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Chemistry 107 Sample Exam IV Solutions Spring 2011

1. (6 points) According to the Brønsted-Lowry definition, what is a strong acid? What is a


strong base?

A strong acid is a substance that ionizes completely through the donation of a proton
(hydrogen ion). A strong base is a substance that ionizes completely through the
acceptance of a proton.

Strong bases included those substances that dissociate completely to produce a hydroxide
ion which, in turn, accepts a proton.

2. (5 points) What is the mass-mass percent concentration of a solution prepared by adding


10.5 g of potassium iodide to 31.2 g of water?

g s olute 1 0 .5g KI
% (m/m)  x 1 0 0 x 1 0 0 2 5 .2% (m/m)
g s oln (1 0 .5g  3 1 .2g)

3. (4 points) Briefly define/explain the following terms:

solvent

The major component in a solution – “the substance that dissolves the solute”

solution

A homogeneous mixture, consisting of a solvent and solute(s)

4. (5 points) Determine the [H3O+] for solutions with

a. a pH = 6.24.

[H3O ]  1 0-pH  1 0-6.24  5 .8 x 1 0-7 M

b. an [OH-] = 3.90 x 10-2 M.

1 .0 x 1 0-14
[H3O ]   2 .6 x 1 0-13 M
3 .9 0x 1 0-2

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5. (8 points) Balance the following oxidation-reduction reaction for acidic conditions.

Cr2O72-(aq) + Fe2+(aq) → Cr3+(aq) + Fe3+(aq)

( 6) (-2) ( 2) ( 3) ( 3)


2-
C r2 O7 (aq)  Fe2  (aq)  C r3 (aq)  Fe3 (aq)

2-
red : (6 e-  1 4 H  C r2O7  2 C r3  7 H2O ) 1
2
ox : (Fe  Fe3  e- )  6

2-
red : 6 e-  1 4 H  C r2O7  2 C r3  7 H2O
ox : 6 Fe2   6 Fe3  6 e-

2-
overall: 1 4 H (aq)  C r2O7 (aq) 6 Fe2  (aq)  2 C r3 (aq)  7 H2O (l) 6 Fe3 (aq)

6. (4 points) For the reaction above, identify the reducing agent and the oxidizing agent.
Indicate which element is being oxidized and which element is being reduced.

Reducing agent iron(II) cation

Oxidizing agent dichromate ion

7. (5 points) What is the oxidation number of the underlined element in each compound?

a. Fe(OH)3 Fe = +3

b. H2SO4 S = +6

c. K2Cr2O7 Cr = +6

d. AsO43- As = +5

e. H2O2 O = -1

8. (6 points) Consider how each of the following factors will affect the solubility of a solute in
a solvent:

a. an increase in pressure will increase / decrease / not change (circle one)


the solubility of a solid

b. an decrease in pressure will increase / decrease / not change (circle one)


the solubility of a gas

c. an increase in temperature will increase / decrease / not change (circle


one) the solubility of a gas

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9. (5 points) How many grams of potassium dichromate and water are needed to produce
250.0 g of a 14.5% (m/m) solution?

g K2C r2O7 g K2C r2O7


% (m/m)  x 1 0 0  1 4 .5 x 1 0 0  3 6 .3g K2C r2O7
g s oln 2 5 0 .0g s oln

2 5 0 .0g s oln- 3 6 .3g K2C r2O7  2 1 3 .7g H2O

10. (5 points) For the reaction

CH4(g) + 3O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) + Energy

determine the direction (left or right) that the equilibrium will be shifted by each of the
following changes:

a. increasing the concentration of CH4 right

b. decreasing the concentration of H2O right

c. addition of CO2 left

d. decreasing the temperature right

e. decreasing the pressure by increasing the volume of the container left

11. (10 points) Balance the following chemical equations and write them as net-ionic
equations:

a. Ni(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq)  Ni(NO3)2(aq) + Cu(s)

net-ionic equation:

Ni(s) + Cu2+(aq)  Ni2+(aq) + Cu(s)

b. 2HCl(aq) + Na2SO3(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2SO3(aq)

net-ionic equation:

2H+(aq) + SO32-(aq)  H2O(l) + SO2(g)

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12. (8 points) What is the molarity of a 10.0% sodium hydroxide solution? Assume the
density of the solution is 1.1 g/mL.

A s s ume1 0 0g s oln!

1 mL s oln 1 x 1 0-3 L
1 0 0g s olnx x  0 .0 909 L s oln
1 .1 g s oln 1 mL

1 mol N aO H
1 0 .0g N aO Hx  0 .2 5 0mol N aO H
4 0 .0 0g N aO H

0 .2 5 0mol N aO H
 2 .75 M N aO H 2 .8 M N aO H
0 .0 909 L s oln

13. (8 points) Sulfur dioxide and oxygen form an equilibrium with sulfur trioxide:

2NH3(g) N2(g) + 3H2(g)

a. What is the equilibrium constant if the equilibrium concentrations are [N2] = 5.0
M, [H2] = 2.0 M, [NH3] = 10.0 M?

[N2 ][H2 ]3 (5 .0 )(2 .03)


K   0 .4 0
[N H3]2 (1 0.0)2

b. What is the concentration of [H2] if the concentrations of [NH3] = [N2] = 3.0 M at


equilibrium?

1/3 1/3
[N2 ][H2 ]3  K[N H3]2   (0 .4 0 )(3 .0)2 
K  [H2 ]       1 .1M
[N H3]2  [N2 ]   3 .0 

14. (8 points) Identify whether the following process represent oxidation, reduction, or non-
redox process. Provide a brief explanation to support each of your choices:

d. H2CO3  H2O + CO2

non-redox… there is no change in the oxidation numbers of the species present

e. Ca  CaO

oxidation… the oxidation number of calcium has increased with the gain in oxygen

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15. (12 points) A solution, prepared by dissolving 0.420 g K2CO3 into 50.0 mL of water, is
titrated with 0.105 M HCl.

a. What is the molarity of the potassium carbonate solution?

1 mol
0 .4 2 0g x  0 .0 0 3 0
38 mol
1 3 8 .1 2g

0 .0 0 3 0
38 mol
 0 .0 6 0 8M
0 .0 5 0 0L

b. Write the chemical equation for the reaction between potassium carbonate and
hydrochloric acid.

K2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2KCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

c. How many milliliters of the 0.105 M hydrochloric acid are required to neutralize the
potassium carbonate solution?

0 .0 6 0 8mol K2C O3 2 mol H C l 1L


0 .0 5 0 0L x x x  0 .0 5 7 9L
L 1 mol K2C O3 0 .1 0 5mol H C l

1 mL
0 .0 5 7 9L x  5 7 .9mL
1 x 1 0-3 L