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Chris Sanger

Chapter 4

1. What type of muscle action occurs as the muscle lengthens and controls the movement with
resistance and/or gravity? B. eccentric action
2. A slow twitch muscle fiber? A contracts slowly and produces small amounts of force.
3. Muscular strength is defined as B the ability of a muscle to generate maximal force.
4. Which of the following is a benefit of regular strength training program? A reduces the
incidence of a back pain.
5. Which of the following should be the general rule to follow to increase strength in a weigh
training program? D High Resistance low repetitions
6. Define the following terms
Hypertrophy—increase in muscle size do to increase in fiber size
Hyperplasia –Formation of new muscle fibers
Isotonic Exercise –contracting a muscle against a moveable load
Isometric Exercise – contracting a muscle at a fixed angled against an unmovable object
Isokinetic exercise – use of machines of govern the speed and range of motion of the
Motor unit –The motor nerve plus all of the muscle fibers that control it.
Progressive resistance exercise –The application of the overload principle to the strength
and exercise programs
static contraction –I fixed motion muscle contraction –
Valsalva maneuver-- Holding your breath through the exercise
7. List at least three reasons why training for strength and endurance is important
can reduce back pain
decrease osteoporosis
help maintain functional capacity
8. List and discuss the characteristics of slow twitch, fast twitch and intermediate skeletal muscles
Slow twitch – shorten slowly but are highly fatigue resistance
fast twitch – shorten fast and fatigue rapidly
intermediate twitch-- are a combination of both
9. Discuss the pattern of muscle fiber recruitment with increasing intensities of contractions? As
the contraction starts only slow twitch then intermediate and if the intensity is increased then
fast twitch
10. Discuss the relationship of muscle fiber type to success in various types of athletic events. Slow
twitch would be best for cross country and long distance running while fast twitch would be
better for sprints and quicker moving sports
11. What factors determine muscle strength? The size of the muscle and the number of fibers
12. What physiological changes result from strength changes? Changes in body composition and
13. Describe the concept of progressive resistance exercise--- This is the concept of increasing
resistance during the course of your exercise program to continually stress your muscles
14. Discuss the concept of specificity of training-- This states that only the muscles targeted by the
action will improve by direct result of said action.
15. Compare and contrast the differences in training to increase strength versus training to increase
endurance--- Training to increase strength requires high resistance and low reps while
endurance training is low resistance and high reps.
16. Define the concept of 1RM--- 1RM is maximum load a muscle can lift one time.
17. List the phases of a strength and endurance training program and discuss how they differ.
Strength training ---Starter phase, slow progression phase, maintenance phase using heavy
resistance and low reps
endurance training---Starter phase, slow progression phase, maintenance phase using light
resistance and high reps
18. Distinguish isometric concentric and eccentric muscle actions
isometric—develops tension in muscles with no movement of body parts
concentric-- positive work ---occurs when muscle is shortened(pull exercise)
eccentric-- negative work-- occurs when muscle is lengthened (push exercise)
19. Describe each of the following types of exercise
isokinetic exercise – require the use of machine that control the speed of movement
throughout the range of motion.
Isometric exercise – An exercise where the muscle is stressed but no body part is in motion.
Isotonic exercise – An exercise where there is movement of a body part while muscle is