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After ensuring the completion of pattern drawing for any particular style and
size, the parts are stored in a separate file. Later it is opened with the 3D image
software packages, which is again the internal part of the pattern design
software. A 3D wire frame or dress form is created for the body image and a
garment is generated. The generated garment is modelled on to the body image.
The system understands ³Surface Topology´ and can also make necessary
calculations for stretch, cling and drape etc., according to the parameters set by
the designers.
In relation to pattern design the ability to move from 2D to 3D is perhaps the
area of most interest. The creation of 2D pattern shapes that can be wrapped
around a virtual mannequin fits nicely within the 2D CAD pattern development
application used within the industry. To move on from this point of develo pment
seems the most likely acceptable way forward for the designer and pattern
maker. The 3D garments that are produced, originate from 2D CAD patterns of
real garments and correspond to the regular sizes.

In the 3D patternmaking process, the pattern pieces are generated from a 3D

form. Draping is one of the oldest methods used to generated a pattern. In the
traditional draping process, a arments is produced by molding, cutting and
pinning fabric to a mannequin or individual. Styles lines and constructio ns
details of the drape are carefully marked and removed. Fabric pieces with the
construction and style details are generated. The fabric pieces are then laid flat
over pattern paper and traced. The pattern is finalized by adding directional
markings such as grain lines, notches, buttonholes, correct seam and hem
allowances and facings. Draping is especially helpful when developing intricate
garments styles or using unusual fabric.

Apparel companies have used computers since the early 1980¶s. Pattern Design
systems (PDS) have become invaluable tools to the patternmaker, assisting in
much of the repetitive tasks associated with patternmaking. PDS systems are
capable of storing an incredible amount of data that can be quickly retrieved,
tweaked and re-filed. Using a mouse or stylus, patternmakers are able to swiftly
add style details and make changes. There are many benefits to PDS ± speed,
accuracy and ease of data transmission being some of the most obvious. In
today¶s competitive environment, software companies are zeroing in on the
growing demands of the apparel manufacturer.

ANS 2 :- Pattern Alteration Through TUKA CAD :-


To add a point the piece perimeter

X Select the Point On tool.

X Move the tool to the area where the point is to be added.
X The Move Point dialog box displays.
X Specify a distance from the previous or next point to add a point.
X Click OK.


The Move Point tool is used to move a single p oint in an X/Y Direction.

X Select the Move Point tool.

X Click on the point to be moved. The selected point is attached to the
X Move the point to the desired position and click the mouse again to
anchor the point.
X The Move Point dialog box displays wi th the new point coordinates.


The Move Proportional tool is used to move a segment proportionally between

two points.

To Move Points Proportionally Between 2 Points :

X Select the Move Proportionally tool.

X Click on the points on each end of the segment to be moved
proportionally in a clockwise direction.
X Select the point to be moved the most; all other points on segment will
blend proportionally.
X Move the point to the desired position and click the mouse again to
anchor the points. The Move Segment Proportional dialog box displays.


The Move Parallel tool moves a segment of a piece in an X/Y direction while
maintaining the original shape of the segment.

To Move the segment parallel :

X Click and drag the cursor in a clockwise direction to select the points to
X Click on any of the selected points and move the segment to the desired
X Click the left mouse button to anchor the position. The Move Parallel
dialog box displays.


The Move Along tool is used to move the point along the contour of the piece.

To Move the point along :

X Click on a point and drag the mouse along the contour of the piece.
X Dialog Box appears.
X Positive value = Clockwise.
X Negative value= Counter Clockwise.
X Click OK.


The Move Points tool is used to move multiple points on a segment in an X/Y
direction for each selected point.

X Click on the tool.

X Selected the starting grade point to the end grade point.
X Click on any point on the segment move the mouse and click.
X Dialog box appears.


The Multi Move tool is used to move selected segments on more than one piece in
a parallel direction.

X Arrange pieces on the working area either horizontally or vertically.

X Click on the tool.
X Click and drag the mouse and draw the rectangular window over the
segments to move in the parallel direction.
X Dialog Box appears.
X Click ok.


The Align Points Tool command aligns a selected group of points horizontally,
vertically or by a specified angle. Other option is to align the intermediate points.
The default angle is the angle between the first and the last selected points when
choosing the Align Points command, more than one point must be selected. To
select points, use the select tool and click and drag the cursor clockwise. Then
click the Align Points Tool.

To Align Points

X Click and drag to select the points to be aligned with a help of select tool.
X Click on the Align Points Tool.
X hen the Align Points dialog box displays.
X Select Reference Point : First or last.
X Click the Horizontal or Vertical button to align the points.
X All Points will align to the reference point.
X Or Input Angle, and Click By Angle Button.
X Or Align ONLY Intermediate Points so First and Last point will not

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X CEL ANIMATION :- It is a manual method. Cel is derived from

celluloid, which is a piece of transparent plastic. In a cel animation,
animated characters are drawn and colored on separate celluloid
sheets. One or more background scenes are drawn on opaque sheets,
and each character is placed on its background and photographed.
Although commonly used, cel animation is an expensive and time-
consuming method. Movie production houses, such as arner
Brothers, and alt Disney, that can invest a lot of money use cel
animation. For example, the movie, The Prince of Egypt, was created
using cel animation.

X KEY FRAME ANIMATION : - Key frame animation is similar to cel

animation. However, the key frame animation method can also be
used to create 3 ± D animations. In an animation, the most important
stages are the ones that displays the start and end of each movement.
In key frame animation, the frames that show the start and end of a
movement are known as key frames. In cel animation, a single
animator draws all the stages of the animation. In key frame
animation, often, one person draws the important stages or key
frames. The remaining intermediate stages of the animation, which
are known as the in ± between stages, are drawn by other persons. The
main advantage of key frame animation is that the time taken to
create an animation is reduced because many persons work
simultaneously to create the animation. Key frame animation has been
effectively adopted by computerized applications. Most applications
allow you to specify the start and end key frames, and then
automatically create the in-between stages. This technique is known a

X PATH ANIMATION :- Path animation is another computer based

method used to create 2-D and 3-D animations. In this method, an
object travels on
X a predefined path of straight lines, curves, or both.

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ANS 4 :- (a) Applying fabric motifs on pattern making:

Fabric Pattern

Use this dialog to create a Fabric Pattern File (.FPF). This profile can be used
to upload image files and assign them to different materials in the style. Click
in the ³BITMAP FILE´ column to browse for image file or Right mouse click
in the Material column to add a material. By default the first field is used for
any pieces that have an unnamed Material. This image will show on the
working area using the show Fabric Full Screen Button on the Fabric and
Stripes Toolbar.

Show Fabric Full Screen

It is used to show a selected fabric pattern ( IMAGE FILE) on the screen.

The Image displays on the entire working area of the screen. Image files
(.Bmp,.Jpeg,.Tiff,etc) are loaded using the Fabric Pattern Editor located in

Clip Fabric Pattern

It shows the selected fabric(s) ( IMAGE FILE) inside the pieces on the
working area. Images files (.Bmp,.Jpeg,.Tiff,etc) are loaded using the Fabric
Editor located in the File Menu.

(b) Defining Embroidery Placement:


The circle tool is used to create an internal circle inside a piece.

X Click the tool.
X Click inside piece where center of circle is to be set.
X Move mouse outward from center to make circle. Click to set diameter.
Circle to Contour

The circle to contour tool is used convert an internal circle to an internal contour
with points.

To convert the Circle to a Contour

X Make the circle in the piece with circle tool.
X Select the internal circle with the select tool.
X Click on the circle to contour tool.
X Choose the number of points the contour will have.
X Click OK.


Text tool is used to add text to a piece. It is also used to move the annotation of
the piece to a location other than on top of the grain line.

To add text to a piece :

X Click the tool.
X Click inside the piece where the first letter is to be placed.
X Dialog displays.
X Type the text and define size and angle.
X Click the Apply button to see your text.
X Click close.

Join Contours

It is used to join two separate internal segments into one internal segment at a
common point.

To join 2 internal segments into 1 internal segment :

X Click the tool.
X Click on the common point where the 2 segments should join. If the 2
segments are apart, click on the end points of each segment with the tool.
X The 2 segments will now join as one segment.

Extend Internal

It is used to extend or shrink an internal segment in any direction by a specified

value or up to external contour of a piece.

To Extend an Internal Segment:

X Select the internal with the Select Tool.
X Select the end point to extend or shrink.
X Click the Extend Internal tool.
X hen the Extend Internal Segment dialog box displays.
X Type the amount to extend in the ³Amount´ field, or choose ³Up to the
contour´ to extend the internal all the way to the perimeter of the piece.
X Click Apply.
Divide Contour

It is used to divide an internal contour into multiple segments.

To Divide an Internal Contour :

X Select the divide point on the internal contour with the select tool.
X Click the Divide Contour Tool.
X The internal segments will be divided into 2 separate segments.

Trim Internal

It is used to trim and clean up overlapping lines.

To use the Trim Internal Tool :

X Click on the tool.
X Click on the overlapping section where two internal lines intersect.
X The internal line will delete up to the intersection point.

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ANS 5 :- Features of Computerized Pattern Making Software(CPMS) :-

X Drawing of individual 2D pattern shapes or style lines using various

drawing tools for any given measurements.
X Checking the measurements.
X Making multiple copies, mirror effects and splitting along desired lines.
X Introduction various details like standard collar, cuff, pockets, plackets,
flare, and dart.
X Converting the 2D patterns into 3D images.
X Attending fitting problems.
X Altering patterns.
X Rechecking the revised 2D patterns as 3D images.
X Plotting the prepared 2D patterns on pattern papers.
X Storing patterns as soft copy for future reference.
X Interfacing with Pattern Grading, Marker and Cutting software and
X Online services.

Types of pleats :-

There are many different types of pleats. Some of the most common are : Knife
pleats, which are pressed to keep an edge, and face in the same direction ; box
pleats, the edges of which face in opposite directions; inverted pleats with edges
brought to face each other at a center line ; sunburst or accordion pleats that are
narrower at the top and wider at the bottom, and kick pleats, generally a single
pleat placed at the bottom of a narrow skirt.

ANS 6 :- Grading Tool Bar : -

Track Previous/ Next Point

Use these buttons to move from Grade point to Grade point. The arrow keys on
the keyboard will also do the same function.

Copy Grading

Clicking the Paste Grading button will the ³X´ & ³Y´ values that were copied to
the windows clipboard.

Paste X Grading

It is used to paste only the ³X´ grading that was copied onto the clipboard. This
command is used after copy grading.

Paste Y Grading

It is used to paste only the ³Y´ grading that was copied onto the clipboard. This
command is used after Copy Grading.

Paste Grading Around

It will paste the average grading values that were copied to the clipboard. The is
done by selecting multiple grade points around a segment and then clicking
Paste Grading Around button.

Delete Grading

It is used to put a zero value in both X and Y for the selected Grade Point(s).

Delete X Grading

It will delete the grading for all sizes in the X axis. The X axis column will show
X Select the Graded Point or points to delete X Grading.
X Click the Delete X Grading button.

Delete Y Grading

It will delete the grading for all sizes in the Y axis. The Y axis column will show
X Select the Graded Point or Points to delete Y Grading.
X Click the Delete Y Grading button.

Smart paste
This feature when activated will automatically paste the opposite grading values
that you first copied. This save you time not having to flip your grading sign.
hen the function is not activated the paste button will paste exactly what you


ANS 7 :- Angle Grading :-

X Click on the Grade Point to grade on a angle.

X Click the Angle Button in Grading Table. Notice the arrows at the point.

The short arrow represents the X axis and the long arrow represents the Y axis.
Click the arrow buttons in the angle field to move the axis lines. To find the angle
quickly click the Next point button. This will point the short arrow to the next
grading point and the angle will be shown in the field. Once the Angle has been
determined you can grade either in the X or Y axis and the grading will follow
that angle. The Picture above shows grading at a 57 degree angle for 2 points.

Flip X Grading

It is used to change the X grading sign from positive to negative or from negative
to positive.
X Select the Grading Point or Points to Flip X Grading.
X Click the Flip X Grading button in the Grading Table.

Flip Y Grading

It is used to change the Y grading sign from positive to negative or from negative
to positive.
X Select the Grading Point or Points to Flip Y Grading.
X Click the Flip Y Grading button in the Grading Table.

Equal X Grading

It is used to assign the same grading value to all sizes in the X axis based on the
first value typed in the X axis.

Equal Y Grading

It is used to assign the same grading value to all sizes in the Y axis based on the
first value keyed in the Y axis.


It is a display tool. By default the Grading Table and Grading Library grades
incrementally from size to size. hen the Absolute button is activated the
displays changes to show total grading amounts fr om the Base Size.


ANS 8 :- Introduction to 2D :-

2D is commonly referred to patterns drawn on paper. It may be also referred to

as drafting. It is a system of drawings on paper with mechanical precision on the
basis of body measurement. This is an effective and economical method. The
basic pattern may be modified to develop patterns for varied styles by a
technique called ³ Flat Pattern Designing´.

Patterns represent the two-dimensional component parts of a garment. They are

used as a guide for cutting the fabric, which when sewn together forms a three-
dimensional garment. The creation of these patterns is the technique of pattern
construction. In the past this was often termed pattern cutting, but with the
advent of computers the cutting of individual patterns by hand is less essential.
That is why the term pattern cutting is replaced by pattern construction.

The most common 2D pattern making methods are flat, and drafting. In the flat
method, a pattern is generated from an existing foundation pattern called a
sloper or block. A sloper is a pattern that has no seam allowances or style lines.
From a sloper a myriad of garment styles can be generated. The patternmaker
creates a new style by adding design details such as a collar, pocket and pleats.
The flat pattern making method is widely used in the ready-to-wear market
because it is fast and accurate.

In the drafting method, patterns are made directly from measurements taken
from a pre-existing garment, an individual or a body form. Using the collected
measurement, the pattern is drawn directly onto paper.