Anda di halaman 1dari 13

c 

V   
 

  

 
   
    
    

    

 
 
  
    



    


  
    

!  


   
            
 

  
  


 
   " 



 
# 
  
   


  



  
# 

   $   

%
     
   
  
  
   
 

 
    



 
 


 

 &'' '(
 

-Heart failure is a progressive disorder in which damage to the heart causes weakening of the
cardiovascular system. It manifests by fluid congestion or inadequate blood flow to tissues. Heart failure
progresses by underlying heart injury or inappropriate responses of the body to heart impairment.

G  
G



G)
"

G


 
   *
  
   
  
     + *
    
 

  

  
 


)
 
   
   
 
  , 
 
    
# 

   
  

+ 
        
 

    

 







. /"


0# 

     


 
 G # 

 
#    
.  

   
  # $   !       


    
  
#  
+     
   




   



     



     „  
  
  


  
%
   
    
 
  
 

 
  .  
*  
  

     

 

   
+
  
 
&

  
1






2  

   

  
   

   
 






 

 

1 

.  





1 

 
%  "%  

 )  ,



),
%

 
  
    3G  ), 


      

   # 
    ),
 
   


    
      4
  
 ),
 


  
 


 

%

  


+ 
    

 
 
 

  ) 




 
 
  

   


  

  
 
+ 


   
),



  

5  ,




)     
 
   
   
      6 

   
)

   
%
    
+  

 
    

   
   #

  +        
   
 +  

   
 
D  D 
 
     


In addition to those causes above, the following factors also can play a role in
determining if heart failure will affect you:

7p  


    
8p  

9p 
 
:p   
   

;p     

<p 
   
=p

  


„any other conditions can actually simulate heart failure symptoms - it is


important to seek evaluation from a medical professional for a definitive
diagnosis. Some of these are:

7p  
8p 
9p   
:p  












 !  




%   

   à    c   
   

 )  ,





),
 


 
 )  ,


  
  

 *
  *  


   


%

$
     
 


/    

   
 


      


 

  
 
  



 

 

  >
 

   
 
    

     

. 
 

 
 
  


  

 

? =@A
     
    

 
 


   # 
 

)  
     
    

  
  

 $  



       


 
G  
  %  
^ngina Pectoris*) 
  
    
&

  

    
   
   mp 
    

6G

 
 
  # 

     mp 
 


mp 
      
,

  

G  

 ),  mp 
     




  
 
  
 

   

 
 
   
  
),+ 
    
 

   

        



   



 
   ) 
 
6       
 
#* 

 


 
 
 V2


 





 G  

V

 
  

  3
   


 
  
 

 
 



  
 
    
   ,


  
  
  V

  


 
V


 
  
B* 


  
    



%   



 7@@*7:@     
 
  


  


  


   %  
   
%    

 

 

 <@*C@       


  

     )
  


   # 


 


 

 
  #
6
 
 


  


  #    %
 


$

   

 *     

D
 * D 
V2 

 7:@'C@+  


 

3     


 
  



    
 
 
  
 

    


  
 
 

   
 

 #     
D





 !? G






2#         



   
   
         
   


 V        
  
   

   0# 
  

   

       
 

$    

  

 


.      




 

 
 
E    

  
$  6 + 
 


 
  


       
   6 

.    


 
 1
   
  





  
         
#  
# 
 
6 



#

  $ 

 
 
+ 

 

 

    

 
   


 6 V  
  


  

E      


 $ 

% 


  
  
   
 
 
  
 


 

      

          





 !  





   
6      
   

 3         

   

 
         

%  


  
 


 


  

%
   
  



   %
 

   
*     

&

 

F% 

  F   
F4
 F?
F, 

%


  

*
 
         


   #   %  
   
    
  
 
  



   


  

  
  .
  
      
 % 


   
 
 
  
%
  
   

     
,     

 
   *
      
%

   
  %

  
    

  

     



   
       
$  

V     
    6   

 


 , 
  

 
 
 

 
        
   % 

    
   * 
6 

  
 
   


 






 %







B*  „  
  
!  
#*     



 

 
   
  
  
 .  
2  



  
 #* ) 
#* 
 

$
  #
 #*

  

 

  
1






2  


   

  
   


   
  





0  
%  
 
 
E     
 
 + 
 
#       

  
 
      
1 

.  


0   

%
 


D àDD D

       
1 

 )       


    

  


       0  

 

    
  


%
       
    

% G 



4   
 +5  
 


   4  
  
 
  
 + 
  
    
   
 
6   

  


   


%%

%
 


D  D 
  
  

    # 
V  

    
     
 
   
 

 
  #        

  

G 

 

 
   

 
 G
+V+
 
   
6  +5   
# 
  ) # 
 
      

   

     
 
  

)   


 
   # 
% 
 



   
   
 +5
 



    
 


    

 
   

  E 
, 
 
    
     

        #*      
   



    
 
E 




%

E   $
  %
#*


    


 
   
 

 





FROM MOSBY:

NURSING CARE OF CLIENTS WITH HEART FAILURE:

ASSESSMENT:

1.p Baseline vital signs, breath sounds


2.p Daily weight; circumference of edematous extremities; abdominal girth
3.p Hemodynamic status (CVP, PAWP)
4.p Electrolytes levels ( sodium, chloride, potassium)
5.p Intake and output
B. ANALYSIS/ NURSING DIAGNOSES:

1.p Decreased cardiac output related to impaired cardiac function.


2.p Excess fluid volume related to impaired excretion of sodium and water.
3.p Impaired gas exchange related to excessive fluid in interstitial space.

C. PLANNING/ IMPLETATION:

1.p Maintain the client in high- Fowler͛s position.


2.p Elevate extremities except when the client is in acute distress.
3.p Frequently monitor vital signs.
4.p Change position frequently.
5.p Monitor intake and output and daily weight.
6.p Restrict fluid as ordered.
7.p Monitor invasive lines.
8.p Refer to cardiac glycosides, antihypertensives, and diuretics for additional nursing actions.

D. EVALUATION/ OUTCOMES:

1.p Maintains adequate tissue perfusion.


2.p Reduces peripheral edema/ ascites.
3.p Verbalizes understanding of pharmacologic and diet therapy.

[p Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a heart imaging test that helps determine
if fatty or calcium deposits have narrowed a patient͛s coronary arteries. Coronary CTA is a
special type of x-ray examination. Patients undergoing a coronary CTA scan receive an iodine-
containing contrast material as an intravenous (IV) injection to ensure the best possible images.

͞There are many things in life that will catch your eye, but only a few will catch your heart..pursue
those.͟

͞the heart is the only broken instrument that works͟