activity or task, a formula was derived, base on principles of statistics. The
estimate of average expected time to perform an activity is given by the
following expression:

te = a + 4m + b
6

te = expected time
a = optimistic time estimate

m = most likely time

b = pessimistic time
24

A suitable estimator of activity standard deviation is given by :

s= b - a
6
where s is the standard deviation of the expected time, te.

Once the critical path had been determined for the network, the standard
deviation for the total critical path can be calculated by taking the square root of
the sum of the variances of the activities on the critical path. The standard
deviation is given by:
2 2 2

S cp = √S 1 + S2 + S3

Critical Path Method (CPM) and PERT are concerned with minimizing project
duration. Saad Al-Jibori et al, (2001) state that, both method assume no limit on
the availability of the resources to be employed to complete all project activities
on schedules.

2.7.5 Line of Balance

Line of balance chart is used to plan for construction of a number of


repetitive activities. The technique analyze the use of resources such labor and
plant to assure that each resource can progress from one item to the next in an
orderly way, completing its own work on all items without being delayed in
waiting the preceding work to be completed. Thus the technique is base upon the
concept of keeping all of resources in balance, each following the other
productivity. The main objective of using line of balance is to make optimum
use of all resources. The purpose of line of balance analysis is to balance the rate
of progress of the activities, and to schedule the activities to eliminate
interference. This is done by adjusting the rate of production of each activity so
that this approximates to a common rate of production for all activities and by
25

delaying the start of those activities that proceed faster than the activity
immediately preceding it, to maintain at least the minimum buffer specified at
all times.

2.8 Summary

This chapter explained extensively the present scenario on Malaysian


school projects. It touched on the government‘s emphasis on the nation’s
education development. Nevertheless that it is sad to learn that the nation’s
school project faced a lot of problems due to improper management among
contractors.

This chapter also touched and explained clearly the typical method
adopted by two main relevant bodies that are responsible for handling out
schools construction works and all the documentation involve in it. The
Ministry of Works utilizes the ‘Open Tendering” method while the Ministry of
Education uses the “Design and Built” system. We cannot say which method is
better as both method, if were being conducted in the proper ways, can produce
excellent output.

Types of scheduling techniques that are helpful for contractor to


supervise, control and manage their projects were also mentioned at the end of
the chapter. Those are beneficiaries if its being positively manipulate for the
sake of completing the projects within the time frame and budget.
CHAPTER 3

THE ROLE OF WBS IN SCHOOL PROJECT


MANAGEMENT

3.1 Introduction

When any contractors contracts for an acquisition, they have to refer to


the Master Schedule in order for the final product to be delivered within the
allotted time, budget and with both the physical and functional characteristics
required.

In Chapter 2, we have discussed the various scheduling technique used


by school contractors to guide them on how they are going to complete their
project successfully. The ability to calculate and forecast dates effectively and
accurately is essential to successfully completing the project. Although the
master Schedule is the highest level summary schedule for a project, depicting
overall project phasing and all major interfaces, contractual milestones, and
project elements, contractors, especially with less experience faced difficulty in
anticipating problems with regards to the work program. They sometimes
overlook since they do not take time to plan a project thoroughly, or do so in
haphazard manner. The result is unnecessary delays, poor quality workmanship
and cost overruns. This chapter will focus on the importance of a tool called a
Work Breakdown Structure, or WBS that can help and guide contractors to
27

complete their work more efficiently, diligently, minimizing delays and


avoiding lost in their project.

3.2 Work Breakdown Structure

Martin, 1996 derives a work breakdown structure (WBS) as a hierarchic


decomposition or breakdown of a project or major activity into successive levels,
in which each level is a finer breakdown of the preceding one. In final form a
WBS is very similar in structure and layout to a document outline

A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a hierarchical chart used to


organize the activities required in a project into related areas. It often takes the
form of a tree diagram or an outline. The completed WBS can be used for
budgeting and personnel-selection purposes as well as scheduling and network
diagramming. In a WBS, a project is broken down into the following levels:

• The total project


• Sub-projects if the project is a complicated one Milestones that
summarize the completion of an important set of work packages or the
completion of an important event in a project such as sub-project (which
is just a smaller portion of the overall project)
• Major activities – also called summary tasks
• Work packages (also sometimes called tasks, activities, or work elements)

Roman (1986) defines WBS as a basic management technique which


presents systematically subdivided blocks of work down to the point which
represent the lowest level of control effort. It is a product-oriented family tree
composed of hardware, software, services and other work tasks. A WBS
28

displays and defines the product to be developed and relates the tests to be
accomplished to each other and to the end product.

Kliem (1998) defines WBS as a detailed listing of the project


deliverables and tasks for building the product or delivering the services. It is a
top-down, broad-to-specific hierarchical outcome of the work to perform.

Project Management Institute (PMI, 2000) defines WBS as a deliverable-


oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total work
scope of the project. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed
definition of the project work.

Almost all planning tools and programmes for scheduling such as


Primavera Project Planner, Suretrack and Microsoft Project need to have a
proper breakdown structure to be more efficient in the planning process.

We can have as many sub-projects, milestones, and major activities, and


work packages in your WBS as long as they benefit your needs. As a project
manager, the levels in your WBS will help us control work at each level. An
appropriately organized WBS can help identify the right time to ask and answer
resource and staffing questions.

3.3 Level of Works Breakdown Structure (WBS)

As a planning technique, the WBS allows the customer-driven project


lead team to organize the project works into level of activity. Each level of
activity is defined further and in even greater detail by process owners (Barkley
and Saylor, 2001). The purpose is to structure each project as a hierarchy of
29

work leading up to the project deliverable and down to each more detailed
breakout of the work to be done.

The WBS structure can be arranged in a variety of formats. The format


defines the project tasks and their relationship to the total project. A WBS can
have as many levels as appropriate but normally up to the sixth level. Some
organization refer the different level of tasks, sub-tasks and work package but
others could prefer to use the term as phases, entries and activities.

Table 3.1 shows the function of each level inclusive their coding. Tasks
at the first four levels of the WBS provide the summary information necessary
for the customer-driven project to perform project planning, scheduling,
monitoring and management activities. Level 5 and 6 normally used performing
the work.

Table 3.1: A typical of six-level project WBS.

LEVEL ITEM NUMBER

1 Project 1
2 Process 1.X
3 Task 1.X.X
4 Subtask 1.X.X.X
5 Work Package 1.X.X.X.X
6 Level of Effort 1.X.X.X.X.X
30

3.4 Application of Work Break Down Structure

The function of management is to plan and direct activities to achieve the


program goals. A complex project is made manageable by first breaking it
down into individual components in a hierarchical structure, known as the Work
Breakdown Structure (WBS). Such a structure defines tasks that can be
completed independently of other tasks, facilitating resource allocation,
assignment of responsibilities, measurement & control of the project. Figure 3.1
below shows a typical WBS.

Project

Task 1 Task 2

Sub-task Sub-task
1.1 1.2

Sub-task Sub-task Sub-task


1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3

Figure 3.1 A typical work breakdown structure


31

The purpose of a WBS is to divide the program/project into manageable


pieces of work to facilitate planning & control of cost, schedule & technical
content. A WBS is written early in program/projects development. It identifies
the total work to be performed & divides the work into manageable elements,
with increasing levels of detail.

The WBS is project management tool. It provides a framework for


specifying the technical aspects of the project by defining the project in terms of
hierarchically related, product-oriented elements & the work processes required
for each element’s completion. Each element of the WBS provides logical
summary points for assessing technical accomplishments, for measuring cost
and schedule performance. Because the WBS is a hierarchical structure, it may
be conveyed in outline form as shown in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2: Work Breakdown Structure Outline

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3


Task 1
Sub-task 1.1
Work Package 1.1.1
Work Package 1.1.2
Work Package 1.1.3
Sub-task 1.2
Work Package 1.2.1
Work Package 1.2.2
Work Package 1.2.3
Task 2
Sub-task 2.1
Work Package 2.1.1
32

Work Package 2.1.2


Work Package 2.1.3

In short, WBS is used for technical management, work identification and


assignment, schedule management, status report, cost management and
performance measurement.

3.5 Purposes and Benefits of WBS.

WBS has many uses during a project’s life. It go through many iterations
as the work becomes more defined, it may changed continually from the time
specifications are agreed on with the client until the project complete. Listed
below are among the seven of the distinct purposes of WBS (Barkley and
Saylor, 2001):

(i) The WBS defines project team responsibility. WBS helps to


assign task-level work in project teams and gives the project lead
team a means of developing task description, work outputs and
objectives for each task.

(ii) The WBS set out organization structure. Each project team or
team member is identified with one or more tasks or sub-task
work element and reporting to the project lead team
(Superintending Officer); the WBS serves as the basis for setting-
up project team. This can be represented by the Organizational
Breakdown Structure (OBS).
33

(iii) WBS allows co-ordination of activities. The project objectives are


supported by the WBS because the interfaces between elements
are made clear in WBS.

(iv) WBS allows control. WBS facilitates control by providing a clear


basis for monitoring project progress using the structure of the
project; thus each team is accountable for the tasks assign to
them. The real value of WBS is that it provides a graphic
representation of the entire programme with an orderly
identification scheme for each level of the project. It provides
continuity and a frame of reference throughout the project for
interconnections, interfaces between team members and the
critical path planning process.

(v) WBS facilitates project scheduling. The WBS enable to resemble


the start of a system diagram relates tasks and other elements in
term of sequence. With WBS, developing a task list and project
schedule consisting of critical path analysis network that
identifies all milestones and task activities has become very much
easier and practical.

(vi) The WBS facilitates costing. The cost of each element of the
WBS can be estimated and control. In this way, the WBS
becomes the mean by which costs are “rolled-up” and captured.
Unit costs are derived from this structure in order to document
the project cost history.
34

(vii) The WBS facilitates risks analysis. Each element in the WBS can
be assessed in term of the inherent risk involved in completion of
that element. It is important in critical path as well as in the
process of protecting against unforeseen failures.

From the seven purposes mentioned above, we can summarize the


benefits of the WBS as follows (Kliem and Ludin, 1998):

(i) WBS forces the project manager, the team members and client to
delineate the steps required for a project completion. It encourage
dialogue and discussion that could help to eliminate red-tape,
clarify ambiguities, bring out assumptions, narrow down the
project scope of work and early detection of critical
issues/complications.

(ii) WBS lays the ground work for developing an effective schedule
and almost accurate budget plan. A well define WBS enables
resources to be allocated to specific tasks, generating a
meaningful schedule and easy budget costing.

(iii) A well defined task can be allocated to specific individual and


easier to hold the person accountable for completing their tasks.

(iv) The process of developing and completing WBS breed


excitement and commitment. This participation will spark
involvement in the project.
35

Of course, developing a WBS is not easy. It could take several weeks to


prepare for a large WBS for a few thousand activities. It requires knowledge
transfer and brain power thus experience from the similar past projects could
help a lot in the developing it. An example of WBS for a project is shown in
Figure 3.2.

Figure. 3.2 An example of WBS

A specification tree developed by system engineering structures the


performance parameters for the system or systems being developed. It
subdivides the system(s) into its functional constituent elements and identifies
the performance objectives of the system(s) and its elements. The performance
characteristics are explicitly identified and quantified.

The completed specification tree represents a hierarchy of performance


requirements for each element of the system for which design responsibility is
36

assigned. Because specifications may not be written for each WBS elements,
the specification tree may not map the WBS completely. Administrative tasks
associated with system engineering & development of the specification tree is
normally treated as a support services WBS element.

3.5.1 WBS in Work Identification and Assignment

People performing work are organized to facilitate effective management,


whether the organization is designed along projectized, functional, or matrix
structure. To assign specific work responsibility to a specific organization, the
WBS and organizational structure should be integrated with each other (i.e.,
functional responsibility is established for managing specified work to produce
defined products). This integration can occur at any level of the WBS, but
certainly occurs at the top project level and whichever level responsibility that
has been assigned to manage the work. Other natural points of integration may
occur as a result of how the scheduling, budgeting, work authorization,
estimating and cost management systems interface with each other, with the
WBS and with the organization.

3.5.2 WBS in Schedule Management

WBS will be used to help plan, revise and update status schedules.
Schedule management typically involves the management team performing the
following steps in an incremental, iterative, parallel, time boxed, and ongoing
manner:

• collect schedule estimates from members of the development team.


• Develop, document, communicate, and maintain the schedules and
associated work breakdown structure.
37

• Maintain and control changes to the schedules and work breakdown


structure.

3.5.3 WBS in Plans

The WBS provides a framework for detailed work schedule information


based on technically verifiable product completion. A network of events (e.g.
start, complete) and activities (e.g. design, develop, operate) must take place.
There is logic to the relationship of the activities needed to produce and
complete the WBS products. Resources (e.g., labour, finance, plants, materials)
and responsible organizations (e.g., mechanical and electrical engineering
departments, fabrication department, sub-contractor) can then be identified for
each of the activities.

The scope and complexity of the work and the needs of management for
schedule visibility dictate the number and type of schedules. Schedule levels and
management levels need not coincide with WBS levels. There is no requirement
for separate schedules for each WBS levels.

Although scheduling methodologies may vary, it is important that


schedule events require completion of a tangible product in accordance with
predefined specifications and that completion is verified by test or inspection by
persons other than those responsible for performance of the activities leading to
completion of the product.

3.5.4 Status Reporting

Product-oriented schedules allow owners, consultants and builders to


monitor the schedule baseline for the project’s outputs to ensure that the project
objectives are completed on time. Owners or consultants may require builders
38

to file the following reports to monitor schedule progress and to manage the
project such as;

a) Periodic Milestone Schedule Status Report – to provide schedule


status information in terms of duration
b) Cost Performance Report – to assess schedule performance in
terms of earned value
c) Status Report – to provide a narrative description of the schedule

3.5.5 Cost Management

The WBS assists management in measuring cost. By breaking the total


product into successively smaller entities, management can verify that all work
identified to the WBS, hence charged to the effort that contributed to the project
objectives. Using WBS elements to plan the work serves as the basis for
estimating and scheduling resource requirements.

3.5.6 Cost Estimating

Using the WBS to help with cost estimating facilitates project and
contract management. The WBS provides a systematic approach to cost
estimating that helps ensure that relevant costs are not omitted. An estimate
based on WBS elements helps owners and builders to plan, coordinate and
control the various project activities that clients and builders are undertaking.
The WBS also provides a common framework for tracking the evolution of
estimates (e.g., conceptual estimates, preliminary design estimates and detailed
design estimates). The WBS can also provide a framework for life cycle cost
analysis.
39

As periodic project cost estimates are developed, each succeeding estimate is


made in an attempt to forecast more accurately the project’s total cost. Basically,
the estimates may be organized in two ways, i.e., by WBS element or by code of
accounts. Both support owners’ on-going efforts in preparing budgets and
evaluating contractor’s performance.

3.5.7 Budgeting and Cost Control

In general, funds management involves periodic comparison of actual


costs with time-phased budgets, analysis of variances and follow-up corrective
actions (as required). When WBS elements and the supporting work are
scheduled, a solid base for time-phased budgets is ready-made. This is
important for less experience contractors that have minimal knowledge in
controlling budgets. Assignment of planned resource cost estimates to scheduled
activities and summarization of each WBS element by time period results in a
time-phased project/contract budget, which becomes the performance
measurement baseline.

The Following is a brief discussion of analysis and control as well as


historical database development in relation to accounting.

a) Analysis & Control

If budgets are based on WBS elements and time phased with


scheduled accomplishment, the accounting process must similarly be
able to cost WBS elements over time (i.e., costed transactions must be
coded in such a way that they can be identified to the WBS element
which incurred the transaction cost and to the time period when the
transaction occurred).
40

An accounting process or system that can accommodate the WBS


has some advantages. The accounting system can be programmed to
accept or reject charges to relatively small increments of work with the
planned time schedule for the work and this helps to minimize
unauthorized charges. Also, the accounting and financial organizations
can better ensure that they have achieved what they paid for since a
product is accepted as complete only when a third party (e.g., work
inspector, quality controller, project manager) agrees that it meets the
specified objectives. As a result, periodic accounting and financial
variance analyses become more meaningful. Also, project performance
measurement, with its dependence on cost and schedule variance
analysis is then possible.

b) Historical Database Development

When cost information is accounted by WBS element, it can be


used in cost estimations for pricing and negotiating contract changes and
for follow-on procurements. Over time, owners and consultants will be
able to accumulate a growing cost database of similar WBS elements
from different projects. Such historical cost data can be used in
conjunction with learning curves, regression and other techniques to
estimate the cost requirements for similar elements of new projects.
Subsequent cost data collected can be compared to the original estimates
to establish their validity, identify trends and re-estimate future project
needs.

Contractors will similarly benefit from use of such databases.


Contractors are expected to periodically provide a current estimate of
future costs and the total estimated cost for each reporting element.
They are also expected to complete a detailed bottoms-up estimate
41

periodically. The WBS provides the framework for summarizing


detailed costs. Since contractors tend to provide similar products on
similar projects, the cost history that is accumulated can assist them in
bidding future contracts and in budgeting new work.

3.6 WBS as a Performance Measurement

Proper use of the WBS for technical, schedule and cost management
accomplishes the performance measurement objectives of defining work and
related resources, ensuring that all work is included and ensuring there is no
duplication of effort. In addition, the WBS is used to accumulate performance
data and associated variances. This permits the contractors to evaluate progress
in terms of contract performance. There is no need for separate contract
performance assessments to be made at levels above the cost account because
the WBS facilitates the summarization of data for successively higher levels of
management. Significant variances will usually appear at summary WBS levels.
Using the WBS, variances can then be traced to their sources.

3.7 Failure of Works Breakdown Structure (WBS)

It happens, sometimes, however, a WBS can do more harm than good.


The failure of WBS to improve performance of project
construction/implementation could be as follows:

(i) WBS does not reach to the detail level. It is kept to too high level
where responsibility of a team for specific activities cannot be
captured. Estimating, tracking the schedule and cost performance
has become “guestimation” (Kliem and Ludin, 1998). This is
42

because the lower levels are missing thus making the WBS too
general to be reliable.

(ii) The WBS is prepared by one individual and not by a collective


effort. Preparing WBS needs input from respective team who will
work on the tasks. As a result, few teams could be responsible for
certain activities.

(iii) WBS does not cover the whole project implementation. It may
cover only for the construction activities but ignored the other
related activities such as administration, procurement, testing,
training and process of submission to authorities. Due to it, the
delivery to customer could take longer time thus overall cost
could be higher and the end product is unsatisfactory.

(iv) WBS is not used in the project implementation. The project


manager takes an elective view of the WBS thus using only
selected activities in execution of the project. As the result, due to
lacking of experience and comprehensive view, the delivery is
not perfect. The defects are a lot and some of it may be quite
serious.

(v) WBS is flexible and subject to changes. Once everyone agreed to


it, WBS should not become “frozen”. Changes due to new
materials or method of construction or omission/addition of some
activities/tasks should be captured in the revised WBS/schedule.
Failure to manage changes to the WBS can result in unanticipated
impacts on the scope, schedule or cost.
43

In order to have the almost perfect WBS, an example of WBS from


similar past projects or a standard of WBS references should be established. By
this way, the one who prepared the WBS for the scheduling has a basic idea of
the activities/tasks involved. A basic standard and guidelines for preparing the
WBS released by a reliable body/organization could need to suit the current site
condition and any special project requirements imposed by the client or
authorities if a planner is required to prepare the WBS for the project scheduling
purpose.

3.8 Summary

The WBS is the foundation of project planning. It is developed before


dependencies are identified and activity durations are estimated. The WBS can
be used to identify the tasks in the CPM & PERT project planning models. In
this chapter, the advantages of using WBS in project scheduling shows that
WBS can helps contractors in many ways especially in helping them knows
what steps to be taken when certain phase of the construction takes place.
Contractors can avoid delays and wastage during the construction progress by
knowing clearly the do’s and don’ts when referring to WBS. The WBS is a tool
that helps contractors and project managers measure technical and schedule
performance as well as cost. By dividing the total product into successively
smaller entities, contractors and project managers can ensure that all required
products are identified in terms of technical performance goals. They can also
verify that all work identified to the WBS and then charged to the project,
actually contributes to the project objectives.

The planning of work based on WBS elements serves as the basis for
estimating and scheduling resource requirements. Subsequently, the assignment
of performance budgets to scheduled segments of contract work produces a
44

time-phased plan against which actual performance can be compared. When


performance deviates from the plan, appropriate corrective actions can be
undertaken. Identification of potential cost and schedule impacts of proposed
technical changes is simplified when this integrated approach to work planning
is used.
CHAPTER 4

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

4.1 Introduction

The methods used in carrying out this study are explained in this chapter.
Based from Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, it is shown that WBS is very important in
school project planning. Although normal scheduling technique helps
contractors through the process of completing the project, its undeniable that
without preparing a proper WBS in the scheduling, some major items could be
missing or overlooked thus the preparation taken in implementing the items was
unintentionally and unfortunately ignored. More ever if the contractor engaged
in the school building projects have very little experience in managing school
projects. By the time the contractor realized the missing item was excluded in
the work program, damaged have been done

The methodology of this study has been carefully planned,


systematically organized and properly sequenced so as to ensure that a well
structured WBS for school project is develop. The result of this effort is a
seamless study program, from literature review, interviews, questionnaire survey
data collection, to the discussion of the results and finally the suggestion and
conclusion.
46

4.2 Determination of the Research Objectives.

The primary topic of research was mooted out of the consideration for
the difficulties and problems faced by government school construction projects.
However, the research objectives and scope of the dissertation was determined
after some preliminary studies which include facts-finding discussions with
relevant government officers, expert panels and on-site observation. Also, in the
process, some information of the contract documents especially those documents
related to project implementation has been investigated and some feasible
methods to carry out the study has also been considered. Later, more targeted
interviews have been conducted to reestablish the importance of the study.

The structured interviews has been carried out to the respondents from
senior officers in the Ministry Of Works in Johore, Ministry of Works for the
District of Petaling, officers from the Ministry of Education, professional
engineers from Jurutera Arena Consulting Engineers, experienced quantity
surveyors from Cawangan Ukur Bahan, Ministry Of Works and officers from
Wawasan Utama PMC, an appointed and established Project Management
Consultant company by the Ministry of Education. The highlight come from The
Director for The Cawangan Ukur Bahan, Ministry of Works, who commented
positively on the WBS topic and its importance for the supervision of school
construction.

Interviews were also conducted with a few contractors that have in depth
experiences in building schools. After the preliminary review, some specific
scopes of the study were determined based on the various consideration
elements such as achievability of the study, the time constraints and availability
of the research materials. The specific scopes of study have been discussed
previously in the first chapter.
47

4.3 Case Study on School Projects

Substantiating the ability to conduct this study more comprehensively,


numerous literatures have been reviewed to establish as much knowledge as
possible and equally important, to collect historical and current information,
trend and development pertaining to the study area. The material for the
literature review has been obtained from a wide variety of sources such as
published books, textbooks, information, discussion and blog from the internet
and articles in journals.

There are also published guidance papers from practitioners in the


industry and previous construction records both from the private sector and the
government construction departments. The purpose of literature review is to
gather important information related to the study topic and deepen the
understanding on how school project scheduling method was historically
practiced in the construction of government schools and how scheduling is
applied to present projects.

4.3.1 Research Materials

Few numbers of Work Programs, Progress reports, Bill of Quantities and


Contract Sum Analysis has been analyzed and studied. The main construction
program for each of the project report has been studied and made comparison in
order to identify the WBS elements. By comparing this documentations, the
lacking and imperfectness of the WBS prepared in the reports were analysed.

As for other data collection, interviews of two different stages were


conducted with each stage targeting different group of people. These interviews
are structured to include face to face interview in session one and requesting the
48

respondents to answer the structured questionnaires later. The first set of


interviews was focused to the project initiator, officers from the two ministry.
These face to face discussions reveal trends and policies of relevant authorities.

The second set of interviews was conducted with contractors, Civil


Engineering and Quantity Surveyors consultants and officers from the Project
Management Consultant for information related to factors influencing the
success or failure of a school construction project and also their opinions and
suggestions on improving how things are done.

This study does not include a general public sampling questionnaire


method of the industry. The explanation behind this was because, firstly, there
are only two government agencies responsible for school construction projects.
And secondly, public sampling might not be feasible as percentage of contractor
with realistic school construction project is relative low. Instead of Public
Sampling, this study used “target” group interview for more accurate and better
representation results.

4.3.2 Development of Questionnaire for the Survey

Questionnaires developed for the interviews are not aimed at mass


respondents as this study does not adopt the “Public Sampling” approach.
Instead, the study adopts “targeted group” interview approach for reasons
specified above. To get the most information out of the interview, questions
included for these surveys needs to be very specific and very objective
orientated. Questionnaires are thus constructed based on a subjective answering
model as Average Index Analysis on Likert’s Scale are not suitable in this
context.
49

Subjective answers obtained from these interviews are interpreted as best


as possible based on researcher’s understanding and further reassure by
confirming the answers with interviewee during the face to face discussion.

4.4 Interview with Panel of Experts (Clients)

These are sessions of interviews conducted between researcher and


officers who are involved in the preparation of tender / contract documents from
the Ministry of Work and Ministry of Education. These interviews also include
sessions with officers in both Ministries that are involved in technical evaluation
of the tender documents returned and submitted by tender participants.

These interviews with Panel of Experts are to establish how and what
documents are handed out to tender participants, and understanding the tender
documents to identify what are the required return-tender submission.
Interviews enable actual facts finding. The objectives of these discussions and
face to face sessions are to authenticate and further strengthen the research
findings in accordance to the main objective of this study. The objectives of our
interviews in this study are as follows:

• To single out what are the documents holders’ requirements


from tender participants or successful contractors.
• To examine these documents and analyze how these
documents influence tender participants / successful
contractors’ planning for scheduling of project.
• To identify the main weakness and causes of delays in
school construction project.
• To get their points of view on how WBS can help in
guiding contractors completing their job on time.
50

4.4.1 Methodology of the Panel of Experts Interview

Interviews with the panel of experts are conducted in two stages. During
the first stage, interviewees were asked to explain in details all tender
documents. Interviewees were also asked about relevant returned tender
submissions and how these documents are technically evaluated. During stage
two of the interview, interviewees were asked questions in accordance to the
questionnaire prepared to collect their opinions of current practice and on their
suggestive improvement measures.

Face to face interviews were conducted with officers in the Panel of


Experts category. These senior officers represent some of the most experienced
individuals from Ministry of Work and Ministry of Education whose work
functions directly related preparing, hand out, accept return tender submissions
and technical evaluation of contract / tender documents. Their explanation of
each documents were evaluated to determine benefits and weakness of the
current procedure. Their clarification of the returned tender submissions, which
directly reflect how contractors prepare their work scheduling planning, reveal
what are the conventional practice by contractors.

4.4.2 Structured Questionnaire Discussion

Structured questionnaire was conducted with officers from the Ministry


of Work and Ministry of Education. It is designed to be subjective answers
model where interviewer ask a question and interviewee reply. Their response
was recorded, analyzed and interpreted to as best as the researcher’s
understanding and the findings been tabulated for further discussion and studies.

Structured questionnaire and interviews were also conducted between the


researcher and panel of professionals who are involved in project administration
51

and monitoring, quantity surveyors and contractors who actually involved in


construction of schools. The interviews were carried out to review their opinion
on how the current methods of work scheduling planning is helping the
monitoring and administering of a school construction project.

The objectives of these interviews are to strengthen the research findings


based on the main objectives of this research:

• To discover the influential factors that determines the


successful / failure implementation of the school construction
project
• To pinpoint what actually goes wrong in the project
implementation.
• To gather suggestions and opinions on improving future
implementation on scheduling of project using WBS.

4.5 Analyzing the WBS (Case Study)

Based on each case study, the WBS for the main programme will be
studied. How well the WBS prepared will be commented. Matters to be
identified during the checking of WBS element are:

i) Highest level of the WBS


ii) Procurement of materials and machine
iii) Detail of breakdown structure
iv) Assignment of responsibility for each task in the WBS
v) Any milestone imposed by client/owner.
vi) Any items left out in the WBS.
vii) Any testing to be done and site visit to be organized.
52

After checking the above mentioned factors including many more, the
summary of the project’s WBS was tabulated and comparison was done to the
nine similar school building projects. From the table, the weakness of the WBS
were identified and commented. By identifying the weakness and the missing
items, suggestion for the proposed preliminary guidelines was proposed. The
format of the WBS presentation was also being introduced by dividing it into 3
main phases that are:

Phase 1 : Pre-construction phase


Phase 2 : Construction phase
Phase 3 : Post construction phase

4.6 Preliminary Guidelines for Preparing WBS for Project Scheduling /


Construction Programme

There is no simple formula to define how much detail should be included


in a work breakdown. Here are some helpful guidelines for completion:

• Break down the work until accurate estimates of cost and


resources needed to perform the task are provided.
• Ensure that clear starting and ending events are defined for the task.
• Verify that the lowest level tasks can be performed within a
“reasonable” time schedule. If the time to complete a task is too
long, an accurate project status in the implementation phase may
not be possible.
• Each task must have one clearly identified what type of tread of job
to be done.

Based on the above mentioned project examples, through experience and


referring to books/journals, a preliminary guidelines of WBS preparation was
53

prepared. From the suggested guidelines, it is hoped that the WBS preparation
by the contractors to be more precise and practical for construction planning.
The guidelines have been broken up into 4 parts mainly the characteristics,
preparation before and during the design of WBS and also the checklist. The
proposed guidelines can be used to help all parties that involved in construction
industry to prepare the WBS for scheduling that could achieve to their target and
expectation during construction period thus the chance of getting maximum
profit margin should be greater.

Part A of the guidelines was discussing the requirements and things to be


considered before designing the WBS. The number of subcontractors and budget
allocation are among the items to be considered in this section. Part B of the
guidelines was stressing the matters to be included when designing the WBS.
Among the matters are the ability for revision, tracking and controlling can be
performed and responsibility assignment can be done.

Part C of the guidelines mainly discussing the good characteristics of a


well prepared WBS while Part D presents the checklist to double check and
ensure the WBS designed is acceptable and capable to perform its actual
functions.

The guidelines had been revised by three senior personals that involved
in the construction industry mainly the planning works. From their feedback, the
guidelines were revised to be more perfect and comprehensive. Appendix G
shows the results of the interview. Anyway, the guidelines required to be
certified by the relevant parties such as JKR, CIDB, IEM, BEM, PAM and
others for it to be used as standard guidelines on WBS for our construction
industry.
54

4.7 Recommendation of a WBS for a Sample Project.

Through the abovementioned cases studied and from other examples, a


set of WBS for typical school building project was presented thus could be a
good example for building project of conventional type of contract. All
tasks/activities in the WBS of course will be slightly differs for every projects
depending on the site condition, location, materials and contract requirements.

The proposed WBS has not been tested for its effectiveness and weakness.
Of course, it is better to have at least something rather than nothing. By the
example given, it is much easier for a contractor to start designing their own
construction programme by picking-up the relevant items that could suite to
their project. By applying the WBS in a computer programme, the contractor
could fit in the dates for the schedules and adjust it whenever necessary during
monitoring or revising it due to the latest information and requirements.
Furthermore, delay can be avoided.
CHAPTER 5

DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

5.1 Introduction

This chapter deal with the analysis and discussion of data collected from
interviews from the expert panels and contractors involved in the construction of
delayed and non-delayed school projects. The identification of non-delayed and
delayed school projects were obtained from the Ministry of Education and
Ministry of Works. Total of nine school projects were selected which comprises
of five delayed school projects and four non-delayed school projects.

The summary of delayed and non-delayed school projects were tabulated


in Table 5.1 as shown below. Contract document and contract sum analysis for
delayed and non-delayed were identified, extracted, tabulated and analyzed.
Table 5.2 summarizes the expert panels and contractors that were involved with
the school projects identified for the case studies. In addition, Table 5.3 gives
the views from twenty respondence towards the causes of school project delay.
On the other hand, Table 5.4 shows the comparison on element in contract
document for breakdown structure for delayed and non-delayed school projects
which were obtained from Ministry of Works and Ministry of Education and
Table 5.5 shows the comparison of construction activities based on WBS
element in project schedule from contract documents for the delayed and non-
delayed school projects. .
Table 5.1: The summary of CIDB registration grade and type of contract documentation for delayed and non-
delayed school projects (Ministry of Education and Ministry of Works, 2005)

Non delayed School construction projects

No Project Title Main Contractor CIDB Type of Contract Reference


Registration and documentation Code
1. The Construction and Completion of Federal Malay Enterprise Sdn. Grade G7 Open Tender, ND1
Sekolah Kebangsaan Kampong Bhd. Contract Document
Lindungan, Daerah Petaling, Selangor. and BQ

2. The Construction and Completion of Pembinaan M.A.N sdn. Bhd. Grade G7 Design and Built, ND2
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Contract Sum
Rasau, Kemaman, Terengganu. Analysis

3. The Construction and Completion of Pembinaan TLN Sdn. Bhd. Grade G7 Design and Built ND3
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Contract Sum
Muazam Jaya, Rompin Pahang. Analysis

4. The Construction and Completion of Manap Maju Sdn. Bhd. Grade G7 Open Tender, ND4
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Teluk Contract Document
Gunung, Kuala Lipis. Pahang. and BQ

* ND – Non delayed
D - Delayed

56
Table 5.1: continued..

Delayed School construction project

5. The Construction and GPP Sendirian Bhd. Grade G7 Design and Built, D1
Completion of Sekolah Chedung Contract Sum
Jaya, Maran, Pahang. Analysis

6. The Construction and Asasteraju Construction Grade G7 Design and Built, D2


Completion of Sekolah Sdn. Bhd. Contract Sum
Kebangsaan Tanjung Batu, Analysis
Temerloh, Pahang.
7. The Construction and PALAS Berhad. Grade G7 Design and Built, D3
Completion of Sekolah Contract Sum
Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Analysis
Serating, Terengganu.
8. The Construction and Chulan Construction Sdn. Grade G7 Design and Built, D4
Completion of Sekolah Bhd. Contract Sum
Menengah Kebangsaan Nyiur Analysis
Paka, Terengganu.
9. The Construction and Ensidesa Sdn. Bhd. Grade G7 Design and Built, D5
Completion of Sekolah Contract Sum
Menengah Seri Bandi, Analysis
Kemaman, Terengganu.
* ND – Non delayed
D - Delayed

57
Table 5.2: Summary of the expert panels and contractors involved in the case study
(Ministry of Education and Ministry of Works, 2005).

School Project Panel of Expert Contractors, PMC and Consultant

Sekolah Kebangsaan Kampong Lindungan Daerah Ministry of Works Federal Malay Enterprise Sdn. Bhd.
Petaling, Selangor. Jururunding Pakatan Arena Sdn. Bhd.
Non Delayed Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Rasau Ministry of Education Pembinaan M.A.N Sdn. Bhd
School Kemaman Terengganu Wawasan Utama PMC
Projects
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Muazam Jaya, Ministry of Education Pembinaan TLN Sdn. Bhd
Rompin, Pahang. Wawasan Utama PMC
Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Teluk Gunung Ministry of Works Manap Maju Sd. Bhd.
Kuala Lipis, Pahang Jururunding Pakatan Arena Sdn. Bhd.
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Chedung Jaya Ministry of Education GPP Sendirian Berhad
Maran, Pahang Wawasan Utama PMC
Delayed Sekolah Kebangsaan Tanjung Batu Temerloh, Ministry of Education Asasteraju Contruction Sdn. Bhd
School Pahang Wawasan Utama PMC
Projects Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Serating Ministry of Education PALAS Berhad
Terengganu Wawasan Utama PMC
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Nyiur Paka , Ministry of Education Chulan Construction Sdn. Bhd
Terengganu Wawasan Utama PMC
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Bandi Ministry of Education Ensidesa Sdn. Bhd.
Kemaman, Terengganu

58
Table 5.3: Content Analysis - Summary of views from twenty respondence towards the causes of school project
delay.
Question Resp. 1 Resp. 2 Resp. 3 Resp. 4 Resp. 5 Resp. 6 Resp. 7 Resp. 8 Resp. 9 Resp. 10
1. Do you have Yes in Yes Yes Yes Yes as a Yes. But not Yes. On Not directly Yes for Yes for
previous Preparation In In tendering In Superintending specific on behalf of the but as a monitoring monitoring
experience in of Tender tendering. monitoring Officer on school contractor. management
handling Document school behalf of the projects. team.
school projects government Others too.
projects?

2. What Lack of Poor Poor Lack of Contractor Bad site No proper New Project not Understandi
constitute to experience. working monitoring, experience. didn’t follow management scheduling contractor. well ng of
the school Claims strategies. mobilization the work tools. No managed. scheduling
project delay done badly. of resources program experience. technique
or failure? properly. not taken
care of.

3. What was the Project Project Project Representa Reporting on Site meeting Client have Representati PMC will PMC will
monitoring Manager or Manager Manager or tive from weekly basis held from their ve from the monitor the monitor the
and a Clerk of or a Clerk a Clerk of the MOE to the project time to time. representative MOE to project project
administering Work at of Work at Work at to monitor initiator. Progress of doing the monitor based from based from
strategy site. Based site. Based site. Based project. work were monitoring. project the work the work
adopted? on work on work on work monitored. program. program
program. program. program.

4. What is your A good It helps A work Contractor Delay happens A work Understanding It is Work Work
perception of work contractor program must when some program work program important. program program
work program is to monitor must understand task or activity must come is important at must be must be
program? Is essential their include the needs was not clearly with detailed the early stage understood understood
this method but must be project. WBS. It to have shown on task. WBS of the project. by all by all
of project with good really helps. good work work program. must be parties parties
planning experience program. Must include included. involved. involved
detail WBS.
enough?

59
Table 5.3: continued..
Question Resp. 1 Resp. 2 Resp. 3 Resp. 4 Resp. 5 Resp. 6 Resp. 7 Resp. 8 Resp. 9 Resp. 10
5. Does any No idea. No idea. They should Yes. But it No idea. Never No. They have Yes and it Yes and it
Project have the differs from engage any guidelines, applied as a applied as a
Management guidelines at others PMC. deal with since it will standard standard
Consultant has least. any PMC be put in monitoring monitoring
any guideline or before. No their document. document.
ISO to monitor idea. monitoring No ISO. No ISO.
project? site report.

6. How is the Depend on Yes if they Yes. Depend on Normally No. Good Payment Delay can No record
project payment the claiming did the job. Genuine the total no. Have to Contractor payment made based be due to on good
being process and claims will cost of work wait for new must be scheme can on work lack of payment.
facilitated? Paid procedure. be attended done. allocate financially avoid delay. progress. experience
on time? fairly. budget. strong. when
making
claims.

7. Based on your Bar chart Bar chart, Gantt Chart. Bar chart Bar chart is Bar Chart Gantt Chart Bar chart Bar Chart Bar chart
experience, with a few Gantt Chart A few used and Gantt widely used. and Gantt set by the and a few from the and Gantt
what are the of them and PDM PDM and Chart A few with Chart consultant using Gantt Contract Chart
most common using WBS WBS. WBS and Chart Sum
type of project PDM Analysis
scheduling
technique used?
8. In terms of Yes. Yes. WBS can be Yes. WBS can Nothing will Yes. May be. Yes. They Yes. For sub
work packages Strongly Contractor handy for Exposed it help to be left Contractors Extra effort will know contracting
on site, do you agreed and must know new to reduce unseen if can develop must be what and purposes.
think WBS can should be the contractors contractors. delays. WBS exists. WBS with done by the when to do
help to guide supported. advantages with little the aid of contractors. the task.
contractor of WBS. experience. consultant
better? engineers.

9. Your overall Good but Must be Make it as a Can help Good Good. They must Good. Can Good. A Get every
view on WBS? may be new fully contract contractors approach to Should have be a assist new construction
to some. adopted document. a lot. avoid delay. guidelines. standard contractor. approach. personnel
check list on involved.
it.

60
Table 5.3: continued..

Question Resp. 11 Resp.12 Resp. 13 Resp. 14 Resp. 15 Resp. 16 Resp. 17 Resp. 18 Resp. 19 Resp. 20
1.Do you have No but have Yes, as a Yes. Sub Yes. Main Yes, from Yes Yes Yes Yes, portion
previous some sub contractor contractor the Ministry of it. As a
experience in similarity. contractor. for for school of Works. Sub
handling mechanical projects. contractor
school and
projects? electrical
works.

2. What Poor Poor Experience, Main Poor Poor No Poor Poor Poor
constitute to communication management knowledge contractor connection coordination, experience. financial management, coordination,
the school among parties by the main to do work. lack or with late management. no poor
project delay involved. contractor. experience. suppliers. payment. experience. monitoring.
or failure?

3. What was the Client Refer to Clerk of Work done Site Project Day to day Project Monitoring Client
monitoring representative work work to based on engineer Manager to monitoring monitoring by PMC representative
and refer to work program. follow time frame. with vast attend site by clerk of and site and site
administering program. work experience. meeting with work. meeting. meeting held
strategy program. Follow client. from time to
adopted? work time.
program.

4. What is your Must be No. If properly Must be Make it Very Prepared Work Important Main work
perception of prepare by sometimes prepared, understood simple but important by program document to program must
work contractor, work can help by others. detail. Add document, a contractor. must be assist be detail, can
program? Is although not program contractor Should be on with guide to Must make detail. Must contractor to coordinate
this method detail but use doesn’t to avoid detail WBS is finish the detail. show work complete the sub
of project full. show the delay. enough. much better. job. Must be packages or job. Yes, contractors
planning actual work. detail. WBS. detail and suppliers.
detail enough.
enough?

61
Table 5.3: continued..

Question Resp. 11 Resp. 12 Resp. 13 Resp. 14 Resp. 15 Resp. 16 Resp. 17 Resp. 18 Resp. 19 Resp. 20
5. Does any No idea. No idea. Yes. They No idea. Yes, they do Yes, for the No idea. Yes. Their Yes. They Although
Project should have. have guide purpose of Doesn’t monitoring have the PMC are
Management lines. For reporting. have any based on guidelines lack of
Consultant has the ISO, no experience guidelines. experience,
any guideline or idea. with them. they have
ISO to monitor guidelines
project?

6. How is the Late If we Project Can coup Contractors Payment Need to Contractor Late Contribute
project payment payment is prepare depends on with late needs good will help control cash relies on payment can to delay of
being common. good paper payment. payment. pay master contractor to flow. claims to cause delay. work
facilitated? Paid works, it Late Have good pay sub Always late continue the
on time? wont be a payment is financial contractors payment. work.
problem. common. background.

7. Based on your Gantt Chart Bar chart Gantt chart. Gantt chart Main Gantt chart, Gantt chart Bar chart Most Bar chart
experience, what and Bar and Gantt Easy to for overall contractors easy to and Bar and Gantt common, applicable
are the most chart. chart. Few understand. project. Bar used Gantt update. chart. chart Gantt chart for small
common type of use the chart for sub chart. projects
project PDM. contractors.
scheduling
technique used?

8. In terms of Yes, WBS can Yes. WBS WBS can Yes. Its WBS is Yes. It helps Yes. Must Yes Sub
work packages strongly help shows detail guide main advisable to new. Can contractor to be included contractors
on site, do you agreed. contractors work that contractors. have try to adapt avoid delay. in the Gantt are well
think WBS can with less should be Sub detailed it. chart. verse with
help to guide experience. done. contractors works their
contractor know their shown. routine job.
better? work well.

9. Your overall Help full to Use full for Very Can adapt Guidance Give it a try Will know Very use Can avoid It will help
view on WBS? avoid delay new detailed. JIT concept for what to do full delay and main
contractors contractors. and when. wastage. contractors.

Note: Refer to Appendix 1 for the detail background of respondent (Resp 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, 13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20)

62
63

Table 5.4: Comparison of construction activities generated from Contract Document and
Contract Sum analysis

N N N N
D D D D D
No DESCRIPTION D D D D
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4
1 PART 1 - INITIAL COST
2 Contract
3 Performance Bond X X X X X X X X X
4 Insurance X X X X
5 SOCSO X X X
6 Site Office for the SO X X X X X X X X
7 Equipment and Facilities X X X X
8 SO Telephone X X
9 Survey Instrument and Personnel X X
10 Site Items for SO X X
11 Office Equipment X X

12 General Facilities and Obligation


13 General Obligations
14 Site Survey X X X X X X X X X
15 Project Signboard X X
16 Statutory Obligation

17 CIDB Act X X X X X X X X X
18 Safety and protection
19 Safety Precaution X X X X X X X X
20 Hoarding X X X X X X X X
21 First Aid Kit X X
22 Environmental Protection
23 Environmental Protection X X X X
24 Control of Noise & Disturbance X X
25 Drainage and Erosion Control X X
26 Project Monitoring
27 Programmed of Work X X X X X X X X
28 Construction Quality Plan X X
28 Contractors Plant, Equipment, Facilities X X
30 Contractors Storage and Office X X X X X X
31 Contractors Temporary Accommodation X X X X
32 Contractors Plant and Equipment X X X X X X X X
33 Sanitation X X X X
34 Foremen and Assistant X X
35 Temporary Facilities and services
36 Temporary Water, Lighting and Power X X X X X X X X
37 Water for the works X
38 Lighting and Power X
39 Access and Temporary Road X X X X X X
40 Temporary Diversion / Services Relocation X X X X X X X
64

Table 5.4: continued..

41 PART II - PROGRESSIVE COST


42 Contract
43 Site Office for the SO X X X X X X X X X
44 Equipment and Facilities X X X X X X X X
45 SO Telephone X X
46 Survey Instrument and Personnel X X
47 Site Items for SO X X
48 Office Equipment X X X X X X

49 General Facilities and Obligation


50 General Obligations
51 Clearing, Cleaning and Making Good X X X
52 Statutory Obligation
53 Safety and protection X X X X X X X X X
54 Safety Precaution X
55 Hoarding X X X X X X X X X
56 First Aid Kit X X
57 Adjoining Property
58 Watching
59 Care and Protection X X X X X X
60 Environmental Protection
61 Environmental Protection X X X X X X X
62 Control of Noise & Disturbance X X
63 Drainage and Erosion Control X X
64 Project Monitoring
65 Programmed of Work X X X X X X X X X
66 Construction Quality Plan X X
67 Progress Photograph X X
68 Video Filming X X
69 Contractors Plant, Equipment, Facilities
70 Contractors Storage and Office X X X X
71 Contractors Temporary Accommodation X X X X X X X X X
72 Contractors Plant and Equipment X
73 Sanitation X X X X X X X X X
74 Foremen and Assistant X X X X X
75 Temporary Facilities and services X X X
76 Temporary Water, Lighting and Power X X X X X X
77 Water for the works X X
78 Lighting and Power X X
79 Access and Temporary Road X X X X X X X X X
80 Temporary Diversion / Services Relocation X

81 PART III – COMPLETION COST


82 Contract
83 Site Office for the SO X X X X X X X X X
84 Equipment and Facilities X X X
85 SO Telephone X X
65

Table 5.4: continued..

86 General Facilities and Obligation


87 General Obligations X X
88 Project Signboard X X X X X X X X X
89 Clearing, Cleaning and Making Good X X X X X X X X X
90 Statutory Obligation
91 Safety and protection X X X X X
92 Safety Precaution X
93 Hoarding X X X X
94 Adjoining Property X X
95 Watching X X
96 Care and Protection X X
97 Contractors Plant, Equipment, facilities
and Site Agent
98 Contractor Storage and Office X X X X
99 Contractor Temporary Accommodation X X X X X X X
100 Contractor Plant and Equipment X
101 Sanitation X X X
102 Temporary Facilities and Services
103 Access and temporary Road X X X X
104 Temporary Diversion, Relocation Existing X
Services
105 Submittals
106 As-Built Drawing X X X X
107 Piling Records X X
66

Table 5.5: Comparison of construction activities based on WBS element in project


schedule generated from contract documents.

N N N N
No WBS ELEMENT D D D D D1 D2 D3 D4 D5
1 2 3 4

1 Pre Construction Phase


2 Soil investigation X X X X X X X
3 Submission for approval X X X
4 Accommodation X X
5 Milestone activities X X

6 Construction Phase
7 Prelim X X X X X X X X
8 Part I – Initial cost X X
9 Part II - Progressive cost X X
10 Part III - Completion Cost X X
11 Mobilization X X X
12 Deliverables X X X
13 Setting out X X X X X
14 Temporary water / power supply X X X
15 Temporary access X X X
16 Site clearing X X X X X
17 Hoarding X X
18 Piling Works X X X X X X

19 External Works
20 Site Preparation and Earthworks X X X X X X X
21 Site clearance X X X X X X
22 Excavation and remove surplus X X X
23 Filling X X
24 Water Reticulation and Related works X X X
25 Sewer Reticulation and related works X X
26 Telecommunication works X X X X X X X X X
27 Permanent power supply X X X X
28 Fencing/gate X X X X
29 Landscape (softscape/hardscape) X X X X
30 Street/compound lighting X X X X
31 Road//hardstanding/parking X X
32 Substations, rubbish bin area, workshops X X
33 Field/ playground X X X X
67

Table 5.5: continued..

34 Building Works Block A X X X X X


35 Pile cap X X X
36 Ground beams X X
37 Columns X X
38 Ground Floors slab X X
39 Ground floor column X X
40 1st floor beam X X
41 1st floor column X
42 2nd floor beam X
43 2nd floor column X
44 3rd floor beam X
45 3rd floor column X
46 Roof beam X X
47 Roof trusses X
48 Roofing X X
49 Ceiling finishes X X

50 Ground floor
51 Staircase X X
52 Brick works X X
53 Doors, windows and frame X X
54 Wall finishes x X
55 Cement Plaster (internal) X
56 Cement Plaster (external) X
57 Floor finishes X X
58 Tiling X X
59 Furniture X X

60 1st Floor
61 Staircase X X
62 Brick works X X
63 Doors, windows and frame X X
64 Wall finishes X X
65 Cement Plaster (internal) X
66 Cement Plaster (external) X
67 Floor finishes X
68 Tiling X X
69 Gypsum board partition X
70 Furniture X X

71 2nd Floor
72 Staircase X X
73 Brick works X X
74 Doors, windows and frame X X
75 Wall finishes X X
76 Cement Plaster (internal) X
68

Table 5.5: continued..

77 Cement Plaster (external) X


78 Floor finishes X X
79 Tiling X X
80 Gypsum board partition X
81 Furniture X X

82 3rd Floor
83 Brick works X X
84 Doors, windows and frame X X
85 Wall finishes X X
86 Cement Plaster (internal) X
87 Cement Plaster (external) X
88 Floor finishes X X
89 Tiling X X
90 Gypsum board partition X
91 Furniture X

92 REPETATION FOR BLOCK B AND C X X X X X X

93 M&E works X X X X X
94 Plumbing and sanitary Appliances X X X X X
95 Cold water system X X X X X
96 Rain water down Pipe and Gutter X X X X
97 Painting Works X X X X
98 Apron and perimeter drain X X X X
99 Deadline X X
100 Deliver X

101 Anjung X X X X X
102 Piling Works X X
103 Construction work X X

104 Linking bridge


105 Piling Works X X
Construction Works X X

106 Guard House


107 Construction works X X X X X X X X X

108 TNB Substation X X X X X X X


109 Piling work X X
110 Construction work X X

111 External works X X X X X X


112 Refuse bin X X X
113 Wakaf X X X X X X X
114 Netball X X X
69

Table 5.5: continued..

115 Takraw X X X X X
116 Badminton X X X
117 Covered Walkway X X X X
118 Fencing, gates and footpath X X X X
119 Courtyard stage and flag post X X
120 Roads and car park X X X X
121 Surface water drainage X
122 Water reticulation X X
123 Sewerage system X X X
124 Piling X X
125 Sewer pipe and manhole X X X
126 Provisional Sum and Turfing X X X
127 Deadline X
128 Handing over
70

5.2 Effect of registration grade and type of documentation on the


completion of school projects

Table 5.1 shows that all contractors involved in the construction of


school projects in this case study was from CIDB registered as Grade 7. From
Table 5.1 and 5.2 it was seen that non-delayed school project adopted 50% Open
Tender Contract Document which were provided by Ministry of Works and 50%
Design and Built Contract Sum Analysis which were provided by the Ministry
of Education. However, for the delayed school projects, all contractors adopted
Design and Built Contract Sum Analysis. Therefore it can be said that adopting
Open Tender Contract Document provided by the Ministry of Works can avoid
delay in school projects.

5.3 Lack of experience affecting school projects delay

Content analysis as shown in Table 5.3 summarizes the factors that


contribute to the success and failures of school projects. 30% views from
respondents of various construction backgrounds responsibilities states lack of
experience contribute to school project failure. However, 20% of poor
understanding in project scheduling, 15% poor management, 20% poor
coordination between the contractor and the supplier and 15% due to late
payment.

5.4 Effect of work program on the completion of school project

From Table 5.3, 100% of respondent‘s view states that work program
will contribute to a successful construction projects. However, 20% of them
agreed that by introducing WBS in any scheduling technique could improve the
71

site management in terms of coordination between the contractors and the


laborers and hence avoiding delay in school construction projects.

In addition, Table 5.4 shows that all non-delayed construction project


detailed out their work program into work activities. However, the delayed
construction school projects ignored the importance of detailing out the work
activities in their work program.

From the above analysis and discussions it can be concluded that role of
WBS in school construction work program is critical to ensure non-delayed
construction of school projects. Therefore the development of WBS for school
construction projects will be elaborated in chapter 6.
CHAPTER 6

DEVELOPMENT OF WBS FORMAT AND GUIDELINES

6.1 Introduction

From Chapter 1 to Chapter 4, the study has discussed in length on issues


related to the development of school construction project in Malaysia. More
specifically, the chapter has also discussed the process practiced by The
Ministry of Works and The Ministry of Education. With these insights, we are
able to see the overall picture of the undertakings that a tender participating
contractor will have to go through and how the normal construction works will
be implemented.

Chapter 3 was dedicated to discussion on the importance of Work


Breakdown Scheduling (WBS) in the context of construction industry in general
and school construction project in specific. From this discussion, the study
managed to establish the contribution of a well planned and implemented WBS
in assisting the contractors to manage and supervise their project. WBS also
displayed its usefulness in the entire construction project from the work program
planning stage to completion, adhering to timeframe set and conforming to
quality expected.
73

6.2 Preparation of WBS

From the nine cases studied earlier, we can conclude that almost all
items in the work program calendar that does not carried any significant
(dummy activities) were normally ignored. Dummy activities although do not
indicate the progress of work, it is nevertheless very important for the project
completion and hand-over. Activities such as submission of samples and factory
visit do not contribute directly to the works progress but without the approval of
materials, it will be hard to imagine how the work on site can be started.

Many contractors refer only to the BQ when during their preparation of


WBS for the works programme. This sometimes proves to be a serious flaw and
render the whole purpose of WBS significantly useless. Instead, they should also
refer to all other contract documents like the specifications documents and other
contract requirements. A well prepared WBS will ensure that no interruption in
the work progress due to minor missed-out like non-compliance to specifications
or method statements.

The non-uniformity of reference adopted by different contractors has


created confusion among not only themselves, but other working partners like
the client, the sub-contractor and the PMCs. Some contractors refer to the BQ to
generate their WBS while some others refer to the specifications documents and
plan drawings, worse there are even those who just ignored any reference to the
contract documents and creating their own baseless WBS. Amidst this confusion
most of these contractors resorted to simplify the WBS elements to the level that
it is only to satisfies the documentation requirement by the client, resulting in
the principal purpose of WBS such as costing, monitoring, controlling and
reporting cannot be utilized effectively.
74

It is also disheartening to discover that, contractor has treated WBS


preparation as just another documentation requirement in process of winning
tender. Some of them even employ outsider who has no knowledge of that
specific tender / project to produce the WBS on their behalf. In the actual
implementation, they ignore and do not reap the full potential of WBS
deployment on site. In cases like this, we discovered that, contractor was no
doubt, not following the schedule since they had asked others to prepare the
WBS / scheduling for them.

Because of the lack of knowledge in the WBS they have submitted for
approval (they employ third party to do it for them), these contractors sometimes
do not realize or recognize the items / tasks that were indicated in the work
programme. To employ a permanent professional planner does not appear to be
a important thing to do. Therefore, it is normal to them that the progress of work
on site being delayed for checking, while supervision were not conducted
closely and diligently. Just another point on mind: One can never hear a project
that is running smoothly and on time in school construction project. If you walk
into a site meeting, everybody seems to always be struggling to catch-up to the
delayed delivery.

6.3 Proposed Format of WBS Presentation

After reviewing the nine case studies, analyzing inputs from experts’
panel and extracting resource from professional progress reports and literature
references, this study formulated and recommend the following format of WBS
presentation. The WBS items for school building works are proposed to be done
as below:
75

A) Stage 1 : Pre-construction Phase

i.) Soil investigation


ii) Submission for approval
iii) Accommodation
iv) Milestone activities

B) Stage 2 : Construction Phase

i) Preliminaries
Part I – Initial cost
Part II - Progressive cost
Part III - Completion Cost
ii) Mobilization
iii) Deliverables
iv) Setting out
v) Temporary water / power supply
vi) Temporary access
vii) Site clearing
viii) Hoarding
ix) Piling Works

x) Building Works Block A


Pile cap
Ground beams
Columns
Ground Floors slab
Ground floor column
1st floor beam
1st floor column
2nd floor beam
2nd floor column
3rd floor beam
3rd floor column
Roof beam
Roof trusses
Roofing
Ceiling finishes

Ground floor
Staircase
Brick works
Doors, windows and frame
Wall finishes
Cement Plaster (int)
76

Cement Plaster (ext)


Floor finishes
Tiling
Furniture

1st Floor
Staircase
Brick works
Doors, windows and frame
Wall finishes
Cement Plaster (int)
Cement Plaster (ext)
Floor finishes
Tiling
Gypsum board partition
Furniture

2nd Floor
Staircase
Brick works
Doors, windows and frame

Wall finishes
Cement Plaster (int)
Cement Plaster (ext)
Floor finishes
Tiling
Gypsum board partition
Furniture

3rd Floor
Brick works
Doors, windows and frame
Wall finishes
Cement Plaster (int)
Cement Plaster (ext)
Floor finishes
Tiling
Gypsum board partition
Furniture

M&E works
Plumbing and sanitary Appliances
Cold water system
Rain water down Pipe and Gutter
Painting Works
77

Apron and perimeter drain


Deadline

REPETATION FOR BLOCK B AND C

Anjung
Piling Works
Construction work

Linking bridge
Piling Works
Construction Works

Guard House
Construction works

TNB Substation
Piling work
Construction work

External works
Refuse bin
Wakaf
Netball
Takraw
Badminton
Covered Walkway
Fencing, gates and footpath
Courtyard stage and flag post
Roads and carpark
Surface water drainage
Water reticulation
Sewerage system
Piling
Sewer pipe and manhole
Provisional Sum and Turfing
Deadline

C) Stage 3 : Post Construction Phase


i) Demobilization
ii) Clearing of debris
iii) Submission of as-built drawing
iv) Submission of test reports
v) Submission of O&M manual
78

vi) Submission of defects list


vii) Testing and commissioning
viii) Submission of warranty and certificates
ix) Submission of approval from authorities
xi) Inspection for CPC
xii) Final measurement/account

Please note that, the recommended formulation might deviate slightly


from a project to another. This is mainly due to differing circumstances like site
location, climate, availability of material and machines. In view of the non-
standardization of project awarding processes practiced within the school
construction project sector, the recommended format might also differ slightly to
adapt to contract conditions and requirements.

6.4 Guidelines for the Designing of WBS

There is no simple formula to define how much detail should be included


in a work breakdown. Here are some helpful guidelines for completion:

• Break down [decompose] the work until accurate estimates of cost


and resources needed to perform the task are provided.
• Ensure that clear starting and ending events are defined for the task.
• If necessary, verify that the lowest level tasks can be performed
within a “reasonable” time schedule. If the time to complete a task
is too long, an accurate project status in the implementation phase
may not be possible.
• Each task must have one clearly identified what type of tread of job
to be done.
79

Harbans (2004) noted in the “Buletin Ingenieur” that :


“As for the form, there are currently no guideline available locally
spelling out the expected contents of the work programme. Much is left to the
contractor to decide based on his experience, bearing in mind the purpose of the
programme in the context of the particular circumstances of the contract works
being undertaken.”

Referring to Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) contract


form Clause 5.1 (a) reads:
“ … the contractor shall, not later than Date of Commencement submit
for the approval of the Superintending Officer.”
a) a works programme related in the Time for completion, clearly
identifying the sequence, logic and critical path in which he proposes to carry
out the works, including the various work activities and milestone to be
achieved ….”

Harbans, (2004) again quoted that :-


“In approaching this subject, one should be mindful of the fact that the
actual content of a particular works programme is also influenced by the
method of contract procurement adopted. Hence, it is therefore inevitable that
the content of a ‘Package Deal’ type of work programme will materially differ
from that under the traditional contracting route”.

For a contractor preparing his own Contractor’s Work Breakdown


Structure (CWBS), the guidelines (Part A) below can be utilized as the basis and
framework to draw up their CWBS:
80

Part A

1. Technical requirement and complexity of work


2. Resource requirements
3. Cost of works programme
4. Time span in preparing the programme
5. Contractor – client internal structure in term of management control
and reporting.
6. Numbers of subcontractor to implement the project

Based on the findings and referring to the existing recommendation from


the experts, listed below (Part B) are some of the characteristics to be taken into
consideration and practiced by the planner / planning engineer in preparing the
WBS for project scheduling.

Part B

1. Manageable, in that specific authority and responsibility can be


assigned.
2. Independent or at least with minimum interfacing with other WBS
elements.
3. Measurable for each element to monitor the progress.
4. Integratable so that the total package can be seen.
5. The summation of elements to be represented by the next upper level
elements.
6. Cost and budget can be established.
7. Planning can be performed.
8. Tracking work in term of time, cost and performance can be
implemented.
9. Responsibility assignment for each element can be done.
81

10. Reporting of progress scheduled can be established.


11. Objectives and company resources can be linked in logical manner.

To identify the complexity of the WBS, all the above mentioned


guidelines have to be considered. All sections and departments are required to
produce relevant data to the planner for the input in preparing the WBS. Co-
ordination and co-operation of every party is required so that the WBS produced
will reflect the ability and strength of the company at the same time, reflecting
sub-contractors’ ability to perform the project implementation. This also served
to satisfy all parties involved in the project construction.

6.5 Criteria in Developing the WBS

The criteria to be considered and practiced to ensure the minimum risk of


failure are listed below. By having the required and relevant data from all parties
(as mentioned in Para 6.4 above), the planners and implementers must be in
agreement as to what is expected from the WBS. There is a needs for a common
understanding between the planners and the implementers of the achievable
later when the project is being implemented because they are the only ones who
know the strength and usefulness of the criteria (Part C) applied to develop the
WBS. The criteria mentioned are :-

Part C

1. Tasks should be clearly defined the start/end date


2. WBS and work description to be easy to understand.
3. Tasks should be usable as a communication tools in which result can
be used to be compared with expectation.
4. Tasks/WBS elements to be structured in such a way that minimum
project office control and documentation is required.
82

5. All schedules to follow the WBS in order to ease the management


and co-ordination work.
6. The lowest WBS level should not be subdivided in order to have a
realistic cost compared to other tasks.
7. WBS should be flexible in order to accept any change scope of effort
during construction.
8. WBS also acts as tangible milestone for the subcontractors since their
delay can affect other trades completion date.
9. The level of WBS prepared can reflect the organization and line of
communication for the subcontractor’s involved in the project
construction.
10. WBS elements also should be able to segregate the recurring from
nonrecurring costs.
11. Normally, the lowest WBS elements should have 0.5 – 2.5 percent of
the total project budget.

Many companies across various industries have successes in managing


programmes / project without the using WBS technique. This is especially true
when the programmes / projects are repetitive in nature. However more and
more companies are entering diversified project areas where some
fundamentally common basis is needed for organizational synergy (Kerzner,
1984)

6.6 Checklist for the Preparation of WBS

After analyzing the characteristics of a proper and ideal WBS, and


comparing the criterion for the development of WBS with the newly
recommended WBS, it is advisable to counter check the WBS with the checklist
83

(Part D) below to ensure the generated WBS is functional and practical.


Amongst the checklists are :-

Part D

1. There can be one and only one (1) WBS for the contract
2. Once created, the WBS will exist for the life of the contract
3. Only formal contract change will effect the change in the WBS
4. Ensure that the WBS elements had been divided to the lowest
manageable level and to include more than one subcontractor if this
reflects the actual situation.
5. Check the proposed WBS and the contemplated efforts for
completeness, compatibility and continuity.
6. Ensure that the WBS satisfied both functional and programme /
project requirements including recurring and nonrecurring costs.
7. Check if the WBS provides to logical subdivision of all project work.
8. Ensure that all proposed WBS could fulfill the reporting
requirements of the organisation.
9. Check of assignment of responsibility for each element specific to
only one organisation.
10. Ensure the proposed WBS compatable to the contractor’s
organisation, arrangement and management system.
11. Review the WBS elements to ensure correlation with :-
! Construct specification and requirements
! End items of the contract
! Data items required
! Works statement tasks
! Management requirements
84

12. Ensure WBS covers measurable effort, level of effort, apportion


effort and subcontracts, if applicable.
13. Ensure the total costs of a particular level is the sum of all elements
cost of its next lower level.

Should a WBS passes the above mentioned processes of Characteristic


Check, Conforming to Criteria of WBS Development and Passes the Checklist,
it will deliver the full functional expectation of a ideal WBS. From the study, all
the WBS prepared for the school construction projects does not measure up to
the proposed guidelines and checklist, proving again that a hastily prepared
WBS not only bring no value to the project, but in extreme cases, contributed
negatively to the overall implementation.

6.7 An Example of a WBS for a School Construction Project

After introducing the appropriate format, characteristic requirement,


WBS development criteria, guidelines and checklists of WBS (Part A to Part D),
this paper present a sample of WBS for a School Construction Project, which
also can be used as guidance for the beginners in preparing the WBS for their
own project.

6.7.1 Project Brief

A typical Secondary school normally consist of three building


blocks for the classrooms and administrative . It will also have one canteen
block, a surau, an Anjung (a small shade for leisure), linking bridge, guard
house and a sub-station. Piling works are required for the Administrative ,
Classroom block), linking bridge, guard house and a sub-station
85

External works inclusive of the fencing, gates, guard house, approach


road, parking area, street / compound lighting, turfing / landscaping, external
drain, sewer system, a badminton court and rubbish chamber.

For internal works, the scope of works involved are the electrical supply,
air-condition installation, plumbing and sanitary work, electrical and telephone
services, installation of fire fighting system, lighting arrestors and PA/MATV
installation. Covered walkway joining to ‘surau’ and canteen is also required.

6.7.2 WBS on Construction of Sample Project (School Building)

Base on the project brief mentioned above, the sample WBS has been
designed as guidance for the beginners. Details of WBS are as per Table 6.1

Table 6.1 : Example of WBS for a school building project.

Construction and Completion of School Building and Ancillary


Works

Activity ID WBS Elements


1.0 Pre Construction Phase
1.1 Soil investigation
1.2 Submission for approval
1.3 Accommodation
1.4 Milestone activities

2.0 Construction Phase


2.1 Preliminaries
2.1.1 Part I-Initial cost
2.1.2 Part II-Progressive cost
2.1.3 Part III-Completion Cost
2.2 Mobilization
2.3 Deliverables
2.4 Setting out
86

Table 6.1- Continue


2.5 Temporary water/power supply
2.6 Temporary access
2.7 Site clearing
2.8 Hoarding
2.9 Piling Works

3.0 External Works


3.1 Site Preparation and earthworks
3.1.1 Site clearance
3.1.2 Excavation and remove surplus
3.1.3 Filling
3.2 Water reticulation and related works
3.3 Sewer Reticulation and related works
3.4 Telecommunication works
3.5 Permanent power supply
3.6 Fencing/gate
3.7 Landscape(softscape/hardscape)
3.8 Street/compound lighting
3.9 Road/hardstanding/parking
3.10 Substations ,rubbish bin area, workshops
3.11 Field/playground

4.0 Building Works Block A


4.1 Pile cap
4.2 Ground beams
4.3 Column
4.4 Ground Floors slab
4.5 Ground floor column
4.6 1st floor beam
4.7 1st floor column
4.8 2nd floor beam
4.9 2nd floor column
4.10 3rd floor beam
4.11 3rd floor column
4.12 Roof beam and trusses
4.13 Ground floor
4.13.1 Staircase
4.13.2 Brick works
4.13.3 Doors, windows and frame
4.13.4 Wall finishes
87

Table 6.1- Continue

4.13.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)


4.13.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
4.13.5 Floor finishes
4.13.6 Tiling
4.13.7 Gypsum board partition
4.13.8 Furniture
st
4.14 1 Floor
4.14.1 Staircase
4.14.2 Brick works
4.14.3 Doors, windows and frame
4.14.4 Wall finishes
4.14.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)
4.14.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
4.14.4.3 Balustrade wall at corridor
4.14.5 Floor finishes
4.14.6 Tiling
4.14.7 Gypsum board partition
4.14.8 Furniture
nd
4.15 2 floor
4.15.1 Staircase
4.15.2 Brick works
4.15.3 Doors, windows and frame
4.15.4 Wall finishes
4.15.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)
4.15.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
4.15.4.3 Balustrade wall at corridor
4.15.5 Floor finishes
4.15.6 Tiling
4.15.7 Gypsum board partition
4.15.8 Furniture
rd
4.16 3 Floor
4.16.1 Staircase
4.16.2 Brick works
4.16.3 Doors, windows and frame
4.16.4 Wall finishes
4.16.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)
4.16.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
4.16.4.3 Balustrade wall at corridor
88

Table 6.1- Continue


4.16.5 Floor finishes
4.16.6 Tiling
4.16.7 Gypsum board partition
4.16.8 Furniture
4.17 M&E works
4.18 Plumbing and sanitary appliances
4.18.1 Cold water system
4.18.2 Water Tank
4.18.3 Soil, Waste and Vent Pipe
4.18.4 Testing
4.19 Roof
4.19.1 Roof Beam
4.19.2 Roof Slab
4.19.3 Roof Stiffener
4.19.4 Roof Trusses
4.19.5 Roof Covering and Finishes
4.20 Rain water down Pipe and Gutter
4.21 Painting works
4.22 Apron and perimeter drain
4.23 Deadline

5.0 Building Works Block B


5.1 Pile cap
5.2 Ground beams
5.3 Column
5.4 Ground Floors slab
5.5 Ground floor column
5.6 1st floor beam
5.7 1st floor column
5.8 2nd floor beam
5.9 2nd floor column
5.10 3rd floor beam
5.11 3rd floor column
5.12 Roof beam and trusses
5.13 Ground floor
5.13.1 Staircase
5.13.2 Brick works
5.13.3 Doors, windows and frame
5.13.4 Wall finishes
89

Table 6.1- Continue

5.13.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)


5.13.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
5.13.5 Floor finishes
5.13.6 Tiling
5.13.7 Gypsum board partition
5.13.8 Furniture

5.14 1st Floor


5.14.1 Staircase
5.14.2 Brick works
5.14.3 Doors, windows and frame
5.14.4 Wall finishes
5.14.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)
5.14.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
5.14.4.3 Balustrade wall at corridor
5.14.5 Floor finishes
5.14.6 Tiling
5.14.7 Gypsum board partition
5.14.8 Furniture
5.15 2nd floor
5.15.1 Staircase
5.15.2 Brick works
5.15.3 Doors, windows and frame
5.15.4 Wall finishes
5.15.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)
5.15.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
5.15.4.3 Balustrade wall at corridor
5.15.5 Floor finishes
5.15.6 Tiling
5.15.7 Gypsum board partition
5.15.8 Furniture
5.16 3rd Floor
5.16.1 Staircase
5.16.2 Brick works
5.16.3 Doors, windows and frame
5.16.4 Wall finishes
5.16.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)
5.16.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
90

Table 6.1- Continue


5.16.4.3 Balustrade wall at corridor
5.16.5 Floor finishes
5.16.6 Tiling
5.16.7 Gypsum board partition
5.16.8 Furniture
5.17 M&E works
5.18 Plumbing and sanitary appliances
5.18.1 Cold water system
5.18.2 Water Tank
5.18.3 Soil, Waste and Vent Pipe
5.18.4 Testing
5.19 Roof
5.19.1 Roof Beam
5.19.2 Roof Slab
5.19.3 Roof Stiffener
5.19.4 Roof Trusses
5.19.5 Roof Covering and Finishes
5.20 Rain water down Pipe and Gutter
5.21 Painting works
5.22 Apron and perimeter drain
5.23 Deadline

6.0 Building Works Block C


6.1 Pile cap
6.2 Ground beams
6.3 Column
6.4 Ground Floors slab
6.5 Ground floor column
6.6 1st floor beam
6.7 1st floor column
6.8 2nd floor beam
6.9 2nd floor column
6.10 3rd floor beam
6.11 3rd floor column
6.12 Roof beam and trusses
6.13 Ground floor
6.13.1 Staircase
6.13.2 Brick works
6.13.3 Doors, windows and frame
91

Table 6.1- Continue


6.13.4 Wall finishes
6.13.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)
6.13.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
6.13.5 Floor finishes
6.13.6 Tiling
6.13.7 Gypsum board partition
6.13.8 Furniture
st
6.14 1 Floor
6.14.1 Staircase
6.14.2 Brick works
6.14.3 Doors, windows and frame
6.14.4 Wall finishes
6.14.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)
6.14.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
6.14.4.3 Balustrade wall at corridor
6.14.5 Floor finishes
6.14.6 Tiling
6.14.7 Gypsum board partition
6.14.8 Furniture
6.15 2nd floor
6.15.1 Staircase
6.15.2 Brick works
6.15.3 Doors, windows and frame
6.15.4 Wall finishes
6.15.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)
6.15.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
6.15.4.3 Balustrade wall at corridor
6.15.5 Floor finishes
6.15.6 Tiling
6.15.7 Gypsum board partition
6.15.8 Furniture
6.16 3rd Floor
6.16.1 Staircase
6.16.2 Brick works
6.16.3 Doors, windows and frame
6.16.4 Wall finishes
6.16.4.1 Cement Plaster(int)
6.16.4.2 Cement Plaster(ext)
6.16.4.3 Balustrade wall at corridor
92

Table 6.1- Continue


6.16.5 Floor finishes
6.16.6 Tiling
6.16.7 Gypsum board partition
6.16.8 Furniture
6.17 M&E works
6.18 Plumbing and sanitary appliances
6.18.1 Cold water system
6.18.2 Water Tank
6.18.3 Soil, Waste and Vent Pipe
6.18.4 Testing
6.19 Roof
6.19.1 Roof Beam
6.19.2 Roof Slab
6.19.3 Roof Stiffener
6.19.4 Roof Trusses
6.19.5 Roof Covering and Finishes
6.20 Rain water down Pipe and Gutter
6.21 Painting works
6.22 Apron and perimeter drain
6.23 Deadline
6.24 Delivery

7.0 Anjung (Resting Area)


7.1 Piling works
7.2 Column
7.3 Roof Beams
7.4 Roof trusses
7.5 Roof Covering
7.6 Flooring
7.7 Plumbing
7.8 Electrical Wiring

8.0 Linking bridge


8.1 Piling works
8.2 Column
8.3 Staircase
8.4 Roof Beams
8.5 Roof trusses
8.6 Roof Covering
93

Table 6.1- Continue


9.0 Guard House
9.1 Piling works
9.2 Column
9.3 Roof Beams
9.4 Roof trusses
9.5 Roof Covering
9.6 Flooring
9.7 Plumbing
9.8 Electrical Wiring

10.0 TNB Substation


10.1 Piling work
10.2 Column
10.3 Roof Beams
10.4 Roof trusses
10.5 Roof Covering
10.6 Flooring
10.8 Electrical Wiring

11.0 External works


11.1 Refuse bin
11.2 Wakaf
11.3 Netball
11.4 Takraw
11.5 Badminton
11.6 Covered walkway
11.7 Fencing
11.8 Entrance Gate
11.9 Courtyard stage and flag post
11.10 Roads and car park
11.10.1 Concrete Edge
11.10.2 Car park
11.10.3 Footpath
11.11 Surface water drainage
11.12 Water reticulation
11.13 Sewerage system
11.13.1 Piling
11.13.2 Sewer pipe and manhole
11.14 Provisional Sum and Turfing
11.15 Deadline
11.16 Delivery
94

Table 6.1- Continue


12.0 Post Construction Phase
12.1 Demobilization
12.2 Clearing of debris

12.3 Submission of as-built drawing


12.4 Submission of test reports
12.5 Submission of O & M manual
12.6 Submission of defects list
12.7 Testing and commissioning
12.8 Submission of warranty and certificates
12.9 Submission of approval from authorities
12.10 Inspection for CPC
12.11 Final measurement / account
CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

7.1 Introduction

Any school construction project is a complex operation, requiring


coordination of multiple people, tasks and organization. Construction of a
school can be particularly challenging, both in terms of meeting the needs of the
clients and gaining the outmost profit from it. There is no doubt of the
importance of the WBS in the project planning and scheduling. It has been
explained clearly in Chapter 1, 2 and 3 and also being verified by conducting a
structured interview as explained in Chapter 4 .

The success of a school project starts at inception with getting the right
people for the job. Effective management must take into account adequate
planning and communication and selecting the contractors. . Without a proper
WBS, the planning/scheduling could not achieve its purposes and could also
disrupt the site management. So, it is essential to provide enough time and
attention for planning and designing WBS, since mistakes made in the planning
and early stages will carry through the entire life of the project.
96

7.2 Managing School Projects in The Future

With 54 new school construction projects and 220 school for upgrading
development in the pipeline for the new Ninth Malaysia Plan (9MP) , the
industry must admit that they should gear up their capabilities of producing first
class construction works in terms of quality and value for money. Bear in mind
that all in all, government spending on school construction and school upgrading
programs will be in excess of Rm980 million. Now days, the construction
industry, specifically covering schools building and laboratories have been
lacking behind. Although there was a tendency for some contractors to be
protective of their long-standing practice, but as school projects getting more
complex and together with the increase expectations from the government, it is
strongly belief that the acceptance of WBS in project management culture is
inevitable.

7.3 Concept and Application of WBS in School Project Scheduling.

The concept and application of WBS in the preparation of work program


and scheduling has been elaborated in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 and Chapter 4. Few
examples have been given including the different kind of numbering the WBS
elements to ease the using of identification of each activity and its level
(hierarchy). From the numbering itself, the position and its grouping can be
identified. Although WBS is part of the project scheduling, it is very important
to be properly prepared since its reflect the type and activities to be executed and
assignment of responsibility can be implemented. Its also help the management
to identify the subcontractors required and quotation for the works can also be
distributed.
97

A well developed WBS can assist and guide contractors, PMCs and
Construction Managers in terms of providing insight, direction and supervision
through the entire construction process. Good WBS makes construction
managers will have a comprehensive understanding of the full scope of work,
and will be able to oversee and coordinate sub-contractors and special trade-
contractors to ensure that the new facility meets the expectations. WBS can
also help the planners to identify their resources. Manpower, materials
resourcing , machines required and costing are among the activities that can be
planned with the help of the WBS.

7.4 Application of WBS in Construction Schedules for Selected School


Projects.

Out of the nine school projects that were selected and identified for the
cases to be studied in this dissertation, two were known to have a good WBS
done based from experience and referring from the building drawings. Both
school projects were completed within the stipulated time frame, although, as
mentioned earlier, both were granted EOT by the government due to unforeseen
circumstance. The advantages of having clear WBS is as it can coordinate
activities to minimize impact to the school projects, such as

• Coordinate purchase and delivery of materials that may have long


lead times to obtain.
• Schedule work to mesh smoothly with school schedules and to
minimize disruptions to school activities in the case of renovation
and alteration.
98

• Review contract and bid packages to minimize gaps and ambiguity in


contract requirements
• To work with suppliers to obtain better prices, while assuring
sufficient quality.

Other then that it was also found that there are negative trend among
contractors who prefer not to prepare the construction schedules as details as
possible. Some of the activities/tasks were failed to assign responsibility to only
one party/gang. Problems may arise when the activities are delayed as the
responsible party can deny their fault. Of course, some of them were not capable
of practicing the right way of doing the WBS for construction schedules due to
lack of knowledge and resources.

For the post construction items such as testing & commissioning,


demobilization, submission as-built drawings including the O&M manual were
also excluded from the list. This is due to the reason that mostly all activities in
the pre and post construction phase are not carrying any weight age to the works
progress either physically or financially.

7.5 To Initiate/Propose Format and Guidelines for WBS.

The format and proposed guidelines have been elaborated in Chapter 5


and Chapter 6 and the format and guidelines are just the first step towards
preparing the standard and well prepared format and guidelines. To certify the
guidelines, feedback from five professionals in the construction industry has
been obtained. Their relevant comments have been incorporated in the
guidelines.
99

The propose format and guidelines are hopefully to ease the planners
when designing the WBS. As for checking, a check list has been proposed to
confirm the designed WBS in term of application and usage. The format,
guidelines and check list have been elaborate in details in Chapter 5 and
Chapter 6.

7.6 Example of WBS for a Building School Project.

Studied done shows that a basic school projects consists of three


building blocks for classroom and administrative, a canteen block, a guard house,
a surau or a wakaf, TNB sub-station and playing field for badminton or sepak
takraw. Proactively, a lingking bridge is added during the development of the
proposd WBS.

An example of WBS which is suitable for a normal school project is


introduced hoping that it will act as a guidance for contractors and project
managers when managing school projects. By having an example, the beginners
can refer to the items and suite it to their projects. Although all projects are not
the same , they are quite similar in certain ways. Therefore, some merging were
done to obtain the most practical WBS for school projects.

7.7 Conclusion

Initially WBS was misunderstood as a scheduling tools. WBS is not an


instrument. It is one of the approach as process in preparing project schedule. It
is not a technique by itself rather it is part of the scheduling process. Some
100

contractors thought that WBS is a ‘polished’ version of a present scheduling


technique. They misunderstood that WBS function is never quite different from
CPM method or a Gantt Chart. A WBS does not show the sequence in which
work is performed. A WBS shows what should be done in order to complete
certain task. Only after further explanation, only they realized the importance of
WBS which act as a guiding tools that can help them manage their project.
Further study on WBS has explained all aspects of WBS including its
importance, usage, current perception and proposed format and guidelines of
preparing it.

It was found that many contractors are ignoring the importance of


project planning and scheduling mainly in preparing the WBS. This may lead to
delay and failure to the project. Although there are factors that contribute to the
project failure, at least by planning, the risk can be minimized and the potential
problems can also be identified during initial stage.

This study also shows that the Open Tender Method practiced by The
Ministry of Works in awarding school projects to contractors proved to produce
better and healthier competitive way in awarding the right and credible
contractors to do the jobs. On the other hands, it was sad to learn that, due to
weak supervision and improper tendering process and documentation, the
Design and Built method adopted by The Ministry of Education produced a lot
of failures. In this context, WBS can play a big roll in assisting new contractors

There is no formal guidelines in preparing the WBS in our country.


Among contractors uses building drawings, experience and informal guidelines
based from books, journals and technical papers. This proposed guidelines
presented could at least help the contractors to prepare the functional WBS for
their school projects.
101

7.8 Recommendation.

There a studies done on WBS before and lots of things have be said
about it. Though some quarters will look at it as a surviving tools for the
construction industry players , others might take it negatively as another pain
staking paper work that must be done without knowing the main objective.

The guidelines, format, checklist and project example have not been
certified by relevant agencies such as CIDB and JKR although CIDB, through
their “Certified Construction Project Manager”s, program, stressed the needs of
knowing and developing WBS for all Project Managers in the program’s module.
For the proposed guidelines to be standardized and applied to the government
and private projects, their certification is required. For the first step, there should
be a working committee which include all relevant ministry that are responsible
either directly or indirectly, responsible for handling out schools construction
projects. Since the certification is time consuming, further effort to be done in
highlighting this problems to the higher level/authorities for the benefits of our
construction industry.

In the Malaysian construction sector, there are lots of type of


construction, such as housing, highways, bridges, factories, hill side
development and many more include school projects. WBS can be develop for
all type of construction. We can start it first by concentrating on school projects
since there’s a lot of problems in this field.

Without a good and proper construction management plus lack of


knowledge, our contractors could not go further to compete in the global market.
Their mind have to be changed and perception on planning have to be corrected
in order to have effective planning capability thus contribute to the advancement
in construction industry generally.
102

REFERENCES

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A Derivation of the Network Flow Approach, Journal of the
Operational Research Society, Stockton, UK, vol. 48, no. 12, pp241-4.

Ballard and Howell,G (1999). What is Kind Of Production Is


Construction? Proceeding Sixth Annual Conference Of International
Group Of Lean Construction, IGLC-7, Guaruja, Brazil

Chris Hendrickson (1989). Department of Civil Engineering, Carnegie Mellon


University, Pittsburgh.

Clough, Richard H (1991). Construction Project Management 3rd ed.

Fisk, R., Edward (1992). Construction Project Administration 4th ed.,


Prentice Hall.

Feigenbaum, (1998). Construction Scheduling with Primavera Project Planner,


Prentice Hall,

Howell,G. (1999) What is Lean Construction? Proceeding Seventh Annual


Conference Of International Group Of Lean Construction, IGLC-7,
University Of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Halpin, Daniel W. (1980). Construction Management . John Wiley.

Horsely, William F. (1991). Means Scheduling Manual 3rd. ed. RS Means

J. Hill, L.C. Thomas and Allen D. (2000). Experts’ estimate of task duration in
software development projects. International Journal of Project
Management

James P.L. (2000), Project Planning Scheduling and Control: A Hands-On


Guide to Bringing Projects In On Time and On Budget, McGraw-Hill
Third Edition.,
103

Koskela, L (1992) Application Of The New Production Philosophy


Of Construction, Technical Report, No.72, CIFE Stanford University,
Stanford,CA

Kerzner, (1998). Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning,


Scheduling and Controlling, Wiley,

Moder, J.J. (1970). Project Management with CPM, PERT and Precedence
Diagramming Van Nostrand 2nd ed.,

Martin E. M. (1996). A Professional's Guide to Systems Analysis, 2nd. Ed.


McGraw Hill.

McGovern and Gene. (1999). Easing the pain.Managing school construction


projects American School and University

Moder and Phillips (1983), Project Management with CPM, PERT and
Precedence Programming 2nd ed.,

Saad Al-Jibori (2002) , Effect of resource management regimes on project


schedule. International Journal of Project Management 20

The Hartford’s Guide to Emergency Preparedness Planning, Hartford, Conn:


The Hartford, c1998.

Waldron, (1968). Applied Principles of Project Planning and Control, A.


James Waldron,
104

APPENDIX I

Detailed background of respondents.

R1 - Director of Cawangan Ukur Bahan, Ministry of Works.

R2 - Assistant Director of Cawangan Ukur Bahan, Ministry of Works.

R3 - Assistant Director of Cawangan Ukur Bahan, Ministry of Works.

R4 - Project Engineer, Department of Education, Johore.

R5 - Senior Quantity Surveyor.

R6 - Civil Engineer, JKR Pahang.

R7 - Professional Civil Engineer, Consultant.

R8 - Administrative and Diplomatic Officer (PTD), Ministry Of Education.

R9 - Quantity Surveyor, Project Management Consultant.

R9 - Quantity Surveyor, Project Management Consultant.

R10 - Quantity Surveyor, Project Management Consultant.

R11 – R20 Contractors.


105

APPENDIX II

QUESTIONNAIRES FOR THE EXPERTS’ PANELS


AND CONTRACTORS
106

Gratitude Note:

Thank you for sparing your precious time to participate in this research study. You are
participating in a Master Degree Research entitled: “Development of Common Work
Breakdown Structure (WBS) for School Construction Project”. You are assured that your
input will be put to great use to develop a better Work Scheduling Management for
school construction project in Malaysia. Thank you again.

General Information of Participant:

1). Title: ……………………………………….


(Mr., Ms., Dr., Ir., Dato’, etc)

2). Name of Ministry / Organization: 6). Duration in current position:


………………………………………………..
…….. years and …………months

3). Department attached to:


……………………………………………….. 7). Position before current designation:

……………….…………………………….
4). Designation:
……………………….…………
Professional Qualification of Mark
Participant “X”
5). Brief description of job function: Civil Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
……………………………………….………. Electrical/Electronics
……………………………………………….. Engineering
……………………………………………….. Legal Personnel
……………………………………………….. Economic Major
……………………………………………….. Quantity Surveyor
……………………………………………….. Others (please specify)
…………………………………..
107

Face to Face Session

This section aims to establish the influential factors that govern a school construction
project success/failure, pinpoint the cause of unsuccessful project and to gather opinions
and suggestions on improving future project implementation.

Structured Questionnaire:

Date :
………………………..
Time :
…………………………
Remark :
…………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………..

Question 1.

What is the percentage of project failure in the category of “School Construction


Project” awarded by Ministry of Work / Ministry of Education working with Project
Management Consultancy company.

Result to the above


question: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
What is the cause of the
problem: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
At what stage is the
problem discovered? ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Who are responsible for
the mistake: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
If it is not the direct fault of
the party assigned to the
108

job, stage who and explain: ……………………………………………………………………


……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Remedy and Improvement
suggestions: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Other Remark:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………

Question 2.

What constitute to the school construction project failure?

Result to the above


question: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
What is the cause of the
problem: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
At what stage is the
problem discovered? ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Who are responsible for
the mistake: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
If it is not the direct fault of
the party assigned to the ……………………………………………………………………
job, stage who and explain:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Remedy and Improvement
suggestions: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Other Remark:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
109

Question 3.

What is the project financing structure? What was the monitoring and administering
strategy adopted?

Result to the above


question: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
What is the cause of the
problem: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
At what stage is the
problem discovered? ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Who are responsible for
the mistake: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
If it is not the direct fault of
the party assigned to the ……………………………………………………………………
job, stage who and explain:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Remedy and Improvement
suggestions: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Other Remark:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
110

Question 4.

What is the type of project monitoring system adopted by Ministry of Work/Ministry of


Education or Project Management Consultancy Company. Work Breakdown Scheduling
or other system? What is the outcome?

Result to the above


question: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
What is the cause of the
problem: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
At what stage is the
problem discovered? ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Who are responsible for
the mistake: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
If it is not the direct fault of
the party assigned to the ……………………………………………………………………
job, stage who and explain:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Remedy and Improvement
suggestions: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Other Remark:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
111

Question 5.

What is your perception on “Program of Work”? Is this method of project planning


detail enough?

Result to the above


question: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
What is the cause of the
problem: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
At what stage is the
problem discovered? ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Who are responsible for
the mistake: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
If it is not the direct fault of
the party assigned to the ……………………………………………………………………
job, stage who and explain:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Remedy and Improvement
suggestions: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Other Remark:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
112

Question 6.

Does Project Management Consultancy Company of the Ministry has any guideline or
ISO to monitor project based on any type of program?

Result to the above


question: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
What is the cause of the
problem: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
At what stage is the
problem discovered? ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Who are responsible for
the mistake: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
If it is not the direct fault of
the party assigned to the ……………………………………………………………………
job, stage who and explain:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Remedy and Improvement
suggestions: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Other Remark:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
113

Question 7.

How is the project payment being facilitated? If schedule payment, did payment paid on
time? If not, please list problems.

Result to the above


question: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
What is the cause of the
problem: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
At what stage is the
problem discovered? ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Who are responsible for
the mistake: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
If it is not the direct fault of
the party assigned to the ……………………………………………………………………
job, stage who and explain:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Remedy and Improvement
suggestions: ……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
Other Remark:
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………
114

Question 8.

Please list at least one (1) school construction project which in your opinion failure
miserably:

Name of Project:
Location: …………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….
Date of Commencement:
…………………………………………………….
Reasons why it fail:
…………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….
Additional Remarks:
…………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….

Question 9.

Please list at least one (1) school construction project which in your opinion is highly
successful:

Name of Project:
Location: …………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….
Date of Commencement:
…………………………………………………….
Reasons why it fail:
…………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….
Additional Remarks:
…………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….

End of Question

Thanks you for your corporation.