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Class VI

Subject Science
Chapter Animal and human body
Module Name

Author

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Total Number
of screens

Screen No. 2.Objective


and Type Screen
Graphic Description

Audio Script
• In this lesson, you will learn
 To identify different types of joints in human body .
 To identify Ball and Socket joint, Pivotal joint, Hinge joint and Fixed joint.
 To explain Human skeleton
 To classify different types of bones in our body
 To recognize the wrist bone, the rib cage, the backbone, the pelvic bone and the
skull.
 To explain the body structure and movements of fish, snail, cockroach etc.
 To differentiate between the body structure and movements of an earthworm
and a snake

TOS (Text On
Screen) • In this lesson, you will learn
 To identify different types of joints in human body .
 To identify Ball and Socket joint, Pivotal joint, Hinge joint and
Fixed joint.
 To explain Human skeleton
 To classify different types of bones in our body
 To recognize the wrist bone, the rib cage, the backbone, the
pelvic bone and the skull.
 To explain the body structure and movements of fish, snail,
cockroach etc.
 To differentiate between the body structure and movements of
an earthworm and a snake
Instructions to
GD

Screen No. 3.Content


and Type Outline
Graphic Description

Audio Script
• Movements in plant
• Movements in humans
• Different types of joint in a human body
 Ball and socket joint
 Pivot joint
 Hinge joint
 Fixed joint
• Human Skeleton
• Different types of bones in our body
 The wrist
 The Rib cage
 The Backbone
 The pelvic bone and Skull
• Body structure and movement in earthworm
• Body structure and movement in snail
• Body structure and movement in cockroach
• Body structure and movement in birds
• Body structure and movement in fish
• Body structure and movement in snake
TOS (Text On • Movements in plant
Screen) • Movements in humans
• Different types of joint in a human body
 Ball and socket joint
 Pivot joint
 Hinge joint
 Fixed joint
• Human Skeleton
• Different types of bones in our body
 The wrist
 The Rib cage
 The Backbone
 The pelvic bone and Skull
• Body structure and movement in earthworm
• Body structure and movement in snail
• Body structure and movement in cockroach
• Body structure and movement in birds
• Body structure and movement in fish
• Body structure and movement in snake
Instructions to
GD

Screen No. 4 Introduction


and Type
Graphic Description

Your body parts show some movements whether you are in motion or at rest!

Audio Script

When you move from place to place, you use your legs and other parts of your body
such as your hands also move. Even when you do not change place and remain seated
at one place, your eyes blink, when you turn your neck moves. Body movements take
place almost each and every moment.
Not just with humans, even other animals constantly keep moving.
TOS (Text On Your body parts keep moving even when you sit idle!
Screen)
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 5 Movement in plants


and Type
Graphic Description

The “touch me not” plant


shows movements when
you touch it!

Audio Script
Do plants also move? Various parts of plants move due to wind or action of animals.
You must have heard about the “touch me not” plant which moves when you touch it.

TOS (Text On Plants move due to action of wind or animals


Screen)
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 6 Activity


and Type
Graphic Description
Audio Script
Make a list of different animals and note the body part they use to move and how they
move.

TOS (Text On
Screen) Body part How does
Anim used for the animal
al moving move?
Cow Legs Walk
Huma
ns
Snake Whole body Slither
Bird
Insect
Fish
Instructions to Text should follow the audio
GD

Screen No. 7 Movement in humans


and Type
Graphic Description

Audio Script
Try out different movements like bowling, bending the elbow and knee, stretching the
arms sideways and bending the arms to touch the shoulders with fingers.
You will notice that you can move some body parts easily in various directions while
some can be moved only in one direction.

TOS (Text On Some body parts move easily in various directions while some can be
Screen) moved only in one direction.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 8 Joints


and Type
Graphic Description

Knee and Elbow can be moved


easily because they have joints
Audio Script
You can rotate your body where two parts of the body are joined like elbow, knee, neck
etc. These places are called joints.
Bones are joined at places like elbow and knee. You can bend only those parts at which
bones meet.
TOS (Text On Bones are joined at places like elbow and knee. You can bend only
Screen) those parts at which bones meet.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 9 Types of Joints


and Type
Graphic Description

Audio Script
There are different types of joints which help in our body movement. They are – Ball
and socket joints, Pivotal Joints, Hinge Joints and Fixed Joints.

TOS (Text On There are different types of joints which help in our body movement.
Screen) They are –
• Ball and socket joints
• Pivotal Joints
• Hinge Joints and
• Fixed Joints.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 10 Types of Joints - Ball and socket joints


and Type
Graphic Description

Rounded end of one bone


joins with the hollow
space of other bone.
Audio Script
Touch the part of your body where arm joins with the shoulder. Here the rounded end of
one bone joins with the hollow space of other bone. Joints of this type allow motion in
all directions. These are called “Ball and socket joints”
TOS (Text On • Touch the part of your body where arm joins with the shoulder.
Screen) • Here the rounded end of one bone joins with the hollow space
of other bone.
• Joints of this type allow motion in all directions.
• These are called “Ball and socket joints”
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 11 Types of Joints – Pivotal Joints


and Type
Graphic Description

The pivotal joint


allows movement in
upwards,
downwards,
rightwards and
leftwards direction
Audio Script
The point where your head joins with your neck is a pivotal joint. It allows to move
upward, downward, rightward and leftward.

TOS (Text On • The point where your head joins with your neck is a pivotal
Screen) joint.
• It allows to move upward, downward, rightward and leftward.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 12 Types of Joints – Hinge Joints


and Type
Graphic Description

Round shape of one


bone fits into the
hemispherical end of
other bone.

Audio Script
Hinge joints allow only back and forth motion. They are found in knee and elbow. In
case of hinge joints, round shape of one bone fits into the hemispherical shape of other
bone.
TOS (Text On • Hinge joints allow only back and forth motion.
Screen) • They are found in knee and elbow.
• In case of hinge joints, round shape of one bone fits into the
hemispherical shape of other bone.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 13 Types of Joints – Fixed Joints


and Type
Graphic Description

Unlike lower
jaw, upper jaw
cannot be
moved away
from the head.
There is a joint
between the
upper jaw and
the head which
is a fixed joint.

Audio Script
Not all the parts of the body with joints can be moved. There are bones in your head
which are joined at various points. However, the bones cannot move at those joints.
Such joints are called fixed joints.
TOS (Text On Joints at which bones cannot be moved are called fixed joints.
Screen)
Instructions to Text should follow the audio
GD

Screen No. 14 Skeleton


and Type
Graphic Description
Skeleton is the framework of
the body made up of bones.

Audio Script
The framework of our body made of bones which gives shape to the body is called
skeleton. You can see your skeletal image with the help of X-ray

TOS (Text On • The framework of our body made of bones which gives shape
Screen) to the body is called skeleton.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 15 Bone in your body – The wrist


and Type
Graphic Description

Wrist is made up
of various bones
which it easier for
us to bend it

X-ray of wrists
Audio Script
The wrist is made up of several bones with joints that it easier for you to bend it. Had it
been made up of only one bone, you would not have been able to bend it.

TOS (Text On The wrist is made up of several bones with joints that it easier for you
Screen) to bend it
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 16 Bone in your body – The rib cage


and Type
Graphic Description

Ribs join chest bone and


backbone together to form rib
cage

Audio Script
Bones of the chest are called ribs. Ribs are bent and they join chest bone and back
bone together to form a box called rib cage. Many important organs lie protected inside
the rib cage.
TOS (Text On • Bones of the chest are called ribs.
Screen) • Ribs are bent and they join chest bone and back bone together
to form a box called rib cage.
• Many important organs lie protected inside the rib cage.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD
Screen No. 17 Bone in your body – The backbone
and Type
Graphic Description

The backbone
provides an upright
structure to the body

Audio Script
The backbone is made of many small bones because of which you can bend forward.
The backbone provides an upright structure to the body.

TOS (Text On • The backbone is made of many small bones because of which
Screen) you can bend forward.
• The backbone provides an upright structure to the body.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD
Screen No. 18 Bone in your body – The pelvic bone and the skull
and Type
Graphic Description

Pelvic bones enclose the part of the Skull encloses the most important
body below the stomach part of the body - the brain

Audio Script
Pelvic bone encloses the structure of your body below the stomach that is, the part you
sit on.
Skull is made of many bones joined together and encloses the brain
TOS (Text On • Pelvic bones enclose the part of the body below the stomach
Screen) • Skull is made of many bones joined together and encloses the
brain
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 19 The cartilage


and Type
Graphic Description

Audio Script
Not all the parts of the skeleton are hard as bones. There are some parts which are soft
and can be bent. They are called cartilage. Cartilage is found in ears.
Muscles and cartilage also help in movement of the body.
TOS (Text On • There are some parts which are soft and can be bent. They
Screen) are called cartilage.
• Cartilage is found in ears.
• Muscles and cartilage also help in movement of the body.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 20 Movement in earthworm


and Type
Graphic Description

Earthworm moves by
continuous expansion and
relaxation of muscles. It does
not have bones.
Audio Script
The body of earthworm is made up of rings joined end to end. It does not have bones
but only muscles which help to extend and shorten the body. During movement, the
earthworm first extends the front part of the body keeping the rear end fixed and then it
moves the rear end keeping the front end fixed.
It also secretes a slimy substance to help in the movement of the body.
TOS (Text On • Earthworm does not have bones.
Screen) • It moves by continuous expansion and relaxation of the
muscles.
• It also secretes a slimy substance to help in the movement of
the body.
Instructions to Text should follow the audio
GD

Screen No. 21 Movement in snail


and Type
Graphic Description

Snail moves with the help of legs that lie beneath the shell

Audio Script
The round structure outside a snail is called shell. It is the skeleton of the snail but is not
made of bones. Snail moves with the help of the foot which lies beneath the shell.

TOS (Text On Snail moves with the help of the foot which lies beneath the shell.
Screen)
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD
Screen No. 22 Movement in cockroach
and Type
Graphic Description

A cockroach can walk, climb as


well as fly

Audio Script
Cockroaches walk, climb as well as fly in the air. They have three pairs of legs which
help in walking. The body is covered with a hard skeleton which is made of different
joined units which permit movement. Pairs of wings help it in flying.
TOS (Text On • Cockroaches walk, climb as well as fly in the air.
Screen) • They have three pairs of legs which help in walking.
• The body is covered with a hard skeleton which is made of
different joined units which permit movement.
• Pairs of wings help it in flying.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD
Screen No. 23 Movement in birds
and Type
Graphic Description

3D image of a bird skeleton


Audio Script
Birds can fly as well as walk. Some birds also swim in the water.
Birds fly with the help of wings. Hollow bones make them light; suitable for flying.
The bones of hind limbs help in walking.
TOS (Text On • Birds can fly as well as walk. Some birds also swim in the
Screen) water.
• Birds fly with the help of wings. Hollow bones make them light;
suitable for flying.
• The bones of hind limbs help in walking.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD
Screen No. 24 Movement in fish
and Type
Graphic Description

Movement in fish
Audio Script
The fish has a streamlined body which helps it in swimming in water. The skeleton is
covered with strong muscles. During swimming the muscles takes front part in one way
and the tail part in the opposite way. Then, quickly the body and the tail curve to
opposite sides. This helps in movement.
TOS (Text On • The fish has a streamlined body which helps it in swimming in
Screen) water.
• The skeleton is covered with strong muscles.
• During swimming the muscles takes front part in one way and
the tail part in the opposite way. Then, quickly the body and
the tail curve to opposite sides. This helps in movement.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD
Screen No. 25 Movement in snake
and Type
Graphic Description

Snake moves by making loops

Audio Script
Snakes have a long backbone and many thin muscles. The body curves into many
loops. Each loop gives the body a forward push by pressing it against the ground.

TOS (Text On • Snakes have a long backbone and many thin muscles.
Screen) • The body curves into many loops.
• Each loop gives the body a forward push by pressing it against
the ground.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 26 Summary


and Type
Graphic Description

Audio Script
• Bones and cartilage form the skeleton of the human body.
• The bone joints are of various kinds depending on the nature of joints and
direction of movement they allow.
• Strong muscles and light bones work together to help the birds fly.
• Snakes slither on the ground by looping sideways.
TOS (Text On • Bones and cartilage form the skeleton of the human body.
Screen) • The bone joints are of various kinds depending on the nature
of joints and direction of movement they allow.
• Strong muscles and light bones work together to help the birds
fly.
• Snakes slither on the ground by looping sideways.
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD

Screen No. 27 Assessment Screen


and Type
Graphic Description

Audio Script

TOS (Text On 1. Fill in the blanks


Screen) (a) Joints of the bones help in the ------------- of the body.
(b) The bones at the elbow are joined by a ---------------- joint.
(c) The contraction of the --------------- pulls the bones during
movement.
Ans.
(a) Skeleton
(b) Hinge
(c) Muscles

2. Indicate whether true or false


(a) The movement and locomotion of all animals is exactly the
same.
(b) The cartilages are harder than bones.
(c) Cockroaches have an outer skeleton.
Ans.
(a) FALSE
(b) FALSE
(c) TRUE
Instructions to Text should be in sync with the audio
GD