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INCREASED LIMESTONE ADDITION

RESULTS
About the research undertaken

• Underway since 2007


• The Cement Industry conducted
production and field trials of increased
mineral additions.
• Existing knowledge of the effect of fly ash
and slag, their combination on cement.
• Develop local knowledge of the effect of
up to 10% limestone on cement as base
case
About the research (continued)

• When sufficient representative data was


available, proceeded with a submission to
revise the Australian Standard for Cement.
LIMESTONE TRIALS

• Minimum three trials by main plants (two


trials by other plants) as full scale
production trials.
Eight sites participated.

• Laboratory cement testing


(Compliance)

• Laboratory concrete testing


(Performance in concrete)

• Field testing
(Verifying performance in practice)
LIMESTONE TRIALS – cont’d

• Control - Type GP cements with 5%


limestone addition.

• Trials – Portland cements with 10%


limestone addition.

• All results are compared to current GP


cement produced by the same plant
Considerations

• Variability of the test


• Production trials with straight replacement
• No optimisation attempted at this stage.
RESULTS - Mortar strength – test variation

Limestone Trials - Compressive Strength

120.0
110.0
100.0
90.0
80.0
% of Control

70.0 3-Day
60.0 7-Day
50.0 28-Day
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Sites
RESULTS - Concrete Strength – test variation

Limestone Trials - Concrete Strength

120
110
100
90
80
% of Control

3-day
70
7-day
60
28-day
50
91-day
40
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Sites
RESULTS – Concrete cont.
Limestone Trials - Concrete Setting Times

140.0

120.0

100.0
% of Control

80.0
Initial
Final
60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Sites
RESULTS – Concrete cont’d.

Limestone Trials - Concrete Shrinkage

120.0
110.0
100.0
90.0
80.0
% of Control

70.0
28-day
60.0
56-day
50.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Sites
Results – cont’d - Durability
Sulfate Expansion - 16 weeks

140.0

120.0

100.0
% Control

80.0 10%L
+ 25%FA
60.0 +15%FA&30%S

40.0

20.0

0.0
3 4 5 6
Site

Note: Control is current GP cement (ie 5% limestone), GP cement + 25% FA,


GP cement + 15% FA & 30% S respectively.
Sulfate Expansion - 16 weeks

2000

1800
1600

1400 Control GP
Expansion um

10%L
1200
Control +FA
1000
10%L+25% FA
800
Control+FA&S
600 10%L+15% FA& 30%S
400
200

0
3 4 5 6
Site
Sulfate Expansion - 24 weeks

2000

1800

1600

1400 Control GP
Exp an sio n u m

1200 10%L
Control+FA
1000
10%L+25% FA
800
Control+FA&S
600 10%L+15% FA& 30%S

400

200

0
3 4 5 6
Site
Limestone Trials - Sorptivity

130
120
110
100
90
% of Control

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
6 7 8
Sites

Three different methods: RTA, in-house and ASTM


Limestone Trials - Rapid Chloride Permeability.

120.0
110.0
100.0
90.0
80.0
% of Control

70.0
10%L
60.0
+20%FA
50.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
1 7 8
Sites
Field Trials
Field Trials - Concrete Strength

140.0
130.0
120.0
110.0
100.0
90.0
% of Control

3-day
80.0
7-day
70.0
60.0 28-day
50.0 56-day
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
1 4 5
Sites
Field Trials - Concrete Shrinkage

110.0
100.0
90.0
80.0 7-day
% of Control

70.0 14-day
60.0 21-day
50.0 28-day
40.0 56-day
30.0 112-day
20.0
10.0
0.0
1 5
Sites
Field Trial
7.30am Large pour, easily pumped & placed
Field Trial - bleedwater. Concrete 60 minutes
from start of batching
Field Trial
9.30am similar finishability
First pass of power float
Field Trial Results
General Observations

•Contractor commented that the concrete with the 10%


limestone cement was “excellent, pumped beautifully, and
placing and free screeding easy” and was no different to the
concrete with the usual GP cement.

•The bull-float passes only needed one movement out and back
to close the surface.

•The first pass of power floating started about 180 minutes after
the start of batching of the first load.

•The slab received a power trowel finish followed by a light


broom finish. The concrete in the last part of the slab had
received its final broom finish about 5 hours after batching.
Use of Limestone in Cement
International Scene
I
New
NZ -15%
Zealand
Australia -
Australia
10%

USA USA - 15%


Canada -
Canada
15%

European -
European
35%
Germany -
Germany
20%
UK UK -20%
France -
France
35%

1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Introduction 5% m ineral addition Introduction >5% m ineral additions
Use of Limestone in Cement
Effect on Cement and concrete strength

• Sprung and Ziebel (1991) found that any loss in


standard strength of cement with 15% limestone
could be offset by an increased fineness of the
clinker fraction and quality limestone.
• Tsivillis et al. (1999) observed the reduction in
water demand of cement with limestone addition.
These may contribute to reduced water content in
concrete with limestone compared to control
concrete of similar slump, and hence improved
properties.
Use of Limestone in Cement
Effect on drying shrinkage & creep

1100
1000 Drying Shrinkage, x10 E-6
900 Creep, x10 E-6
Concrete Properties

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 15 25 35 45
% limestone
Dhir et al. (2007)
RILEM Materials & Structures
Effect of limestone on durability properties
of concrete (0.6 w/c, 310 Kg cement)

3.0
Kw (x10 -11m/s), S (mm/min0.5), P (x10%)

2.0

1.0
Permeability Kw
Sorptivity S
Porosity P
0.0
0 10 20 30 40
% limestone

Tsivillis et al. (2003)


Cement and Concrete Research
Effect of SCM (2:1 slag: fly ash) on Durability
concrete with 355 kg/m3 of cement with 0% & 12%LS
(interground limestone & clinker)

4000
Charge passed, Coulombs

28-d, 0%LS
3000 56-d, 0%LS
28-d, 12%LS
56-d, 12%LS
2000

1000

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
SCM replacement level, %

Thomas et al. (2010)


Concrete International
Effect of SCM (2:1 slag: fly ash) on Strength of Concrete
Compressive Strength, MPa

10

20

30

40

50

with 355 kg/m3 of cement with 0% & 12%LS


0
3-d, 0% LS
7-d, 0% LS
28-d, 0% LS
0%

(interground limestone & clinker)


12% LS 3-D
12% LS 7-d
12% LS 28-d

3-d, 0% LS
7-d, 0% LS
SCM replacement level, %

28-d, 0% LS
25%

12% LS 3-D
12% LS 7-d
12% LS 28-d

3-d, 0% LS
7-d, 0% LS
28-d, 0% LS
40%

12% LS 3-D
12% LS 7-d
12% LS 28-d

3-d, 0% LS
7-d, 0% LS
Concrete International
Thomas et al. (2010)

28-d, 0% LS
50%

12% LS 3-D
12% LS 7-d
12% LS 28-d
SUMMARY
Increased mineral additions trials results indicated
that mineral additions can be increased to 10%
while maintaining equivalent performance.
The revised Australian Standard will allow the cement
industry in Australia to reduce cement’s carbon foot
print and minimise waste.
It is aligned with the response of international
Standards to the challenge of climate change.