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Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 1

Chapter 8
Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single
Populations

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

The overall learning objective of Chapter 8 is to help you


understand estimating
parameters of single populations, thereby enabling you to:

1. Know the difference between point and interval estimation.

2. Estimate a population mean from a sample mean when σ


is known.

3. Estimate a population mean from a sample mean when σ


is unknown.

4. Estimate a population proportion from a sample proportion.

5. Estimate the population variance from a sample variance.

6. Estimate the minimum sample size necessary to achieve


given statistical goals.
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 2

CHAPTER TEACHING STRATEGY

Chapter 8 is the student's introduction to interval


estimation and estimation of sample size. In this chapter, the
concept of point estimate is discussed along with the notion that
as each sample changes in all likelihood so will the point
estimate. From this, the student can see that an interval
estimate may be more usable as a one-time proposition than the
point estimate. The confidence interval formulas for large sample means
and proportions can be presented as mere algebraic manipulations of formulas
developed in chapter 7 from the Central Limit Theorem.
It is very important that students begin to understand the difference
between mean and proportions. Means can be generated by averaging some sort
of measurable item such as age, sales, volume, test score, etc. Proportions are
computed by counting the number of items containing a characteristic of interest
out of the total number of items. Examples might be proportion of people
carrying a VISA card, proportion of items that are defective, proportion of market
purchasing brand A. In addition, students can begin to see that sometimes single
samples are taken and analyzed; but that other times, two samples are taken in
order to compare two brands, two techniques, two conditions, male/female, etc.
In an effort to understand the impact of variables on confidence intervals,
it may be useful to ask the students what would happen to a confidence interval if
the sample size is varied or the confidence is increased or decreased. Such
consideration helps the student see in a different light the items that make up a
confidence interval. The student can see that increasing the sample size, reduces
the width of the confidence interval all other things being constant or that it
increases confidence if other things are held constant. Business students probably
understand that increasing sample size costs more and thus there are trade-offs in
the research set-up.
In addition, it is probably worthwhile to have some discussion with
students regarding the meaning of confidence, say 95%. The idea is presented in
the chapter that if 100 samples are randomly taken from a population and 95%
confidence intervals are computed on each sample, that 95%(100) or 95 intervals
should contain the parameter of estimation and approximately 5 will not. In most
cases, only one confidence interval is computed, not 100, so the 95% confidence
puts the odds in the researcher's favor. It should be pointed out, however, that the
confidence interval computed may not contain the parameter of interest.
This chapter introduces the student to the t distribution to estimate
population means from small samples when σ is unknown. Emphasize that this
applies only when the population is normally distributed. The student will
observe that the t formula is essentially the same as the z formula and that it is the
table that is different. When the population is normally distributed and σ is
known, the z formula can be used even for small samples. In addition, note that
some business researchers always prefer to use the t distribution when σ is
unknown.
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 3

A formula is given in chapter 8 for estimating the population variance.


Here the student is introduced to the chi-square distribution. An assumption
underlying the use of this technique is that the population is normally distributed.
The use of the chi-square statistic to estimate the population variance is extremely
sensitive to violations of this assumption. For this reason, exercise extreme
caution is using this technique. Some statisticians omit this technique from
consideration.
Lastly, this chapter contains a section on the estimation of sample size.
One of the more common questions asked of statisticians is: "How large of a
sample size should I take?" In this section, it should be emphasized that sample
size estimation gives the researcher a "ball park" figure as to how many to sample.
The “error of estimation “ is a measure of the sampling error. It is also equal to
the + error of the interval shown earlier in the chapter.

CHAPTER OUTLINE

8.1 Estimating the Population Mean Using the z Statistic.

Finite Correction Factor

Confidence Interval to Estimate µ When σ is


Unknown

Confidence Interval to Estimate µ When the


Population Standard
Deviation is Unknown and n is Large.

8.2 Estimating the Population Mean Using the t Statistic.

The t Distribution

Robustness

Characteristics of the t Distribution.

Reading the t Distribution Table

Confidence Intervals to Estimate µ When σ is


Unknown and
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 4

Sample Size is Small

8.3 Estimating the Population Proportion

8.4 Estimating the Population Variance

8.5 Estimating Sample Size

Sample Size When Estimating µ

Determining Sample Size When Estimating p

KEY WORDS

Bounds Point Estimate


Chi-square Distribution Robust
Degrees of Freedom(df) Sample-Size Estimation
Error of Estimation t Distribution
Interval Estimate t Value
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 5

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS IN CHAPTER 8

8.1 a) x = 25 σ = 3.5 n = 60

95% Confidence z.025 = 1.96

σ 3.5
x + z = 25 + 1.96 = 25 + 0.89 = 24.11 < µ < 25.89
n 60

b) x = 119.6 s = 23.89 n = 75
98% Confidence z.01 = 2.33

s 2.89
x + z = 119.6 + 2.33 75 = 119.6 ± 6.43 = 113.17 < µ < 126.03
n

c) x = 3.419 s = 0.974 n = 32
90% C.I. z.05 = 1.645

s 0.974
x + z = 3.419 + 1.645 = 3.419 ± .283 = 3.136 < µ < 3.702
n 32

d) x = 56.7 σ = 12.1 N = 500 n = 47


80% C.I. z.10 = 1.28

σ N −n 12 .1 500 − 47
x ±z = 56.7 + 1.28 =
n N −1 47 500 −1

56.7 ± 2.15 = 54.55 < µ < 58.85


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 6

8.2 n = 36 x = 211 σ = 23
95% C.I. z.025 = 1.96

σ 2
x ± z = 211 ± 1.96 = 211 ± 7.51 = 203.49 < µ < 218.51
n 36

8.3 n = 81 x = 47 s = 5.89
90% C.I. z.05=1.645

s 5.89
x ± z = 47 ± 1.645 = 47 ± 1.08 = 45.92 < µ < 48.08
n 81

8.4 n = 70 σ 2 = 49 x = 90.4

x = 90.4 Point Estimate

94% C.I. z.03 = 1.88

σ 49
x + z n
= 90.4 ± 1.88 = 90.4 ± 1.57 = 88.83 < µ < 91.97
70

8.5 n = 39 N = 200 x = 66 s = 11
96% C.I. z.02 = 2.05

s N −n 11 200 − 39
x ± z = 66 ± 2.05 =
n N −1 9 200 −1

66 ± 3.25 = 62.75 < µ < 69.25

x = 66 Point Estimate

8.6 n = 120 x = 18.72 s = 0.8735


99% C.I. z.005 = 2.575
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 7

x = 18.72 Point Estimate

s 0.8735
x + z = 18.72 ± 2.575 120 = 8.72 ± .21 = 18.51 < µ < 18.93
n

8.7 N = 1500 n = 187 x = 5.3 years s = 1.28 years


95% C.I. z.025 = 1.96

x = 5.3 years Point Estimate

s N −n 1.28 1500 −187


x ± z = 5.3 ± 1.96 =
n N −1 187 1500 −1

5.3 ± .17 = 5.13 < µ < 5.47

8.8 n = 32 x = 5.656 s = 3.229


90% C.I. z.05 = 1.645

s 3.229
x ± z = 5.656 ± 1.645 = 5.656 ± .939 = 4.717 < µ < 6.595
n 32

8.9 n = 36 x = 3.306 s = 1.167


98% C.I. z.01 = 2.33

s 1.167
x ± z = 3.306 ± 2.33 = 3.306 ± .453 = 2.853 < µ < 3.759
n 36
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 8

8.10 n = 36 x = 2.139 s = .113

x = 2.139 Point Estimate

90% C.I. z.05 = 1.645

s (. 113 )
x ± z = 2.139 ± 1.645 = 2.139 ± .03 = 2.109 < µ < 2.169
n 36

8.11 µ = 27.4 95% confidence interval n = 45

x = 24.533 s = 5.1239

z = + 1.96

s 5.1239
Confidence interval: x + z = 24.533 + 1.96 =
n 45

24.533 + 1.497 = 23.036 < µ < 26.030

8.12 The point estimate is 0.5765. n = 41

The assumed standard deviation is 0.1394

99% level of confidence: z = + 1.96

Confidence interval: 0.5336 < µ < 0.6193

Error of the estimate: 0.6193 - 0.5765 = 0.0428


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 9

8.13 n = 13 x = 45.62 s = 5.694 df = 13 – 1 = 12

95% Confidence Interval


α /2=.025

t.025,12 = 2.179

s 5.694
x ±t = 45.62 ± 2.179 = 45.62 ± 3.44 = 42.18 < µ < 49.06
n 13

8.14 n = 12 x = 319.17 s = 9.104 df = 12 - 1 = 11

90% confidence interval

α /2 = .05 t.05,11 = 1.796

s 9.104
x ±t = 319.17 ± (1.796) = 319.17 ± 4.72 = 314.45 < µ <
n 12
323.89

8.15 n = 27 x = 128.4 s = 20.64 df = 27 – 1 = 26

98% Confidence Interval


α /2=.01

t.01,26 = 2.479

s 20 .6
x ±t = 128.4 ± 2.479 = 128.4 ± 9.83 = 118.57 < µ < 138.23
n 27

x = 128.4 Point Estimate


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 10

8.16 n = 15 x = 2.364 s2 = 0.81 df = 15 – 1 = 14

90% Confidence interval


α /2=.05

t.05,14 = 1.761

s 0.81
x ±t = 2.364 ± 1.761 = 2.364 ± .409 = 1.955 < µ < 2.773
n 15

8.17 n = 25 x = 16.088 s = .817 df = 25 – 1 = 24

99% Confidence Interval

α /2=.005

t.005,24 = 2.797

s .817
x ±t = 16.088 ± 2.797 = 16.088 ± .457 = 15.631 < µ < 16.545
n 25

x = 16.088 Point Estimate

8.18 n = 22 x = 1,192 s = 279 df = n - 1 = 21

98% CI and α /2 = .01 t.01,21 = 2.518

s 279
x ±t = 1,192 + (2.518) = 1,192 + 149.78 = 1,042.22 < µ <
n 22
1,341.78
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 11

8.19 n = 20 df = 19 95% CI t.025,19 = 2.093

x = 2.36116 s = 0.19721

0.1972
2.36116 + 2.093 = 2.36116 + 0.0923 = 2.26886 < µ < 2.45346
20

Point Estimate = 2.36116

Error = 0.0923

8.20 n = 28 x = 5.335 s = 2.016 df = 28 – 1 = 27

90% Confidence Interval α /2=.05

t.05,27 = 1.703

s 2.016
x ±t = 5.335 ± 1.703 = 5.335 + .649 = 4.686 < µ < 5.984
n 28

8.21 n = 10 x = 49.8 s = 18.22 df = 10 – 1 = 9

95% Confidence α /2=.025 t.025,9 = 2.262

s 18 .22
x ±t = 49.8 ± 2.262 = 49.8 + 13.03 = 36.77 < µ < 62.83
n 10
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 12

8.22 n = 14, 98% confidence, α /2 = .01, df = 13

t.01,13 = 2.650

from data: x = 152.16 s = 14.42

s 14 .42
confidence interval: x ±t = 152.16 + 2.65 =
n 14

152.16 + 10.21 = 141.95 < µ < 162.37

The point estimate is 152.16

8.23 a) n = 44 p̂ =.51 99% C.I. z.005 = 2.575

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 51 )(. 49 )
pˆ ± z = .51 ± 2.575 = .51 ± .194 = .316 < p< .704
n 44

b) n = 300 p̂ = .82 95% C.I. z.025 = 1.96

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 82 )(. 18 )
pˆ ± z = .82 ± 1.96 = .82 ± .043 = .777 < p < .863
n 300

c) n = 1150 p̂ = .48 90% C.I. z.05 = 1.645

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 48 )(. 52 )
pˆ ± z = .48 ± 1.645 = .48 ± .024 = .456 < p < .504
n 1150

d) n = 95 p̂ = .32 88% C.I. z.06 = 1.555

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 32 )(. 68 )
pˆ ± z = .32 ± 1.555 = .32 ± .074 = .246 < p < .394
n 95
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 13

8.24 a) n = 116 x = 57 99% C.I. z.005 = 2.575

p̂ = x = 57 = .49
n 116

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 49 )(. 51 )
pˆ ± z = .49 ± 2.575 = .49 ± .12 = .37 < p < .61
n 116

b) n = 800 x = 479 97% C.I. z.015 = 2.17

x 479
p̂ = = = .60
n 800

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 60 )(. 40 )
pˆ ± z = .60 ± 2.17 = .60 ± .038 = .562 < p < .638
n 800

c) n = 240 x = 106 85% C.I. z.075 = 1.44

x 106
p̂ = = = .44
n 240

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 44 )(. 56 )
pˆ ± z = .44 ± 1.44 = .44 ± .046 = .394 < p < .486
n 240

d) n = 60 x = 21 90% C.I. z.05 = 1.645

x 21
p̂ = = = .35
n 60

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 35 )(. 65 )
pˆ ± z = .35 ± 1.645 = .35 ± .10 = .25 < p < .45
n 60
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 14

8.25 n = 85 x = 40 90% C.I. z.05 = 1.645

p̂ = x = 40 = .47
n 85

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 47 )(. 53 )
pˆ ± z = .47 ± 1.645 = .47 ± .09 = .38 < p < .56
n 85

95% C.I. z.025 = 1.96

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 47 )(. 53 )
pˆ ± z = .47 ± 1.96 = .47 ± .106 = .364 < p < .576
n 85

99% C.I. z.005 = 2.575

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 47 )(. 53 )
pˆ ± z = .47 ± 2.575 = .47 ± .14 = .33 < p < .61
n 85

All things being constant, as the confidence increased, the width of the interval
increased.

8.26 n = 1003 p̂ = .245 99% CI z.005 = 2.575

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 245 )(. 755 )


pˆ ± z = .245 + 2.575 = .245 + .035 = .21 < p < .28
n 1003
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 15

8.27 n = 560 p̂ = .47 95% CI z.025 = 1.96

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 47 )(. 53 )
pˆ ± z = .47 + 1.96 = .47 + .0413 = .4287 < p < .5113
n 560

n = 560 p̂ = .28 90% CI z.05 = 1.645

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 28 )(. 72 )
pˆ ± z = .28 + 1.645 = .28 + .0312 = .2488 < p < .3112
n 560

8.28 n = 1250 x = 997 98% C.I. z.01 = 2.33

x 997
p̂ = = = .80
n 1250

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 80 )(. 20 )
pˆ ± z = .80 ± 2.33 = .80 ± .026 = .774 < p < .826
n 1250

8.29 n = 3481 x = 927

x 927
p̂ = = = .266
n 3481

a) p̂ = .266 Point Estimate

b) 99% C.I. z.005 = 2.575

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 266 )(. 734 )


pˆ ± z = .266 + 2.575 = .266 ± .02 =
n 3481

.246 < p < .286

8.30 n = 89 x = 48 85% C.I. z.075 = 1.44


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 16

x 48
p̂ = = = .54
n 89

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 54 )(. 46 )
pˆ ± z = .54 ± 1.44 = .54 ± .076 = .464 < p < .616
n 89

8.31 p̂ = .63 n = 672 95% Confidence z = + 1.96

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 63 )(. 37 )
pˆ ± z = .63 + 1.96 = .63 + .0365 = .5935 < p < .6665
n 672

8.32 a) n = 12 x = 28.4 s2 = 44.9 99% C.I. df = 12 – 1 = 11

χ 2
.995,11 = 2.60321 χ 2
.005,11 = 26.7569

(12 −1)( 44 .9) (12 −1)( 44 .9)


< σ 2
<
26 .7569 2.60321

18.46 < σ 2
< 189.73

b) n = 7 x = 4.37 s = 1.24 s2 = 1.5376


95% C.I. df = 12 – 1 = 11

χ 2
.975,6 = 1.237347 χ 2
.025,6 = 14.4494

(7 −1)(1.5376 ) (7 −1)(1.5376 )
< σ 2
<
14 .4494 1.237347

0.64 < σ 2
< 7.46

c) n = 20 x = 105 s = 32 s2 = 1024
90% C.I. df = 20 – 1 = 19

χ 2
.95,19 = 10.117 χ 2
.05,19 = 30.1435

( 20 −1)(1024 ) ( 20 −1)(1024 )
< σ 2
<
30 .1435 10 .117
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 17

645.45 < σ 2
< 1923.10

d) n = 17 s2 = 18.56 80% C.I. df = 17 – 1 = 16

χ 2
.90,16 = 9.31223 χ 2
.10,16 = 23.5418

(17 −1)(18 .56 ) (17 −1)(18 .56 )


< σ 2
<
23 .5418 9.31223

12.61 < σ 2
< 31.89

8.33 n = 16 s2 = 37.1833 98% C.I. df = 16-1 = 15

χ 2
.99,15 = 5.22935 χ 2
.01,15 = 30.5779

(16 −1)( 37 .1833 ) (16 −1)( 37 .1833 )


<σ 2
<
30 .5779 5.22935

18.24 < σ 2
< 106.66

8.34 n = 12 s = 4.3 s2 = 18.49


98% C.I. df = 20 – 1 = 19

χ 2
.99,19 = 7.63273 χ 2
.01,19 = 36.1980

(20 −1)(18 .49 ) ( 20 −1)(18 .49 )


< σ 2
<
36 .1980 7.63273

9.71 < σ 2
< 46.03

Point Estimate = s2 = 18.49

8.35 n = 152 s2 = 3.067 99% C.I. df = 15 – 1 = 14

χ 2
.995,14 = 4.07468 χ 2
.005,14 = 31.3193

(15 −1)( 3.067 ) (15 −1)( 3.067 )


< σ 2
<
31 .3193 24 .07468

1.37 < σ 2
< 10.54
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 18

8.36 n = 14 s2 = 26,798,241.76 95% C.I. df = 14 – 1 = 13

Point Estimate = s2 = 26,798,241.76

χ 2
.975,13 = 5.00874 χ 2
.025,13 = 24.7356

(14 −1)( 26 ,798 ,241 .76 ) (14 −1)( 26 ,798 ,241 .76 )
< σ 2
<
24 .7356 5.00874

14,084,038.51 < σ 2
< 69,553,848.45

8.37 a) σ = 36 E=5 95% Confidence z.025 = 1.96

z 2σ 2 (1.96) 2 (36 ) 2
n= = = 199.15
E2 52

Sample 200

b) σ = 4.13 E=1 99% Confidence z.005 = 2.575

z 2σ 2 (2.575 ) 2 (4.13) 2
n= = = 113.1
E2 12

Sample 114

c) E = 10 Range = 500 - 80 = 420

1/4 Range = (.25)(420) = 105

90% Confidence z.05 = 1.645

z 2σ 2 (1.645 ) 2 (105 ) 2
n = = = 298.3
E2 10 2

Sample 299

d) E = 3 Range = 108 - 50 = 58

1/4 Range = (.25)(58) = 14.5

88% Confidence z.06 = 1.555


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 19

z 2σ 2 (1.555 ) 2 (14 .5) 2


n = = = 56.5
E2 32

Sample 57

8.38 a) E = .02 p=.40 96% Confidence z.02 = 2.05

z 2 p ⋅ q ( 2.05 ) 2 (. 40 )(. 60 )
n = = = 2521.5
E2 (. 02 ) 2

Sample 2522

b) E = .04 p=.50 95% Confidence z.025 = 1.96

z 2 p ⋅ q (1.96 ) 2 (. 50 )(. 50 )
n = = = 600.25
E2 (. 04 ) 2

Sample 601

c) E = .05 p = .55 90% Confidence z.05 = 1.645

z 2 p ⋅ q (1.645 ) 2 (. 55 )(. 45 )
n = = = 267.9
E2 (. 05 ) 2

Sample 268
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 20

d) E =.01 p = .50 99% Confidence z.005 = 2.575

z 2 p ⋅ q (2.575 ) 2 (. 50 )(. 50 )
n = = = 16,576.6
E2 (. 01) 2

Sample 16,577

8.39 E = $200 σ = $1,000 99% Confidence z.005 = 2.575

z 2σ 2 (2.575) 2 (1000 ) 2
n = = = 165.77
E2 200 2

Sample 166

8.40 E = $2 σ = $12.50 90% Confidence z.05 = 1.645

z 2σ 2 (1.645 ) 2 (12 .50 ) 2


n = = = 105.7
E2 22

Sample 106

8.41 E = $100 Range = $2,500 - $600 = $1,900

σ ≈ 1/4 Range = (.25)($1,900) = $475

90% Confidence z.05 = 1.645

z 2σ 2 (1.645) 2 ( 475) 2
n = = = 61.05
E2 100 2

Sample 62
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 21

8.42 p = .20 q = .80 E = .02

90% Confidence, z.05 = 1.645

z 2 p ⋅ q (1.645 ) 2 (. 20 )(. 80 )
n = = = 1082.41
E2 (. 02 ) 2

Sample 1083

8.43 p = .50 q = .50 E = .05

95% Confidence, z.025 = 1.96

z 2 p ⋅ q (1.96 ) 2 (. 50 )(. 50 )
n = = = 384.16
E2 (. 05 ) 2

Sample 385

8.44 E = .10 p = .50 q = .50

95% Confidence, z.025 = 1.96

z 2 p ⋅ q (1.96 ) 2 (. 50 )(. 50 )
n = = = 96.04
E2 (. 10 ) 2

Sample 97
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 22

8.45 x = 45.6 s = 7.7467 n = 35

80% confidence z.10 = 1.28

s 7.7467
x ±z = 45 .6 ±1.28 = 45.6 + 1.676
n 35

43.924 < µ < 47.276

94% confidence z.03 = 1.88

s 7.7467
x ±z = 45 .6 ±1.88 = 45.6 + 2.462
n 35

43.138 < µ < 48.062

98% confidence z.01 = 2.33

s 7.7467
x±z = 45 .6 ± 2.33 = 45.6 + 3.051
n 35

42.549 < µ < 48.651

8.46 x = 12.03 (point estimate) s = .4373 n = 10 df = 9

For 90% confidence: α /2 = .05 t.05,9= 1.833

s .4373
x ±t = 12 .03 ±1.833 = 12.03 + .25
n 10

11.78 < µ < 12.28


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 23

For 95% confidence: α /2 = .025 t.025,9 = 2.262

s .4373
x ±t = 12 .03 ± 2.262 = 12.03 + .31
n 10

11.72 < µ < 12.34

For 99% confidence: α /2 = .005 t.005,9 = 3.25

s (. 4373 )
x ±t = 12 .03 ± 3.25 = 12.03 + .45
n 10

11.58 < µ < 12.48

8.47 a) n = 715 x = 329

329
pˆ = = .46
715

95% confidence z.025 = 1.96

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 46 )(. 54 )
pˆ ± z = .46 ±1.96 = .46 + .0365
n 715

.4235 < p < .4965

b) n = 284 p̂ = .71 90% confidence z.05 = 1.645

ˆ ⋅ qˆ
p (. 71)(. 29 )
ˆ ±z
p = .71 ±1.645 = .71 + .0443
n 284

.6657 < p < .7543


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 24

c) n = 1250 p̂ = .48 95% confidence z.025 = 1.96

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 48 )(. 52 )
pˆ ± z = .48 ±1.96 = .48 + .0277
n 1250

.4523 < p < .5077

d) n = 457 x = 270 98% confidence z.01 = 2.33

270
pˆ = = .591
457

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 591 )(. 409 )


pˆ ± z = .591 ± 2.33 = .591 + .0536
n 457

.5374 < p < .6446

8.48 n = 10 s = 7.40045 s2 = 54.7667 df = 10 – 1 = 9

90% confidence, α /2 = .05 1 - α /2 = .95

χ 2
.95,9 = 3.32511 χ 2
.05,9 = 16.919

(10 −1)( 54 .7667 ) (10 −1)( 54 .7667 )


< σ 2
<
16 .919 3.32511

29.133 < σ 2
< 148.236

95% confidence, α /2 = .025 1 - α /2 = .975

χ 2
.975,9 = 2.70039 χ 2
.025,9 = 19.0228

(10 −1)( 54 .7667 ) (10 −1)( 54 .7667 )


< σ 2
<
19 .0228 2.70039

4.258 < σ 2
< 182.529
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 25

8.49 a) σ = 44 E=3 95% confidence z.025 = 1.96

z 2σ 2 (1.96 ) 2 (44) 2
n = = = 826.4
E2 32

Sample 827

b) E = 2 Range = 88 - 20 = 68

use = 1/4(range) = (.25)(68) = 17

90% confidence z.05 = 1.645

z 2σ 2 (1.645 ) 2 (17 ) 2
= = 195.5
E2 22

Sample 196

c) E = .04 p = .50 q = .50

98% confidence z.01 = 2.33

z 2 p ⋅ q ( 2.33 ) 2 (. 50 )(. 50 )
= = 848.3
E2 (. 04 ) 2

Sample 849

d) E = .03 p = .70 q = .30

95% confidence z.025 = 1.96

z2 p ⋅q 4(1.96 ) 2 (. 70 )(. 30 )
= = 896.4
E2 (. 03 ) 2

Sample 897
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 26

8.50 n = 17 x = 10.765 S = 2.223 df = 17 - 1 = 16

99% confidence α /2 = .005 t.005,16 = 2.921

s 2.223
x ±t = 10 .765 ± 2.921 = 10.765 + 1.575
n 17

9.19 < µ < 12.34

8.51 p=.40 E=.03 90% Confidence z.05 = 1.645

z 2 p ⋅ q (1.645 ) 2 (. 40 )(. 60 )
n = = = 721.61
E2 (. 03 ) 2

Sample 722

8.52 n = 17 s2 = 4.941 99% C.I. df = 17 – 1 = 16

χ 2
.995,16 = 5.14224 χ 2
.005,16 = 34.2672

(17 −1)( 4.941 ) (17 −1)( 4.941 )


< σ 2
<
34 .2672 5.14224

2.307 < σ 2
< 15.374

8.53 n = 45 x = 213 s = 48

98% Confidence z.01 = 2.33

s 48
x±z = 213 ± 2.33 = 213 ± 16.67
n 45

196.33 < µ < 229.67


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 27

8.54 n = 39 x = 37.256 s = 3.891

90% confidence z.05 = 1.645

s 3.891
x ±z = 37 .256 ±1.645 = 37.256 ± 1.025
n 39

36.231 < µ < 38.281

8.55 σ =6 E=1 98% Confidence z.98 = 2.33

z 2σ 2 ( 2.33) 2 (6) 2
n = = = 195.44
E2 12

Sample 196

8.56 n = 1,255 x = 714 95% Confidence z.025 = 1.96

714
pˆ = = .569
1255

ˆ ⋅ qˆ
p (. 569 )(. 431 )
ˆ ±z
p = .569 ±1.96 = .569 ± .027
n 1,255

.542 < p < .596


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 28

8.57 n = 25 s = 21 x = 128 98% C.I. df = 25 – 1 = 24

t.01,24 = 2.492

Point Estimate = $128

s 21
x ±t = 128 ± 2.492 = 128 + 10.466
n 25

117.534 < µ < 138.466

Interval Width = 138.466 – 117.534 = 20.932

8.58 n = 60 x = 6.717 s = 3.059 N =300

98% Confidence z.01 = 2.33

s N −n 3.059 300 − 60
x±z = 6.717 ± 2.33 =
n N −1 60 300 −1

6.717 ± 0.824 =

5.893 < µ < 7.541

8.59 E = $20 Range = $600 - $30 = $570

1/4 Range = (.25)($570) = $142.50

95% Confidence z.025 = 1.96

z 2σ 2 (1.96 ) 2 (142 .50 ) 2


n = = = 195.02
E2 20 2

Sample 196
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 29

8.60 n = 245 x = 189 90% Confidence z.05= 1.645

x 189
pˆ = = = .77
n 245

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 77 )(. 23 )
pˆ ± z = .77 ±1.645 = .77 ± .044
n 245

.726 < p < .814

8.61 n = 90 x = 30 95% Confidence z.025 = 1.96

x 30
pˆ = =
n 90 = .33

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 33 )(. 67 )
pˆ ± z = .33 ±1.96 = .33 ± .097
n 90

.233 < p < .427

8.62 n = 12 x = 43.7 s2 = 228 df = 12 – 1 = 11 95% C.I.

t.025,11 = 2.201

s 228
x ±t = 43 .7 ± 2.201 = 43.7 + 9.59
n 12

34.11 < µ < 53.29

χ 2
.975,11 = 3.81575 χ 2
.025,11 = 21.92

(12 −1)( 228 ) (12 −1)( 228 )


< σ 2
<
21 .92 3.81575

114.42 < σ 2
< 657.28
Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 30

8.63 n = 27 x = 4.82 s = 0.37 df = 26

95% CI: t.025,26 = 2.056

s 0.37
x ±t = 4.82 ± 2.056 = 4.82 + .1464
n 27

4.6736 < µ < 4.9664

We are 95% confident that µ does not equal 4.50.

8.64 n = 77 x = 2.48 s = 12

95% Confidence z.025 = 1.96

s 12
x±z = 2.48 ±1.96 = 2.48 ± 2.68
n 77

-0.20 < µ < 5.16

The point estimate is 2.48

The interval is inconclusive. It says that we are 95% confident that the average
arrival time is somewhere between .20 of a minute (12 seconds) early and 5.16
minutes late. Since zero is in the interval, there is a possibility that on average the
flights are on time.

8.65 n = 560 p̂ =.33

99% Confidence z.005= 2.575

pˆ ⋅ qˆ (. 33 )(. 67 )
pˆ ± z = .33 ± 2.575 = .33 ± (2.575) = .33 ± .05
n 560

.28 < p < .38


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 31

8.66 p = .50 E = .05 98% Confidence z.01 = 2.33

z 2 p ⋅ q ( 2.33 ) 2 (. 50 )(. 50 )
= = 542.89
E2 (. 05 ) 2

Sample 543

8.67 n = 27 x = 2.10 s = 0.86 df = 27 - 1 = 26

98% confidence α /2 = .01 t.01,26 = 2.479

s 0.86
x ±t = 2.10 ± 2.479 = 2.10 ± (2.479) = 2.10 ± 0.41
n 27

1.69 < µ < 2.51

8.68 n = 23 df = 23 – 1 = 22 s = .0631455 90% C.I.

χ 2
.95,22 = 12.338 χ 2
.05,22 = 33.9244

( 23 −1)(. 0631455 ) 2 ( 23 −1)(. 0631455 ) 2


< σ 2
<
33 .9244 12 .338

.0026 < σ 2
< .0071

8.69 n = 39 x = 1.294 s = 0.205 99% Confidence z.005 = 2.575

s 0.205
x ±z = 1.294 ± 2.575 = 1.294 ± (2.575) = 1.294 ± .085
n 39

1.209 < µ < 1.379


Chapter 8: Statistical Inference: Estimation for Single Populations 32

8.70 The sample mean fill for the 58 cans is 11.9788 oz. with a standard deviation of
.0556 oz. The 99% confidence interval for the population fill is 11.9607 oz. to
11.9970 oz. which does not include 12 oz. We are 99% confident that the
population mean is not 12 oz. indicating an underfill from the machine.

8.71 The point estimate for the average length of burn of the new bulb is 2198.217
hours. Eighty-four bulbs were included in this study. A 90% confidence interval
can be constructed from the information given. The error of the confidence
interval is + 27.76691. Combining this with the point estimate yields the 90%
confidence interval of 2198.217 + 27.76691 = 2170.450 < µ < 2225.984.

8.72 The point estimate for the average age of a first time buyer is 27.63 years. The
sample of 21 buyers produces a standard deviation of 6.54 years. We are 98%
confident that the actual population mean age of a first-time home buyer is
between 24.02 years and 31.24 years.

8.73 A poll of 781 American workers was taken. Of these, 506 drive their cars to
work. Thus, the point estimate for the population proportion is 506/781 = .648. A
95% confidence interval to estimate the population proportion shows that we are
95% confident that the actual value lies between .613 and .681. The error of this
interval is + .034.