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Carlos Leite : Cities of the Future

megacities sustainable visions sao paulo strategies

Santos, Sao Paulo


21.10.2010
19 th Century: nations

20 th Century: countries

21 rst Century: cities


(urban age/LSE/2008)=
(urban population, urban age, LSE, 2008)=

(fonte: Urban Age, London School of Economics, 2009) (FONTE: RICKY BARDETT, URBAN AGE/LSE, 2008)
(FONTE: URBAN AGE, LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS, 2009)
megacities explosion
megacities growth per hour (urban age/LSE/2008)
cities:

ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF THE WORLD THROUGH CITIES (BY EARTH'S CITY LIGHTS PHOTO VIA NASA)
< 3% of the planet’s surface
= 50% population
> 75% energy
> 80% gas emissions
(clinton climate iniciative, 2009)
(FONTE: RICHARD FLORIA, WHO’S YOUR CITY?)
40 megaregions are the drivers
of world economy:

1/5 of the population


2/3 of the gnp
> 85% of the innovation
(richard florida, 2007)
(gini index per megacities)
explosion of innequality

(FONTE: URBAN AGE, LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS, 2009)


planet-slum

>2 billion persons

>25% growth per

(FONTE:MIKE DAVIS, PLANETA FAVELA)


year

(mike davis, plantet slum, 2005)


tokyo
new york
beijing

sao paulo
unsustainable development

(FONTE: ANDRADE & MORETTIN ARQUITETOS, BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE WORLD)


(FONTE: ANDRADE & MORETTIN ARQUITETOS, BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE WORLD)
unsustainable development

sao paulo: sprawl over environment protected territory


(FONTE: RICKY BARDETT, URBAN AGE, 2008)
unsustainable development

mexico city: mass housing


(FONTE: RICKY BARDETT/PHILLIP RODE, URBAN AGE, 2008)
unsustainable development

CIDADE
BRUCE MAU & beauty
american THE INSTITUTE WITHOUT
model: 25 hab/ha: 7 planets BOUNDARIES
needed
(FONTE: RICKY BARDETT, URBAN AGE, 2008)
unsustainable development

caracas: segregated territory


(FONTE: TUCA VIEIRA_)
unsustainable development

sao paulo: territorial segregation


(FONTE: RICKY BARDETT, URBAN AGE, 2008)
unsustainable development

beijing: new (!) cities


sao paulo
megacity:
expansion +
exhaustion
population: +27.000% in 100 yeas
territory: +40.000% in 100 years
POPULATION (METROPOLITAN) 19.8 MILLION (3RD IN THE WORLD)

METROPOTITAN REGION AREA 3,120 SQ MILES (8,100 KM2) (= LEBANON)

DENSITY 6,400 P/SQ MILES (2,300 P/KM2) (2X NEW YORK)

GDP US$ 381 BILLION (= AUSTRIA)

GDP/PERSON US$ 19,050 (= SOUTH KOREA)

IDH 0,828 (HIGH)* (= ESLOVENIA)

SLUMS POPULATION 4 MILLION (20%)

ENERGY GENERATION 100% RENEWABLE (HYDROPOWER+WASTE)

CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY SINCE 2009 2005-2012 30% GHG EMISS. REDUC.

METRO NETWORK 64 KM (3.4 MILLION PASS. DAILY)

NUMBER OF CARS 7 MILLIONS (1,000 NEW EACH DAY)

HEADQUARTER MORE AMERICAN COMPANIES AMONG ANY OTHER CITY OUTSIDE US

THE MOST CROWDED AIR SPACE IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE

HIGHEST PER CAPITA HELICOPTER OWNERSHIP


Sustainable
Urban Future :
Visions
Top Challenges:
Mobility Housing
Environmental Issues
Exclusion Governance
Massive Change:

We could create sustainable city development through a


network of well connected compact nucleus
Compact, dense and mixed-use city cores would be connected by an
efficient mobility system: efficient collective transportation; efficient
urban design that encourages walking and cycling; efficient new forms of
individual transportation.

Compact city model optimizes the use of urban infrastructure and


promote greater sustainability - energy efficiency, better use of water
resources and reduce pollution. Dwellers has increased opportunities for 
interaction and improved the sense of public safety, since it sets up the
best sense of community (proximity; mixed uses; collective use spaces).

Lord Richard Rogers, Urban Task Force; Smart Growth movement/EPA


23

O ELEMENTO ESTRUTURADOR: MARQUISE LINEAR/EIXO INFRAESTRUTURAL


☛ CONFIGURA A NOVA CENTRALIDADE NA DIAGONAL SUL
☛ CONECTA AS ESTAÇOES (TREM, METRO E VLP)
☛ ESTRUTURA A VERTICALIZAÇÃO (BARRAS DE SERVICOS/200m ALTURA)
☛ ESTRURA AS TRANSPOSICOES E CONCEXOES TRANSVERSAIS (FERROVIA E RIO)
☛ ORGANIZA AS INFRAESTRUTURAS URBANAS E OS NOVOS ESPAÇOS PUBLICOS:
parque linear/verdes/aguas/ciclovias/comercio/lazer/shopping mall
☛ A DIAGONAL SUL GANHA UMA NOVA AV. PAULISTA:
mesma dimensao/4 km de eixo de vida urbana

COMPACTING THE CITY BY FILLING THE VOIDS REDEVELOPMENT AREAS


(Sao Paulo Diagonal Sul territory, Carlos Leite & Team, Urban Age/LSE, 2009)
COMPACTING THE CITY BY FILLING THE VOIDS: REDEVELOPMENT AREAS
(Sao Paulo Diagonal Sul territory, Carlos Leite & Team:, Urban Age/LSE, 2009)
Massive Change:
We could connect downtown densification and urban
sprawl with Social Housing

Repopulating downtown through the reactivation of existing


empty buildings and stopping periphery sprawling over
protected environment (green+water).

“The lack of an integrated system of property right makes it


impossible for the poor to leverage their informal ownerships
into capital, which would form the basis for entrepreneurship.”
Hernando de Soto, Peruvian economist, Institute for Liberty and Democracy
Massive Change:
We could connect downtown densification and urban
sprawl with Social Housing

SAO PAULO SPRAWLING AT GURAPIRANGA RESERVOIR PORTLAND REINVENTED ITSELF AND EMERGED AS #1 US
AREA: INFORMAL/ILEGAL SLUMS OVER PROTECTED GREENER CITY BY DENSIFIYNG ITS DOWNTOWN
ENVIRONMENTS
Massive Change:
We could imagine the city for people and not for cars

Leaving more street space for people will improve


liveable and sustainable cities, so the challenge for
future urban mobility is using less space.

“The radical success of the car has brought about its


failure: all world embraced traffic. New personal
mobility projects should deliver maximum freedom
woth minimal impact in cities.”
Bruce Mau, Institute without Boundaries
Massive Change:
We could imagine the city for people and not for cars

NYC “NEW” TOWN: ABANDONED ELEVATED HIGHWAY


CHINA “NEW” TOWNS: MORE OF THE SAME OLD WAY CONVERTED INTO A NEW CITY PARK
Massive Change:
We could go beyond governments’

This is the century of the city. Citizens are creating


new forms of city management. Replicating good
practices. NGOs’. Networks. Wiki. Sharing.
City Information Centers.
Massive Change:
We could go beyond governments’
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Massive Change:
We could go beyond governments’
CITY INFORMATION
CENTER ROTTERDAM
a worldwide investigation into the future of cities

cidade emformation Centre (CIC)

is the place to be for everyone who


Urban Age’s 22 @ Barcelona
wants to know more about construction,
principal aim is to shape the thinking and habitação, urban development and
The complexity of the
practice of urban leaders and sustainable architecture em Rotterdam. The large
transformation and the wish for
urban development. Initiated by the Cities model of the Rotterdam cidade centre,
creating tools that fit into the
Programme at the London School of for example, shows what is planned for
different existent realities and final
Economics and Political Science and the comemg anos. Brochures are
needs triggered the definition of a
Deutsche Bank’s Alfred Herrhausen available on the various new buildemg
flexible system of derived approach
Society, Urban Age is structured around projects, emcludemg many unusual
by means of different Special Plans:
international and multidisciplinary events high-rise projects. The CIC is also a good
and research supporting the creation of a place for emformation about existemg
Transformation actions of
new urban agenda for global cities. The buildemgs and an extensive selection of
predetermined areas that are
Urban Age agenda links the physical to the self-guided walkemg tours. The CIC
directly promoted by the City
economic, environmental and social, regularly organises events on a theme
Council.
providing urbanists with the tools to apply, with lectures, excursions and
tailor and refine innovation. exhibitions.
Massive Change:

We could think the city as an intelligent system of


systems

Making cities more instrumented, interconnected and


intelligently managing land information 
and efficiently operating systems which mitigates
waste planet's resources
Massive Change:

We could think the city as an intelligent system of


systems

CITY-CAR + MOBILITY-ON-DEMAND = SMART MOBILITY + SMART CITY (MIT Smart Cities Lab)

HTTP://CITIES.MEDIA.MIT.EDU/
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(Fonte: www.pbase.com/alexuchoa)
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Santos, Sao Paulo
21.10.2010

Carlos Leite
Carlos Leite is an Architect and Urbanist with a Master and PhD in Urban Design from the University of Sao Paulo and a
Posdoc from California Polytechnic State University where he was a Visiting Professor. He is Professor at the School of
Architecture and Planning, Mackenzie Presbyterian University, Sao Paulo and has been a visiting professor and lecturer
at different schools in California, Canada, Barcelona and the Netherlands, as well as at MBA Curses in Environmental
Management at Fundação Dom Cabral. He also works as a Sustainable Development and Design consultant. His
professional focus is on Sustainable City challenges.
Blog Cidades Sustentaveis+Inteligentes (www.cidadesinteligentes.blogspot.com)
Stuchi & Leite Projetos (www.stuchileite.com)
carlos@stuchileite.com
Carlos Leite : Cities of the Future
megacities sustainable visions sao paulo strategies

Santos, Sao Paulo


21.10.2010