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According to the old mythological epic "Shiv Purana", Rudraksha was the favorite tree of Lord Shiva and it
grew in Gauda land(present day Gangetic plains to foothills of Himalayas).

Botanical Name: Elaeocarpus Ganitrus Roxb.


Family : Tiliaceae, the Lime/Linden family.

Extents
The Rudraksha tree inhabits areas starting from Manila, Philippines and passing through Myanmar to
entire North-East India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. However, in present era, the Rudraksha tree is
localized only in Eastern Nepal due to suitable climatic conditions.

Rudraksha Tree
Rudraksha is a large, evergreen broad-leaved tree found in tropical and sub-tropical areas at the altitudes
ranging from seacoast to 2,000 meters above the sea level. The tree is a perennial i.e. grows throughout
the year and is about 50-200 feet high.

The main trunk of the Rudraksha tree is cylindrical with a grayish white and rough textured bark. In
Nature, leafy crown of a Rudraksha tree takes a pyramidal shape. The leaves of Rudraksha tree are
shinning green on the upper side with a dull leathery dorsal side.

Rudraksha flowers are white with fringed petals and they appear in April-May.

Rudraksha fruits appear in June and ripen by August-October. They are globular in shape with a fleshy
exterior. The bead present inside is hard and tubercled.

Cultivation of Rudraksha Trees


Rudraksha farming is a difficult process due to the slow sprouting from the beads. Depending on the
humidity of the soil, it usually takes 1-2 years for a tree to sprout. Rudraksha is grown in subtropical
climatic regions with temperature ranges of 25-30 degree centigrade. The tree starts giving fruit after 7
years and fruits for a long time after the 7-year period. A single Rudraksha tree bears beads in all different
faces or mukhis at the same time. The higher mukhis or faces are very rare. Most common Rudraksha
bead is the five faceted or panchmukhi.
The environment and location of Rudraksha trees plays a major role in the bead formation and the type of
bead formed. e.g: The Himalayan beads seem larger, heavier and more powerful due to the environment
they grow in.

Composition of a Rudraksha
Rudraksha is covered by a blue outer shell on ripening so it is also called blueberry bead. The percentage
compositions of the gaseous elements present in a Rudraksha was determined by C-H-N Analyzer and
by Gas chromatography. Rudraksha beads contain 50.031 % carbon, 0.95% nitrogen, 17.897% hydrogen
and 30.53% oxygen.

Rudraksha

Botanical Representation of Rudraksha

According to the old mythological epic "Shiv Purana", Rudraksha was the favorite tree of Lord
Shiva and it grew in Gauda land (present day Gangetic plains to foothills of Himalayas).

Researches shows that these trees are mostly found in South Eastern Asian Islands of Java,
Sumatra, Borneo, Bali, Iran, Java, Timor (Indonesia) and parts of South Asian Kingdom of Nepal,
Sri Lanka, Burma, Myanmar, Tibet, Thailand, Malaysia, India, and northern parts of Australia, New
Zealand, New Calidonia, Fiji, Philippines, South China, Japan and Hawaii.

Botanical Name: Elaeocarpus Ganitrus Roxb.


Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnolipsida
Family: Eleocarpaceae
Genus: Elaeocarpus
Type: E. serratus Linn, Eganitrus, Roxb, etc.

Eleocarpus: Eleocarpus is a Greek word formed by the combination of Elaei and Carpus. In Greek,
Elaei means 'wild olive' tree and Carpus means 'fruit' therefore the seed of fruit from wild olive like
trees is known as Elaeocarpus.

In India Rudraksha is spelt differently in different languages.Language Local Name


Sanskrit, Hindi & Marathi Rudraksha
Bengali Rudrakaya
Kannada Rudrakshi
Tamil Akkamrudrakai
Telugu Rudraksha Halu
English Woodenbegar

Extents

The Rudraksha tree inhabits areas starting from Manila, Philippines and passing through
Myanmar to entire North-East India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. However, in present era, the
Rudraksha tree is localized only in Eastern Nepal due to suitable climatic conditions.

Around 70% of the Rudraksha trees are found in Indonesia, 25% in Nepal and 5% in India.
Considered a major stress reliever, reducing circulatory problems and of course as the best
beads, the berry (Elaeocarpus Ganitrus) was first spotted in Indonesia and is now grown in Nepal
and Hardware.

Rudraksha Tree

Rudraksha is a large, evergreen broad-leaved tree found in tropical and sub-tropical areas at the
altitudes ranging from seacoast to 2,000 meters above the sea level. The tree is a perennial i.e.
grows throughout the year.

Size of Tree

The Tree of Rudraksha is about 50-200 feet high. It may be 14.60 meters to 29.20 meters tall
depending on the area and the climate. The diameter of trunk is upto 1.22 meter.

Shape of Rudraksha Tree

The main trunk of the Rudraksha tree is cylindrical with a grayish white and rough textured bark.
In Nature, leafy crown of a Rudraksha tree takes a pyramidal shape.

Rudraksha leaves are like mango tree leaves and its length is about 17.78 cms and width is
between 2.54 cm to 4.45 cms. The leaves of Rudraksha tree are shinning green on the upper side
with a dull leathery dorsal side.In the beginning these leaves are light green in colour and turn
into deep green at the time of maturity and changes into yellowish red before turning grey coffee
colour and falling. This cycle of leaves continues all over the tree throughout the year.

Rudraksha flowers are white with fringed petals and they appear in April-May. Its flowers exhibit
mild aroma or fragrance like raat ki rani. The flowers of the Rudraksha appear in bunch but
smaller than that of leaf.

Rudraksha fruits appear in June and ripen by August-October but it occurs only when the tree is
seven to eight years old. Rudraksha fruits are globular in shape with a fleshy exterior. The size of
the fruit is 2cms to 4cms in diameter and is green in colour. After maturity the colour of fruit starts
turning into bluish violet from green and then into deep brown and then finally into black in
colour.

Rudraksha Beads The bead is inside the fruit which we call the seed of the fruit of Rudraksha. The
bead present inside is hard and tubercled. The bead has very hard rough surface having uneven
grooves and a long cavity in the centre from the point where it's main is attached to the stem. The
bead contains seed/s inside and receives their nourishment from the central cavity. From the
central cavity vertical clefts remain attached. Each cleft has separate compartment having one
internal seed. The joint of these cleft preludes outside the body of the seed. This joint is visible
from outside. This joint is known as mukhi or dhari or we call facet.

Cultivation of Rudraksha Trees

Rudraksha farming is a difficult process due to the slow sprouting from the beads. Depending on
the humidity of the soil, it usually takes 1-2 years for a tree to sprout. Rudraksha is grown in
subtropical climatic regions with temperature ranges of 25-30 degree centigrade. The tree starts
giving fruit after 7 years. A single Rudraksha tree bears beads in all different faces or mukhis at
the same time. The higher mukhis or faces are very rare. Most common Rudraksha bead is the five
faceted or panchmukhi. Rudraksha upto 21 mukhis are found and documented. But 22 to 29
mukhis have also been obtained.

The environment and location of Rudraksha trees plays a major role in the bead formation and the
type of bead formed. e.g: The Himalayan beads seem larger, heavier and more powerful due to the
environment they grow in.

Elaeocarpus trees are planted for ornamental purposes as bunches of blue fruits all over the tree
give a very scenic look.

Family of Elaeocarpaceae :

The family of Elaeocarpaceae has six important taxa.

1. Elaeocarpus Ganitrus : It is found in Nepal, Malaysia, Indonesia and smaller number in northern
region of Bihar Assam Bengal and Arunachal Pradesh. In ancient scriptures they are considered
as pure and authentic.

2. E. Floribundus Blume : The bark of these tree is used to cure the diseases of gums.

3. E. Olingus Mast : Its fruit is used in treatment of ulcers, rheumatic pneumonia, leprosy and
piles. Its wood is suitable for making matchboxes.

4. E. Petiolatus Wall : The juice of its leaves is used to cure sunstroke and its roots are used to
cure fever.

5. E. Serratus Linn : The leaves of this Rudraksha is used to cure rheumatism and as a antidote to
poison.
6. E. Tuberculatus : The bark of the tree is used to cure haemetemesis and indigestion while the
seed is used as a remedy of typhoid fever and elilepsy.

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