Anda di halaman 1dari 21

Yogurt is a tangy, nutritionally excellent dairy product that can be made at home.

The
milk used contains a higher concentration of solids than normal milk. By increasing the
solids content of the milk, a firm, rather than soft, end product results. Addition of nonfat
dry milk (NFDM) is the easiest at-home method for doing this.

Yogurt is made by inoculating certain bacteria (starter culture), usually Streptococcus


thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, into milk. After inoculation, the milk is
incubated at approximately 110°F ± 5°F until firm; the milk is coagulated by bacteria-
produced lactic acid.

Making yogurt at home is fun and less expensive than buying it. It can be made with
ordinary kitchen utensils. The materials and directions necessary for making yogurt
follow.

Starter Culture

Dry cultures for making yogurt can be purchased in some health food stores, but they are
usually expensive. Dry cultures also may be purchased directly from a manufacturer such
as: Chr. Hansen's Laboratory, Inc., 9015 West Maple Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
53214.

The easiest and least expensive way of obtaining a starter culture is to purchase plain
yogurt at a grocery store. It should be plain--no fruit added. Fruit may contribute
undesirable yeasts and bacteria to the yogurt, making it a poor starter culture.

You must use a brand of plain yogurt whose label indicates that the product
contains a live culture; some brands of plain yogurt do not contain a live culture because
the yogurt has been pasteurized.

To maintain a culture, save a small portion of yogurt (1 c is enough for a 1-gal batch) to
use as a starter culture for the next batch. Be sure to refrigerate the starter culture in a
clean, air-tight container.

From time-to-time a culture may become contaminated, and a new culture is needed. By
using a new culture, the original flavor and a minimal coagulation time are retained.

Temperature

Accurate temperature control helps assure rapid coagulation and a good-tasting yogurt. A
thermometer that measures temperature in the range of 90°F to 120°F should be
adequate. A good stainless steel thermometer (Model 2292) is available from: Weston
Instruments, Inc., 614 Frelinghuysen Avenue, Newark, New Jersey 07114. A glass
thermometer can be used, but may break easily. Thermometers are not needed with
special yogurt-making equipment.

Ingredients
Yogurt can be made by using only nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and water, or by adding
NFDM to skim milk, 2% milk, or regular milk. Nonfat dry milk is commonly available in
two forms, instant and regular. Ideally, the milk powder should be weighed to obtain the
desired solids content (15 percent on a weight basis). Because weighing might not be
possible in all home kitchens, measurements both by weight and volume are provided in
the following recipes (Table I). For each recipe, the quantity of ingredients necessary for
making either 1 qt or 1 gal of yogurt is given.

Table I - Yogurt Recipes


Recipe 1
Liquid Ingredient Dry Ingredient NFDM*
By weight By volume
Instant Regular
1 gal water + 22.2 oz = 8 1/3 c or 4 3/4 c
1 qt water + 5.6 oz = 2c or 1 1/4 c
Recipe 2
1 gal skim milk + 10.4 oz = 4c or 2 1/4 c
1 qt skim milk = 2.6 oz = 1c or 1/2 c
Recipe 3
1 gal 2% milk + 7.2 oz = 2 3/4 c or 1 1/2 c
1 qt 2% milk = 1.8 oz = 3/4 c or 1/3 c
Recipe 4
1 gal regular milk + 4.8 oz = 1 3/4 c or 1 c
1 qt regular milk + 1.2 oz = 1/2 c or 1/4 c

*NFDM = Nonfat dry milk


gal = gallon
oz = ounce
c = cup

Method for making yogurt

1. Mix the appropriate quantities of liquid and dry ingredients given in Table I.
2. Heat this milk in a saucepan or double boiler to boiling and cool immediately to
110°F. Discard any "skin" that may have formed on the milk. Sugar may be added
to the milk before boiling, if desired. Heating the milk to boiling kills any
undesirable bacteria that might be pre-sent and also changes the properties of the
milk protein so that it gives the yogurt a firmer body and texture.
3. To 1 gal of milk, add 1 cup of warm 110°F starter culture. Mix well but gently. Do
not incorporate too much air. If too much air is mixed in, the starter culture will
grow slowly.
4. Sanitize yogurt containers by rinsing with boiling water.
5. Pour milk into clean container(s) and cover with lid. If fruit is to be added to the
yogurt, put in the bottom of the cup before adding the inoculated milk. The fruit
should be at a temperature of 110°F. (Omit fruit from a small portion of the recipe
and save it to use as a starter culture in the next batch.) Incubate filled containers
at 110°F. Do not stir the yogurt during this period. There are several ways to
control temperature during incubation:
a. Special yogurt-making equipment allows for careful temperature control
without a thermometer and reduces the chances of failure.
b. Yogurt containers can be kept warm in a gas oven with pilot light and
electric bulb, or an electric oven with light bulb of sufficient wattage
(approximately 100 watts).
c. A Styrofoam box with light bulb may be used as an incubator.
d. Another good way to control temperature is to place yogurt containers into
pans of 110°F water in an oven or an electric frying pan. Set oven
temperature at lowest point to maintain water temperature at 110°F.
e. Wide-mouth thermos bottles, heating pads, and sunny windows also have
been used.

Regardless of the method of temperature control used, determine ahead of time


that the proper temperature can be maintained. To do this, place water or a
container of water in the incubator and monitor its temperature with a
thermometer.

6. Maintain 110°F temperature until the milk coagulates with a firm custard-like
consistency (3-6 hrs). Check by gently tilting cup. Then refrigerate. It will keep
for two to three weeks in the refrigerator.
7. Enjoy!

Trouble Shooting

1. Problem: Yogurt does not have a custard-like body but rather is soft and not
smoothly solidified.

Causes:

a. Addition of starter culture to the milk before it has cooled down may kill
the culture and prevent coagulation. Solution: Wait until the milk cools
down to 110°F before noculating.
b. Both high and low incubation temperatures slow down culture growth and
increase the amount of time necessary for coagulation. Solution: Use a
thermometer to control temperature.
c. Extended storage of the starter culture reduces the number of live bacteria
in the culture. Solution: Use more starter culture in the recipe or obtain a
new culture.
d. Contamination of the culture with undesirable bacteria. Solution: Get a
new culture. Also clean and sanitize yogurt containers each time yogurt is
made.
e. Omitted or added an insufficient amount of nonfat dry milk to the milk.
Solution: Accurately measure or weigh the nonfat dry milk.
f. Over-agitation before incubation may slow down starter activity. Solution:
Combine starter culture and milk by mixing gently.
2. Problem: Yogurt tastes bad.

Causes:

a. Starter culture is contaminated. Solution: Obtain new culture.


b. Yogurt has over-set or incubated too long. Solution: Refrigerate yogurt
immediately after a firm coagulum has formed.
c. Overheating of the milk causes an off-flavor. Solution: Do not overheat
the milk.
3. Problem: Whey collects on the surface of the yogurt.

Causes:

a. Yogurt was over-set or incubated too long. Solution: Refrigerate yogurt


immediately after a firm coagulum has formed.
b. Yogurt was bumped, moved or stirred during incubation. Solution: Place
yogurt in a quiet location where it will not be disturbed.

*This NebGuide was originally prepared by Stan Wallen, former Extension Food
Scientist.

This is the html version of the file http://www.foodinnovation.com/pdfs/process_yogurt.pdf.


G o o g l e automatically generates html versions of documents as we crawl the web.
To link to or bookmark this page, use the following url:
http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:Ou7r5mzEErQJ:www.foodinnovation.com/pdfs/process_y

Google is neither affiliated with the authors of this page nor responsible

These search terms have been highlighted: tapioca starch These terms only appear in links pointing to this page: yog

Page 1
HOW PROCESSING AFFECTS STARCH SELECTION FOR YOGURT
by Jeffrey W. Foss
National Starch and Chemical Company, Bridgewater, NJ.
Starch is an important ingredient in today's popular Swiss and French style yogurts, 
which
together define the growing stirred yogurt market segment. Stirred yogurts differ from the
traditional fruit­on­the­bottom (FOB) products in that they come with fruit and flavor 
pre­mixed
into the yogurt. Starch is typically used in these yogurts to impart viscosity, improve 
mouthfeel,
extend milk solids, and prevent wheying off, the separation of a clear liquid (whey) from 
the
yogurt mass in the cup. When used alone or as part of a stabilizer blend, starch is the 
preferred
thickening agent in yogurt due to its creamy texture, processing ease, and low cost when
compared with other hydrocolloids. Yogurt processing conditions vary among dairy
manufacturers, and this affects the type of starch that will work best for a given product 
target.
This article describes how processing variables affect the starch, and will enable the 
product
developer to match the proper starch to the specific conditions to meet the targeted 
texture. First,
a few basics on yogurt and its manufacture
Though an important food staple to the Middle Eastern people for more than 5000 years, 
yogurt
has only recently become popular in the United States, largely due to an increased 
appreciation
of healthy eating. In 1998, yogurt sales topped 1.7 billion dollars, up 3% from 1997 
(Source:
Information Resources, Inc.) Consumption today is now about 5.2 pounds per capita, 
more than
triple of what it was 25 years ago, and can be expected to increase as yogurts containing
beneficial probiotic cultures are being increasingly touted for colonic health. Much of the
market's growth can also be attributed to manufacturers' ability to keep up with the 
evolution in
consumer preferences. A variety of new textures, colors, and packaging schemes have 
been
introduced to target the exploding "kids" segment of the stirred yogurt category. Exotic 
colors
(including swirls), mild flavors, and catchy advertising themes on the containers have 
made
eating yogurt more appealing to the younger generation. Moms also appreciate the new 
multi­
pack, smaller containers that make it easier than ever to get this great lunch supplement 
into their
childrens' lunch boxes. Yogurts with trendy dessert­like flavors and higher fat and sugar 
contents
are also being introduced to satisfy a recent shift in consumer preference towards 
indulgence.
Although "healthy eating" and "indulgence" appear at odds, today's yogurt products are
successfully bridging this apparent paradox by enabling consumers to feel they are 
partaking of a
healthy dessert, and therefore getting the best of both worlds. This push towards more 
creamy,
pudding­like textures has also triggered a greater demand for nondairy stabilizers, such as
starches, which are required to achieve these textures. This preference shift is at the 
expense of
the FOB segment whose products are now considered by some as somewhat passé along 
side the
more rich, creamy, and often colorful stirred types. Current market indicators show that 
stirred
yogurts have about a 70% share compared with the FOB types.
FOB Yogurts
The main difference between FOB and stirred yogurts is textural, with the former being 
very
firm and cuttable, and the latter soft and slightly flowable. This difference is primarily 
due to
changes in the yogurts' final processing steps. With FOB style yogurts, the pasteurized 
milk
slurry is inoculated with cultures, and then pumped warm directly into its final consumer
Page 2
package (with or without fruit on the bottom,) where it is fermented. The pH drops during
fermentation and causes the milk's casein protein to coagulate and form a gel. After 
cooling, this
cup­set yogurt is firm and very cuttable, due to the gelled casein in the system. This cup­
set
manufacturing method is considered the traditional way of yogurt making, with its roots 
in
ancient Mesopotamia when storing goats' milk in the warm climate often resulted in the
formation of a curd. Due to the strong set of these yogurts, supplemental hydrocolloids or
stabilizers are not often used. Without a stabilizer present to bind water though, a heavy 
wheying
off usually occurs by the time the product reaches the consumer, having been accelerated 
by the
jostling the product receives during distribution. Wheying off is considered a serious 
defect; not
only is the presence of free whey on the yogurt's surface visually unappealing, but many
consumers incorrectly view the wheying off as a sign of spoilage. In turn, some 
consumers will
pour off any free whey before eating the yogurt, especially if it is extensive, as in the case 
of
many non­stabilized, cup­set yogurts. Incidently, this whey contains substantial protein, 
and is
therefore nutritious and should be stirred back into the yogurt mass. If stabilizers are used 
in cup­
set yogurts, they are usually added only at very low levels (typically less than 1%) lest the
texture becomes too firm. Also characteristic of cup­set yogurts is a somewhat chunky, 
grainy
appearance after the yogurt is stirred.
Stirred Yogurts
In contrast, stirred yogurts are smoother, and despite being less firm, more full­bodied 
after
stirring. To make a Swiss style yogurt, the pasteurized milk slurry is pumped into a large 
vat and
fermented to the desired pH. After the fermentation is complete, the yogurt is cooled, 
blended
with fruits and/or flavors, and packaged for sale. The pumping action disrupts the milk 
protein
gel network, and without the use of an added stabilizer, would result in only a slightly 
thickened
fluid product with little set. Therefore, nondairy stabilizer blends, such as modified food 
starch
and gelatin, are normally used to boost the viscosity to a pudding­like consistency, and 
deliver
the slight set that is characteristic of these yogurts. The starch in the blend also absorbs 
the water
in the yogurt system and prevents the whey separation typically found in the FOB 
yogurts.
Texture Measurement
Graphs depicting product quality data and rheological measurements are used as a means 
of
presenting product differences. These graphs, or icons, can serve as textural "fingerprints" 
for
yogurts. The larger the spoke for each axis of the icon, the greater that attribute is 
expressed in
the product. The measurement of several rheological attributes offers a more complete
description of the yogurts' texture than single­point viscosity measurements (e.g. 
Brookfield,
Bostwick, etc.) and/or subjective sensory terminology alone. Rheological graphs 
comparing the
texture of typical FOB and Swiss style yogurts are seen in Figure 1.
Page 3
Data for the firmness, elasticity, viscosity, and breakdown axes of these icons were 
obtained
using a RFS2 Controlled Strain Fluids Rheometer, and are presented with whey 
separation and
graininess data. Firmness refers to the yogurts' stiffness; elasticity refers to the ability of 
the
yogurts to recover after deformation; viscosity refers to resistance to flow under shear; 
and
breakdown refers to the size of deformation required to cause flow. Whey separation was
measured after the products were disturbed to simulate distribution; and the degree of 
graininess
was judged by a trained panel. These icons clearly display the textural differences in each
product as described above. Note that while the overall viscosity values are similar for 
each
product, the high initial firmness and breakdown values for the FOB yogurt reveal a rigid, 
highly
cuttable texture relative to the Swiss style product, whose low firmness, low breakdown, 
and
high elasticity values indicate a somewhat less cuttable, pudding­like texture. The lower 
whey
separation in the Swiss yogurt also demonstrates the stabilizer's ability to hold water.
Since starch/stabilizer blends are required for stirred yogurts, this article focuses on the 
best use
of starches in such products. Much of this information also applies to starches for cup­set
yogurts. A wide range of starches is available, and a proper understanding of their role 
and
functionality is needed to choose the correct starch for the yogurt system.
Page 4
Starch Modification and Processability
As starch is heated, its granules lose their crystalline micellular structure, imbibe water 
and swell
to many times their original size. This swelling results in increased viscosity in the 
cooked
mixture. Uncooked waxy maize starch granules measure 5 to 20 microns in diameter, 
whereas
fully swollen granules can be 75 microns or more. A well­cooked starch typically has 
about 80%
or more of its granules in a fully swollen state.
To understand the response of starches to heating, holding, and cooling cycles, the starch
industry uses pasting rheometers, like the Brabender Visco/Amylo/Graph. A starch 
suspension is
heated in the unit's revolving cup through a preset temperature profile and forms a paste. 
Torque
exerted on a spindle positioned in the starch suspension is continuously recorded on a 
chart to
produce a pasting curve. This data is helpful in determining a starch's gelatinization 
onset
temperature, rate of thickening, peak viscosity, breakdown, and thickening (set­back) 
during
heating and cooling. Starch manufacturers often use this information for quality control
measurements, as well as to predict starch performance in a food application.
Swollen (cooked) starch is sensitive to extended hold times at high temperatures and/or
excessive shear during processing. Heat and shear can cause swollen starch granules to 
rupture
and lose viscosity, unless the starch has been modified to withstand such conditions. A 
food
starch is considered modified when it has been treated to affect its performance in 
applications.
The two modification methods most commonly used in food starches are cross­linking 
and mono
substitution, or stabilization. For the high temperature, high shear yogurt manufacturing 
process,
starches that have been cross­linked are generally required. The cross­linking treatment
strengthens the starch granule and prevents it from over­cooking or over­shearing during 
harsh
processing. The more cross­linked a starch is, the more it is said to be inhibited, and the 
greater
its resistance to processing. In figure 2, there is a comparison of a Brabender viscosity 
profile of
a moderately cross­linked waxy maize starch to that of a non­cross­linked (native) waxy 
maize
starch under temperature conditions which simulate those experienced in yogurt 
manufacturing.
Figure 2 – Brabender/Viscosity Curves ­ Cross­linked Waxy vs. Native Waxy
Page 5
The cross­linked starch maintains its viscosity, while the native version breaks down
significantly. Translated into the finished yogurt, the cross­linked starch would give 
higher body,
while the native starch would produce a thin, unstable product. Because processing 
temperatures
and shear rates vary widely among dairy operations, it is important to choose a starch 
with the
optimal level of cross­linking.
Stabilization, the other most common food starch modification, also improves starch
performance in yogurt. Stabilizing groups added to the starch block the reassociation of 
the
amylose and amylopectin polymers within the granule, and maintain the starch's smooth 
texture
and viscosity stability. For a yogurt system, this would translate into textural stability, as 
well as
a minimization of curd shrinkage over time, which can also contribute to wheying off. In
addition, certain types of starch stabilization treatments improve the mouthfeel and 
creaminess of
dairy products. For these reasons, highly stabilized starches are normally preferred in 
yogurts.
Stabilization, however, can also cause a starch to cook out easier, so a starch with a 
combination
of cross­linking and stabilization is usually required in the high temperature, high shear 
yogurt
manufacturing process.
In general, under processing conditions involving lower temperature, pressure and shear, 
starches
with a medium level of inhibition are recommended, whereas for processes with higher
temperature and shear, highly inhibited starches are needed. It is important, however, to 
look
Page 6
closely at specific control points within the process since they can vary widely among 
yogurt
manufacturers. These variations can greatly affect starch functionality and influence the 
type of
starch to use.
Typical Swiss Style Yogurt Formulation and Manufacturing Process
A formulation for a typical Swiss­style, lowfat yogurt is given in Figure 3.
Figure 3 ­ Swiss formula
(1% Milkfat)
Ingredients
Percent weight
Skim milk (Standardized to 1.2 percent milkfat)
89.65
Sugar
5.00
Non­fat dry milk
2.80
When protein concentrate (34 percent protein)
1.00
THERMTEX® starch (by National Starch and
Chemical Company)
1.20
Gelatin (225 bloom)
0.35
Total
100.00
After the dry ingredients (dry milk powder, sugar, starch, whey protein concentrate, and 
gelatin)
have been thoroughly mixed into the milk, the slurry goes through a pre­heating phase 
which
further dissolves the ingredients and helps in the achievement of the final pasteurization
temperature. The pre­heating temperature of the slurry often depends upon the efficiency 
of the
plant's heat regeneration system, and can vary between 150 degrees F and 180 degrees F 
(65­82
degrees C). After the pre­heat, the slurry (also referred to in the industry as the white 
mass mix)
is homogenized, normally between 500 and 2,500 psi (35­175 bar). The purpose of
homogenization is to achieve mixtures (and subsequently yogurts) that are less likely to 
separate,
as well as to produce smoother, more glossy textures. This is accomplished by particle 
size
reduction of the ingredients in the mix, particularly the milk fat. Homogenization involves
forcing a mix through a small orifice or passageway. As the passageway size is reduced 
and the
flow rate is maintained, pressure builds and particles break apart as they pass. This makes 
the
mix more "homogeneous." The higher the pressure, the greater the particle size reduction.
Homogenization is often more effective when done twice, because low­particle­size fat 
globules
tend to agglomerate. A two­stage homogenizer is therefore often employed to break up 
those
agglomerates. Fat particle sizes of 5 microns or lower are normally achieved under 
moderate
homogenization pressures (1000/500 psi,) and adequately stabilize the milk fat in yogurt
applications. After homogenization, the mix is pasteurized (typically with a plate heat 
exchanger)
to between 185 degrees F and 200 degrees F (85­93 degrees C) and held at this 
temperature for
30 seconds to 5 minutes or more with holding tubes. This is referred to as HTST (High
Temperature, Short Time) pasteurization. A plate heat exchanger (PHE) consists of a pack 
of
parallel stainless steel plates in which the product (milk slurry) and the hot media (steam 
heated
water) flow along the surface of alternate plates in adjacent streams. These plates are 
corrugated
in a pattern to provide turbulence for maximum heat transfer efficiency, and thus achieve 
a
thorough cook of the slurry. PHEs are able to maintain the high pasteurization 
temperatures
required for yogurt manufacture even at very high flow rates (>2,000 gal/hr) (7571 
liters/hr) and
Page 7
their compact design requires minimal floor space, thereby maximizing throughput 
capacity.
Figure 4 illustrates the heat exchanger process through the plates.
After pasteurization, the mix is cooled to a temperature between 105 degrees F and 110 
degrees
F (41­43 degrees C), and inoculated with live bacterial cultures. Cooling the mix to this
temperature range is crucial to ensure the cultures' viability. The inoculated mix is then 
incubated
within this temperature range, enabling the cultures to ferment lactose (milk sugar) to 
lactic acid.
This in turn lowers the pH of the mix to the isoelectric point of the casein protein, which
coagulates the milk causing it to set. The lactic acid development is also responsible for 
the
yogurt's characteristic tart flavor. Once the pH has dropped to about 4.5­4.6, the yogurt is 
broken
by tank agitation and pumped through another heat exchanger to rapidly cool it to 
between 50
degrees F and 85 degrees F (10­30 degrees C). The yogurt is also often pumped through a 
screen
or smoothing valve to give a smoother texture before being mixed with fruit, and 
packaged and
refrigerated. Figure 5 illustrates the above process.
Page 8
Figure 5.
Processing and Starch Choice
Although the process flow described above is the most common in the industry, other 
variations
are sometimes used. For example, some manufacturers homogenize the white mass mix 
after
pasteurization; some do not homogenize at all. Some do not preheat. Some manufacturers 
batch­
pasteurize, for instance with a steam­jacketed kettle, employing LTLT (Low Temperature 
Long
Time) pasteurization. Process flow differences among manufacturers are often due to
manufacturing volume, equipment and/or facility limitations, or necessary 
accommodations for
running other dairy products (which require the alternate flows) on the same production 
lines.
When considering a starch recommendation, process flows are evaluated case­by­case, 
taking
into account the sequence of pasteurization and homogenization, as well as the 
temperatures and
stresses involved.
The two control points in the manufacturing process most critical to starch functionality 
are the
pre­heating and homogenization steps. The starch gelatinization(swelling onset) 
temperature in
sweetened milk is about 155 degree F (68 degrees C). Pre­heating the white mass mix to 
180
degrees F (82 degrees C,) which is well above the starch's gelatinization temperature, 
will begin
Page 9
to swell the starch. The partly swollen starch is then vulnerable to the shear imparted 
during
homogenization, especially if the homogenization pressure is high (>2000 psi) (138 bars).
Granules that are partly or fully swollen (in the order of 25­75 microns in diameter) are 
fragile,
and are significantly more prone to damage during homogenization. This shearing can 
fragment
the starch granule and significantly reduce its thickening capacity, resulting in a yogurt 
with low
body. This generally requires the manufacturer to use a greater­than­necessary amount of 
starch
or stabilizer blend in the formula to achieve the targeted viscosity. An even more dramatic 
loss
of viscosity would be evident if the homogenization followed pasteurization rather than 
preceded
it in the process flow. The starch granules, already fully swollen from the pasteurization
temperature, would be completely torn apart by the shear, and contribute even less 
towards
viscosity. So, while homogenization is an important step in yogurt manufacturing it can 
be
devastating to the starch if done at too high a temperature.
On the other hand, pre­heating the mix to only 150 degrees F (65 degrees C) or lower will 
not
swell the starch, and the unswollen starch granules, because of their small size and high
micellular strength, will generally withstand the homogenization process, even if the 
pressure is
high. The intact starch granules will then swell with minimal fracturing during the 
pasteurization
heating step and impart maximum viscosity to the yogurt. The photomicrograph in Figure 
6
reveal the dramatic shearing effect on the starch granules when the pre­heat temperature 
is
increased from 150 degrees F to 180 degrees F (65 degrees C to 82 degrees C).
Figure 6. – Unfragmented granules (low pre­heat) vs fragmented granules (high pre­heat)
Experimental Matching of Processes and Starches
The common process variables within the pre­heat and homogenization steps formed the
framework for an experimental design recently conducted at National Starch and 
Chemical Co.
(NSC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate yogurts made with different starches 
under the
extremes of conditions at these two critical stages (Table 1).
Table 1 ­ Experimental Design Conditions
Pre­Heat Temperature
Homogenization Pressure (psi)
(degrees F) (degrees C)
(psi) (bar)
150 65
500 35
150 65
2500 170
180 82
500 35
180 82
2500 170
A variety of NSC waxy maize and tapioca starches covering a range of inhibition levels 
were
evaluated in this experimental design (see Table 2.) Food starch is also commonly 
attained from
regular maize, potato, and rice sources as well, but flavor, functionality stability, and cost 
often
Page 10
prevent their usage in yogurt. Yogurt manufacturers typically use waxy maize­based 
starch in
yogurts, and all of the waxy maize starches evaluated are currently used by commercial
manufacturers. Tapioca starches, on the other hand, are less popular within the U.S. due 
to a
history of producing unacceptable graininess in yogurts. National Starch however has 
developed
a number of specialty tapioca starches to address this graininess problem, and so tapiocas 
were
also included in these experiments.
Table 2 ­ List of starches evaluated
Base
Name
Processing resistance
Waxy Maize
PURITY® W
Low
Waxy Maize
FRIGEX® W
Medium
Waxy Maize
THERMFLO®
Medium­High
Waxy Maize
PUREFLO®
Medium­High
Waxy Maize
THERMTEX®
Very High
Tapioca
NATIONAL® 78­0148
Low
Tapioca
NATIONAL FRIGEX® HV
Medium
Tapioca
NOVATION® 3300
Medium­High
Tapioca
PURITY 87
High
Tapioca
THERMSHEAR®
Very High
The yogurts made for this experimental design were processed according to typical Swiss 
style
yogurt processing conditions and were evaluated organoleptically by a trained panel for 
body
and texture/smoothness. A summary of the sensory results, along with comments on the 
post­
processed microscopic evaluation of the starches, is given in Table 3. These results reveal 
the
dramatic effects that the process variations have on the final yogurts.
Table 3. – Results comparison table
Page 11
Results ­ Waxy Maize­Based Starches
Yogurts made with the waxy maize­based starches that were processed using the 150 
degrees F
preheat condition generally had good­excellent scores for body/viscosity regardless of the
homogenization pressure that followed. The microscopic evaluations of these starches 
revealed a
large majority of intact granules; evidence that the starches did not swell with the 
relatively low
preheat temperature and were therefore able to withstand the pressures of both the low 
and high­
homogenization conditions. Under the high (180 degrees F) pre­heat condition, however, 
the
yogurts were generally lower in body and were weak, with runny textures. As the 
microscopic
evaluation attests, this was due to severe fragmentation of the starch granules ­­­ a result 
of
having been homogenized after being partly swollen. The loss of body under these harsh
processing conditions is especially evident in yogurts containing starches such as 
PURITY W
starch and FRIGEX W starch, which are considered less process resistant. These 
starches
swelled to a greater degree in the 180 degrees F pre­heat and were therefore more 
susceptible to
shear at the homogenizer than more inhibited products, like THERMFLO starch, and 
especially
THERMTEX starch. While fragmentation did occur with the THERMFLO and 
THERMTEX
starches, it was not as severe as experienced by the less inhibited starches. This enabled
THERMTEX and THERMFLO starches to retain more of their viscosity functionality in 
the
yogurts. In fact, yogurt containing THERMTEX starch exhibited nearly the same body 
under the
most severe processing configuration (180 degrees F/2500 psi) (82 degrees C, 172 bars) 
as the
Page 12
least severe processing condition (150ºF/500 psi) (66 degrees C, 34 bars). This 
demonstrates the
remarkable process tolerance of a highly inhibited starch, despite granule fragmentation. 
The
graphs in Figure 7 illustrate this feature by contrasting the performance of THERMTEX 
starch
and FRIGEX W starch under various conditions. From this information, one can 
conclude that as
the manufacturing process severity increases, so must the starch's inhibition, or level of 
cross­
linking, to obtain the most functionality from the starch.
Fig. 7 – FRIGEX W starch vs THERMTEX starch cube plot
Results ­ Tapioca­Based Starches
The yogurts made with tapioca­based starches showed similar trends to those made with 
waxy
starches, especially with respect to body/viscosity loss with the higher temperature
preheat/homogenization configurations. For example, NATIONAL 78­0148 and 
NATIONAL
FRIGEX HV starches, which are considered low­medium process resistant starches, gave
excellent body with the 150 degrees F preheat condition but then dropped off 
dramatically once
the preheat temperature and homogenization pressure were increased to 180 degrees F 
and 2500
psi respectively. In contrast, yogurt made with PURITY 87 starch, a highly inhibited 
product,
only suffered a slight loss of body when processed under the most harsh configuration. 
(see
Figure 8.)
Figure 8 – PURITY 87 starch vs N. FRIGEX HV starch cube plot
Page 13
Microscopic evaluation revealed the fragments of the PURITY 87 starch to be 
significantly less
sheared than those of the less inhibited starches, demonstrating the starch's higher 
tolerance to
the effects of homogenization at a high temperature. It should be noted that 
THERMSHEAR
starch, which has an extremely high degree of inhibition, also displayed minimal 
fragmentation
under the most harsh configuration, but due to its very high modification level was unable 
to
adequately swell during pasteurization to develop an acceptable body. So, unless there is 
an
unusually high amount of shear involved in the process, a starch with too much process
resistance may also not be desirable, since pasteurization temperatures rarely exceed 200 
degrees
F in commercial yogurt manufacturing.
The classic graininess in yogurts that tapioca starches are known to contribute was 
evident with
NATIONAL 78­0148 and NATIONAL FRIGEX HV starches, regardless of process
configuration or the integrity of the starch granules. As a result, textures for these 
yogurts were
scored quite low. Yogurts containing NOVATION 3300, PURITY 87, and 
THERMSHEAR
starches on the other hand, produced very smooth, high quality textures. In general, 
starch
granule fragmentation with these treatments was also minimal. These results indicate that 
more
highly inhibited tapioca starches also tend to produce yogurts with smoother, glossier 
textures.
This trend was also seen in the yogurts made with the waxy maize­based starches. 
Although to a
lesser degree than with the tapiocas, more graininess was observed in those yogurts 
containing
the less inhibited starches (PURITY W and FRIGEX W) than with those containing more
process tolerant starches.
Conclusions
Results from this work show that processing conditions can have a great impact on starch
performance in Swiss style yogurts. A starch properly matched to the manufacturer's 
specific
processing conditions will result in a yogurt with good body and a high quality texture. 
An
Page 14
improperly matched starch can result in lower body, a poor texture, and inconsistent 
production
for the manufacturer. In general, lower preheat temperatures (150 degrees F or lower) 
prior to
homogenization reduce the likelihood of fragmenting the starch granule. This translates 
into
greater thickening power and smoother yogurt textures. Therefore manufacturers should 
strive to
ensure their preheat temperature is below 150 degrees F. A process flow with 
homogenization
prior to pasteurization is also desirable from a starch functionality perspective, as it also 
reduces
the likelihood of granule fragmentation. If these two conditions are met, product 
developers can
usually match a starch to their pasteurization temperature and hold time conditions. 
Starches with
medium inhibition levels are generally recommended for relatively low pasteurization
temperatures (180­185 degrees F,) while highly inhibited starches are suggested for higher
pasteurization temperatures (195­200 degrees F.) If, on the other hand, the developer is
constrained to high preheat temperatures, or homogenization post­pasteurization, then 
mainly
highly inhibited starches, such as waxy maize­based THERMTEX starch or tapioca­
based
PURITY 87 starch should be considered.
Finally, it is evident from these experiments that high quality yogurt textures can be 
achieved
with certain tapioca starches; namely those with relatively high inhibition levels. The 
benefits of
using tapioca starch in the flavor and ingredient­sensitive yogurt are significant. 
Tapioca starches
are blander than waxy maize starches and allow more of the yogurt's flavor to be 
perceived. They
are also considered to impart an added creaminess to yogurt. In addition, consumers have 
shown
preference for labels with tapioca starch over corn starch, and because it comes from a 
root
source, there is the potential for "Kosher for Passover" labeling. Tapioca starches such as
PURITY 87 and NOVATION 3300 now enable manufacturers to take advantage of these 
bland
flavor and labeling benefits without sacrificing quality. As an additional feature, 
NOVATION
3300, a functional native tapioca starch that has the properties of a traditionally 
modified food
starch, carries the label declaration of "tapioca starch," and is ideal for yogurts with all­
natural
formulations.