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Digital Communication (EC-503)

Semester V 2010-2011
Assignment #1

1. Prove that the output of an LTI system is given by

y(t) = x(t) ∗ h(t),

where y(t) is the output of the system, x(t) is the input to the system and h(t) is the impulse
response of the system. “ ∗ ” indicates the convolution operation.

2. State and prove the convolution and integration properties of Fourier transform. Use the
convolution property of the Fourier transform to prove that

sinc(t) ∗ sinc(t) = sinc(t)

3. One experiment has four mutually exclusive outcomes Ai , i = 1, 2, 3, 4, and a second experi-
ment has three disjoint outcomes Bj , j = 1, 2, 3. The joint probabilities are:
P (A1 B1 ) = 0.10, P (A1 B2 ) = 0.08, P (A1 B3 ) = 0.13
P (A2 B1 ) = 0.05, P (A2 B2 ) = 0.03, P (A2 B3 ) = 0.09
P (A3 B1 ) = 0.05, P (A3 B2 ) = 0.12, P (A3 B3 ) = 0.14
P (A4 B1 ) = 0.11, P (A4 B2 ) = 0.04, P (A4 B3 ) = 0.06
Determine the probabilities P (Ai ), i = 1, 2, 3, 4, and P (Bj ), j = 1, 2, 3.

4. Let two honest coins, marked 1 and 2, be tossed together. The four possible outcomes are
T1 T2 , T1 H2 , H1 T2 , H1 H2 . (T1 indicates toss of coin 1 resulting in tails; similarly T2 etc.)
Assume that all these outcomes are equally likely. Let the event A be ’not H1 H2 ’ and B be
the event ’match’. (Match comprises the two outcomes T1 T2 , H1 H2 ). Find P (B|A). Are A
and B independent?

5. Consider a discrete, symmetric memoryless channel used to transmit a binary data. The
apriori probabilities of sending binary symbol 0 and 1 are

P (A0 ) = p0 , and P (A1 ) = p1 ,

where A0 and A1 denote the events of transmitting symbols 0 and 1, respectively. The
conditional probabilities of errors are

P (B1 |A0 ) = P (B0 |A1 ) = p,

where B0 and B1 denote the events of receiving symbols 0 and 1, respectively. Determine the
aposteriori probabilities P (A0 |B0 ) and P (A1 |B1 ).

6. Let the sample space, S, consists of four sample points s1 , s2 , s3 , and s4 . The sample points
represent the events with the probabilities P (s1 ) = 14 , P (s2 ) = P (s3 ) = 81 and P (s4 ) = 12 . If
X(si ) = i − 32 , sketch the CDF and PDF for X.

1
7. A random variable X has

 0 , x<0
FX (x) = Kx2 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 10
100K , x > 10

(a) Find the constant K.


(b) Evaluate P (X ≤ 5) and P (5 < X ≤ 7).
(c) Find and sketch fX (x).

8. Consider the random variable X defined by the PDF

fX (x) = aeb|x| , −∞<x<∞

where a and b are positive constants.

(a) Determine the relation between a and b so that fX (x) is a PDF.


(b) Determine the corresponding FX (x).
(c) Find P (1 < x ≤ 2).

9. Let
1

2 , 0 ≤ x ≤ y, 0 ≤ y ≤ 2
fX (x) =
0 , otherwise

(a) Find fY |X (y|1) and fY |X (y|1.5).


(b) Comment on the interdependency of X and Y .

10. Consider a random variable X with PDF



1 − |x| , |x| ≤ 1
fX (x) =
0 , otherwise

Let Y is another random variable given by

Y = 2X − 1.

Find and sketch fY (y).