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Transactions on Mechanics in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

Tom 52(66), Fascicola 6, 2007 Timisoara, Romania

October 24 - 26, 2007

OF WATER TURBINES

Helmut KECK * Wolfgang MICHLER

VA TECH HYDRO Switzerland VA TECH HYDRO Switzerland

Thomas WEISS Mirjam SICK

VA TECH HYDRO Switzerland VA TECH HYDRO Switzerland

*Corresponding author: Hardstrasse 319/P.O. Box, CH-8023 Zurich, Switzerland

E-mail: Helmut.Keck@vatech-hydro.ch

are operated in a more challenging way; a wider

This paper gives an overview of current methods

operating range is needed and there are more load

for life cycle analysis with special emphasis on dy-

changes with more frequent starts and stops in order

namic load analysis. Recent developments in CFD

to respond to the increased need for peak shaving,

simulations of time dependent phenomena are pre-

balancing energy and spinning reserve. As a conse-

sented, such as the von Kármán vortex shedding at

quence, new technologies are needed, especially for

stay vanes in a Kaplan turbine and the part load vor-

the design and manufacturing of large runners, see

tex in the draft tube of a Francis turbine and a pump

Keck et al. (2002). Empirical rules and calculation

turbine. A major topic of this paper is the unsteady

methods of safety engineering, which have been per-

pressure field in a pump turbine which is caused by

fectly adequate for conventional designs for decades,

the interaction of guide vanes and runner blades.

might no longer be valid for more modern machine

CFD results of the pressure pulsations and their valida-

designs, a fact which in some cases lead to severe

tion through comparison with measurement data are

problems or even failure of components, see Coutu

presented. It is shown how the predicted time depend-

et al (2004). In order to improve reliability of these

ent pressure load is transferred as input to the struc-

conventional methods, both measurement techniques

tural analysis of the runner. For the analysis of the

and calculation methods are continuously being

response of the runner to the dynamic load knowledge

refined and further developed.

of the natural frequencies of the structure is required

Further developments are taking place in all engi-

including the influence of the surrounding water on

neering disciplines in the water turbine design:

the natural frequencies. New results of the prediction

Measurement techniques: improvement and

of the natural frequencies of a Francis runner including

application to increasingly complex systems,

the added mass effect due to the surrounding water

e.g. PIV measurement of draft tube vortex,

are presented. For Pelton runners the state-of-the art measurement of natural frequencies of Francis

of measurement of eigenfrequencies and detuning runner in water.

are discussed along with the potential improvements Structural analysis: refinement to more design

due to the new simulation methods. details and extension to more realistic boundary

conditions e.g. the influence of surrounding water.

1. INTRODUCTION CFD analysis: extension to time dependent flow

During the last few years dynamic load analysis phenomenon such as von Kármán vortices or

of the components of hydraulic turbines has become the interaction between wicket gate and runner.

a major issue. There are three main reasons for this. Most recent examples for the development and

Firstly, customers request more efficient and, at the application of the new engineering methods are pre-

same time, less expensive machines, which are usu- sented for all types of turbines.

ally less robust. Secondly, refurbishment projects are Kaplan turbine: von Kármán vortex shedding at

often targeted at a considerable increase in flow rate the stay vanes, with focus on the application of re-

and power output which means higher load on the fined CFD

10 Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

Francis turbine: draft tube vortex, with focus on findings of the validation study are firstly the grid

application of new measurement techniques and CFD dependency of the solution and secondly the depend-

Francis turbine and pump turbine: interaction ency on the turbulence model. In a most recent study

between wicket gate and runner, with focus on struc- Nennemann et al. found that the shedding frequency

tural analysis of natural frequencies, CFD analysis is slightly shifted when the transition from laminar

of the time dependent flow and harmonic response to turbulent boundary layer is taken into account

method leading to an improved accuracy of the prediction.

Pelton turbine: jet – bucket interaction, with focus This finding is confirmed by experiments with varying

on excitation and detuning of the runner surface roughness at the blade inlet.

The paper is mainly based on the following pub- As it is well known that the shape of the trailing

lications: Sick et al., Parkinson et al., 2007, Schmied edge strongly influences the intensity of the vortex

et al., 2006. shedding a major focus of the validation study was the

effect of different trailing edge geometries. It could

2. KAPLAN TURBINE: VON KÁRMÁN be shown that indeed the trailing edge geometry

VORTEX SHEDDING AT STAY VANE EXIT determines the interaction of the counter rotating

In 2006 Lockey and Keller published the results vortices. A dovetail modification leads to a partial

of an unsteady CFD simulation of von Kármán vor- elimination of the vortices by forcing the vortices to

tex shedding at the stay vanes of a Canadian hydro move a bit upstream into the centre of the dovetail.

power station. It was the first time that CFD had The Donaldson modification has a similar effect by

been applied to explain in detail the origin of stay shifting one of the two separation points of the bound-

vane failure and to evaluate proposed refurbishment ary layer causing a partial elimination of the vortices,

alternatives. Before applying CFD to the complex see Figure 1. The tendency of the amplitudes as pre-

case of an existing hydro power station Keller vali- dicted by CFD is in agreement with published experi-

dated the CFD method for a NACA009 profile by mental data. However, more detailed validation has

comparing the CFD prediction to measurements of to be done by directly comparing CFD prediction

the HydroDyna project (Ausoni et al. 2006). The main with experimental data.

Blunt trailing edge Dove tail trailing edge Donaldson trailing edge

Amplitude: 100% Amplitude: 84% Amplitude: 32%

Frequency: 100% Frequency: 96% Frequency: 99%

Figure 1. Influence of the trailing edge geometry on the force acting on the blade as predicted by CFD

vane trailing edge

stay vane trailing edge

Figure 2. CFD simulation of the vortex shedding at the trailing edge of the stay vanes in a hydropower plant

for two different guide vane openings and two different trailing edge geometries. Part load (left) and opti-

mum load (right)

Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 11

In a hydropower plant the vortex shedding inter- Today it is possible to numerically predict the com-

acts with other components as illustrated in Figure 2 plex time dependent flow patterns of von Kármán

which shows the vortex street forming at the stay vane vortex shedding in the stator of a water turbine. The

trailing edge and being entrained along the surface CFD results are sufficiently accurate such that practical

of the subsequent guide vane. Highly complex time problems can be solved. Still, there are some open

dependent flow patterns may arise from this interaction. questions: the prediction of the effect of boundary

Discussion layer transition on the vortex shedding frequency has

1. Flow mechanisms: Applying CFD for the analysis to be further validated, the accuracy of the prediction

of von Kármán vortex shedding at stay vanes in of the separation points of the boundary layer has to

hydropower stations gives considerable insight into be investigated especially for the round trailing edge

the mechanisms which influence both frequency geometry and some more thorough validation of the

and amplitude of the pressure oscillations acting on prediction of the amplitude of the pressure oscillations

the structure. CFD simulations provide information will be needed. It is planned to do more of this valida-

about the wake thickness which is relevant for the tion work in the course of the HydroDyna project at

frequency of the vortex shedding as well as the IMHL, EPFL, Switzerland (http://hpc.epfl.ch/bgl/

position of the separation points which partly de- scientific-projects/hydrodyna/hydrodyna-project).

termines the amplitude of the pressure oscillation.

2. Frequency and amplitude of pressure pulsations: 3. FRANCIS TURBINE AND PUMP TURBINE

Several comparisons with experiments have been

done which show a good accuracy of the predicted 3.1. Draft tube vortex flow

frequency. Especially for the case that the blade First attempts to predict the complex unsteady flow

thickness of the stay vanes vary with the circum- structure of a draft tube vortex have been undertaken

ferential position a CFD simulation provides valu- about eight years ago and it became very quickly

able information about the von Kármán excitation evident that for this flow which is determined by

frequencies. With respect to the amplitudes of the

vortex dynamics at both small and large scales the

pressure pulsations some good results have been

turbulence model is of crucial importance for the

obtained but more validation work has to be done.

3. Structural response: A structural analysis of the accuracy of the CFD results. A detailed validation of

natural frequencies has been carried out in several the CFD results in comparison to measurements was

cases in order to identify which of the frequencies published in 2002 by Sick et al. As at part load non-

might be in resonance with the von Kármán exci- symmetrical flow patterns become increasingly domi-

tation. In fact, if a natural frequency of the struc- nant the interaction between runner and draft tube

ture coincides with the excitation frequency of the significantly influences the turbine flow. Consequently,

vortex shedding a reduction of the excitation am- both the grid resolution and the modelling of the inter-

plitude by trailing edge modification might not be face between runner and draft tube have to be done

sufficient. Grein and Staehle give the example of with great care as demonstrated by Stein et al. in 2006.

a 184 MW Francis turbine for which stay vane The grid resolution in the runner determines the

failure could not be eliminated by modifying the accuracy of the prediction of the interblade vortices

trailing edge geometry only. It was necessary to and thereby the accuracy of the prediction of velocity

modify the design of the stay vanes such that the profile at draft tube inlet and the vortex rope frequency.

natural frequencies of the structure were shifted. Results of the numerical simulation of the FLINDT

A similar case is reported by Lockey et al., 2006. draft tube at part load operation are shown in Figure 3.

Vortex rotation frequency f

Experiment: f/n = 0.302

Coarse grid: f/n = 0.236

Fine grid: f/n = 0.290

Figure 3. Grid dependency of the CFD solution: Inter blade vortex and rotational speed of the vortex rope.

Discussion flow mechanisms is a prerequisite for design engi-

Numerical flow simulations of the draft tube vor- neers to optimise the hydraulic design of a turbine

tex flow can be targeted to answer questions about with respect to draft tube vortex flow. Furthermore,

the flow mechanisms. A good understanding of the CFD simulations can deliver information about fre-

12 Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

quency and amplitude of pressure pulsations in the the lateral forces and bending moments acting on the

prototype, and the effect of cavitation on the pressure shaft of a pump turbine which are caused by the draft

pulsations which enable the effect of the draft tube tube vortex. The agreement between numerical pre-

vortex on the structure to be predicted. Figure 4 shows diction and experimental data is found to be very good.

800 600

600

400

400

200

200

f

0 0

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

-200

-200

-400

-400

-600

Number of revolutions Number of revolutions

-800 -600

80 100

60 80

40 60

20 40

0 20

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

-20 0

-40 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

-20

-60

-40

-80

-60

Number of revolutions Number of revolutions

-100

-80

Figure 4. Lateral forces and bending moments on the shaft due to the draft tube vortex: comparison meas-

urement data (grey) and CFD prediction (black)

1. Measurement technique: Considerable progress has gives the quantity of the pressure pulsations. Most

been achieved with respect to experimental insight notably, the synchronous and the asynchronous

into the velocity field of the draft tube vortex part of the pressure excitation can be identified.

(Ciocan et al., 2004) by applying LDA and PIV 4. Effect of cavitation: As cavitation zones introduce

measurements to this complex, time dependent compressibility into the hydraulic system they

flow phenomenon in addition to pressure meas- strongly alter the dynamic behaviour of both the

urements. vortex rope and the hydraulic system. First results of

2. Flow mechanism: CFD simulations show in detail CFD predictions including cavitation were published

the swirl distribution and the backflow zone with the by Stein et al. in 2006 showing strong grid depend-

resulting rotating shear layer and vortex production ency of the results and an unsatisfying accuracy.

in the centre of the draft tube cone. Validation of the 5. Structural response: Forces and moments as con-

CFD results versus measurements of the velocity sequence of the pressure pulsations result directly

field in the draft tube cone show good agreement from a CFD simulation. They have been success-

thus justifying confidence in the CFD results. The fully validated for the shaft of a pump turbine run-

improved insight into the flow mechanisms has given ner (Sick et al, 2004). Ruprecht et al. made a first

rise to attempts to directly influence the pressure attempt to model the whole system and its excita-

pulsations caused by the draft tube vortex. tion by the vortex rope in 2002 but since then there

3. Frequency and amplitude of pressure pulsations: has been no further development of models for the

For both model and prototype the CFD simulation response of the system.

Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 13

During the past few years CFD methods for the by the unsteady flow and on the knowledge of the

prediction of the draft tube vortex flow have been natural frequencies of the structure which again have

developed and applied with great success. Still, there to be either calculated or measured. The latter ap-

are open questions with regard to the accuracy when proach was adopted by Coutu et al. (2004) for the

cavitation is taken into account and with regard to analysis of stress in the St. Marguerite Francis run-

the response of the entire hydraulic system. While ner in order to prove that the suggested geometry

the questions with respect to accuracy of the CFD modification would no more lead to cracks. Since

simulation might be tackled with relatively reason- then further progress has been made especially with

able effort in the near future modelling the hydraulic respect to the analysis of natural frequencies under

system response will be a far more challenging task. the influence of water, see Lais (2007).

3.2. Rotor Stator Interaction CFD simulation of the rotor – stator interaction

Because of relatively high blade loading, high ro-

In turbo machines the interaction between the ro-

tating speed and thick guide vanes and small gaps

tating pressure field caused by the runner with the

the interaction between guide vanes and rotor blades

wakes produced in the wicket gate is the omnipresent

is the main source of vibrations in high head pump

source of dynamic load on the components. All en- turbines. For this reason a pump turbine has been

gineering disciplines – measurement, flow analysis chosen for the first steps towards CFD analysis of

and structural analysis – have to be applied hand in rotor-stator interaction (RSI). At the same time there

hand in order to analyse the dynamic load and the are mechanical conditions in the prototype differing

resulting stress and residual life. Dynamic load as- from test rig which makes prototype measurements

sessment in water turbines is conventionally based necessary as reported by Egusquiza et al., 2006. Thus,

on the proportional approach in which the dynamic the main objective of current research is the combi-

pressure load is assumed to be a fraction of the static nation of reliable CFD predictions of the pressure

pressure, see for example Seidel et al (2006). This oscillations due to RSI with a realistic numerical

approach is still good for many applications but not analysis of the mechanical properties of the prototype

always sufficient. The harmonic response method is such that the response of the structure to the dynamic

far more realistic because it is based on the predicted load can be predicted during the early design phase

or measured time dependent pressure field caused of a turbine runner.

Instantaneous static pressure field Static pressure on the band between two guide vanes

Figure 5. CFD simulation of the pressure field in a pump turbine (left);

comparison CFD prediction - measurement (right)

A CFD method has been set up and validated by correct as can be seen in Figure 5 on the right hand

Keller et al. (2006) for the numerical simulation of side. As the frequency of the pressure oscillation is

the dynamic load on a pump turbine runner which is prescribed by the number of guide vanes and runner

due to the interaction of guide vanes and runner blades. blades on one hand and the rotational speed on the

The prediction of the major excitation frequencies is other hand the signal is mainly a superposition of

14 Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

a constant part and three distinct frequencies, the With a time dependent CFD simulation of spiral

harmonics of the runner blade passing frequency casing, entire stator and entire rotor it is possible to

(i.e. rotation frequency times number of runner blades). detect the node shapes of the exciting modes. This was

More remarkable is the fact that the amplitudes of demonstrated by comparing the CFD prediction of the

the pressure oscillations are found to be predicted pressure oscillations for two different pump turbine

with very good accuracy. runners – one with 7 blades, the other with 9 blades –

coupled to a 20 guide vanes stator (Keller et al., 2006).

Runner with 7 blades: Phase angle at 3rd Harmonic Runner with 9 blades: Phase angle at 2nd Harmonic

Figure 6 Decomposition of the predicted pressure field shows the shape of the excitation mode:

1 node (left), 2 nodes (right)

According to Tanaka (090) the interaction of tional grid includes not only the runner but also a

stator and rotor leads to pressure waves at rotating surrounding volume representing the water, see

pressure modes which depend on the number of sta- Figure 8, left. Please note that the constellation under

tor channels (zS) and number of runner blades (zR): discussion refers to the situation at the test rig but

k = M ⋅ z R ± N ⋅ z S . While mode 0 represents a stand- not to the runner as it is installed in the plant. Under

ing wave on the rotating runner system the other modes the influence of water the shape of the mode is found

to stay the same see Figure 8, middle and right hand

are rotating with speed nM ( nM = n ⋅ zS ). Pressure side. But the surrounding water strongly influences

k

modes with negative node number k are counter ro- the value of the natural frequencies reducing them by

tating, those with positive node number are rotating a factor between 0.4 and 0.9 depending on the mode.

with the runner. As shown in Figure 6 the CFD Figure 8 gives the detailed results of the numeri-

simulation exactly reveals the pressure modes as cal prediction on one hand and the measurements of

expected based on the literature. Thus, if the natural the mode shapes of the Francis runner under consid-

frequencies are known from structural analysis the eration on the other hand. Firstly, it can be seen from

this diagram that the numerical prediction and meas-

CFD simulation allows critical excitation modes to be

urement agree very well but also, that some more

identified and further analysed with respect to their

measurement points are needed for a complete valida-

effect on the structure. Furthermore, the CFD simu-

tion of the numerical methods. Secondly, the frequency

lation accurately predicts the direction of the pressure

reduction due to the damping effect of the surround-

wave propagation which is of considerable signifi-

ing water is shown to strongly differ for the different

cance for the vibration behaviour of the whole ma-

modes. For design engineers this information is ex-

chine: pressure waves propagating against the runner

tremely important because it will allow a leaner design

rotation into the spiral casing and further upstream

of the turbines with more targeted safety margins.

can cause undesirable vibrations in the penstock.

Discussion

3.3. Numerical prediction of natural frequencies 1. Flow mechanisms: A time dependent CFD simula-

A high head Francis turbine runner has been se- tion of the runner together with the stationary com-

lected in order to validate the numerical analysis of ponents reveals the major mechanisms of the rotor

natural frequencies, see Lais (2007). For the simula- stator interaction which take place at the basic

tion of the runner properties in water the computa- frequency (pressure pulsations at rotational speed

Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 15

Computational grid:

runner with surrounding volume

ND2-1 mode: FE prediction of displacement in air ND2-1 mode: FE prediction of displacement in water

Figure 7 FE analysis of Eigenmodes of a high head Francis turbine runner

2000 1.0 Measurement -

Natural Frequency

Frequency Reduction Factor α=fw/fa

1600 0.8

Natural Frequency [Hz]

Measurement -

1400 0.7 Natural Frequency

1200 0.6

in Water

Frequency in Air

800 0.4

600 0.3

Prediction Natural

400 0.2

Frequency in Wate

200 0.1

0 0.0

Prediction

Frequency

1

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

fw/fa

Figure 8 Modal analysis of a Francis runner in air and in water:

comparison numerical prediction – measurement

times number of the blades) and its harmonics. As by CFD when certain standards of grid density,

major effects the flow deviation in the wake of the discretisation scheme (2nd order accurate), time

guide vanes on one hand and the upstream effect of step, computational domain and boundary condi-

the leading edge of the runner blades on the other tions are fulfilled.

hand are identified by CFD with very good accuracy. 3. Structural response: With the information about

2. Frequency and amplitude of pressure pulsations: the flow and the related pressure field gained by a

Frequency, mode and amplitude of the pressure transient CFD simulation it is now possible to calcu-

oscillation are found to be very well represented late the resulting stress at each point of the runner

16 Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

at each time step. As such a procedure would be (CFD) that has been extensively analysed and vali-

extremely expensive in terms of computing time dated from various sets of unsteady pressure meas-

and memory a leaner approach is chosen: the analy- urements located both at inner and outer surfaces of

sis of the structural response at selected frequencies. buckets achieved at model scale, see Parkinson, 2004.

Based on the developments and the validation Results of the CFD simulation of the water jet in

study presented in this paper it is now possible to the Pelton bucket are shown in Figure 9 for three dif-

numerically predict the natural frequencies of a ferent phases of the interaction process: jet loading,

rotor both in air and in water with very good ac- maximum torque and water evacuation. The flow

curacy. For design engineers this is a significant and its impact on the bucket are visualised by the

step forward towards safety engineering with more water sheet and the static pressure distribution on the

targeted safety margins and design rules. Predict- inner surface of the Pelton bucket. In certain stages

ing the natural frequencies of the prototype allows of the jet bucket interaction there is some impact of

more knowledgeable decisions to be made during the water on the outer bucket surface which cannot

the design phase and less correction such as de- be neglected with respect to the bucket torque and

tuning to be done during the manufacturing phase the according efficiency of the Peton runner. Although

which is beneficial to both turbine manufacturers the CFD simulation takes into account the entire

and power plant operators. bucket surface and its interaction with the jet it has

During the last two years significant progress has been found that the accuracy of the torque predic-

been made in predicting the effect of rotor stator tion is not yet satisfying for these stages (Parkinson

interaction in a pump turbine both on the flow field et al, 2005). More refined modelling of two phase

and on the structure. Still, some more validation work flow, detachment and cavitation zones is required.

has to be done for pump turbines in pump mode and Nevertheless, a CFD simulation as presented here

for other turbine types. Limitations of the CFD simu- provides sufficient data for a reliable structural analy-

lations presented are due to the fact that constant mass sis. For each time step the pressure distribution on

flow and the flow direction are imposed at inlet while the Pelton bucket surface serves as input data for a

at outlet the static pressure is set to an average value. Finite Element Analysis which then reliably predicts

With this approach potential temporal and spatial deformation and stress. At maximum torque the hot

fluctuations in mass flow rate are not taken into ac- spot of the stress is generally to be found in the root

count. Furthermore the fluid is assumed to be incom- zone of the bucket (see Figure 9).

pressible which means that wave speed is infinite. 4.2. Structural analysis of the Pelton bucket

This assumption will have to be questioned in further

research. A typical stress variation in the root consists of a

Also with respect to structural analysis, some more periodic stress related to the cyclic jet impact, with

investigation has to be done. Firstly, more measure- some added stress component induced by the mechani-

cal vibrations of the runner as shown in , left hand

ments points are needed for more thorough validation

side. As the bucket vibration takes place in response

of the prediction of the added mass effect of water.

to the dynamic load it is not possible to simulate it

Secondly, the method has to be applied to and tested

with a quasi static FEM analysis with fairly coarse

for a range of runner types. Thirdly, measurements

time steps as used today (see , right hand side).

and simulations are done in stationary water which

Today, the structural analysis of the Pelton bucket

leaves open the question about the effect of moving

is done in two steps:

water on the structural properties.

• Step 1: Deformation and stress in the bucket as

4. PELTON TURBINE DESIGN: response to the dynamic load due to the jet.

PELTON BUCKET • Step 2: Analysis of the Eigenmodes and natural

frequencies of the bucket and evaluation of safety

4.1. CFD analysis of the jet bucket interaction limits with respect to resonance.

For Pelton runners both the flow field itself and As described in the previous section a state-of-the-

the influence of water on the structural properties are art CFD analysis of the jet flow in the bucket delivers

more difficult to determine than for Francis or Kaplan the pressure distribution on the bucket surface for

turbines because Pelton buckets are moving through each time step with good accuracy thereby enabling

the jets, filling and emptying continuously. With the FEM predicition of both deformation and stress. Based

progress achieved in Pelton turbine CFD and fluid on a number of Pelton buckets for which this proce-

structure coupling (see Parkinson et al., 2007) more dure has been applied there is very good confidence

precise results can be expected in the near future. in this method. Still, some more validation work has

The bucket unsteady loading analysis requires to be done especially in case of very advanced mod-

knowing the unsteady pressure loading in the rotating ern Pelton bucket design. As the shape of a modern

buckets. This is achieved by a flow simulation process Pelton bucket is being optimised with respect to new

Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 17

learnings in flow mechanics as well as with respect might change. Great care has to be taken in order to

to weight reduction the location of highest stress ensure life time.

Pressure Stress

Angular Step 1: jet loading Angular Step 2:maximum torque, maximum stress at root

Figure 9. Bucket loading (water sheets, pressure, stress, deformation, maximum values are red), (KOPSWERK II)

Figure 10. Stress variation with time in the Pelton bucket: measurement (left),

CFD simulation and FEM analysis (right)

18 Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

New developments are taking place in the analysis Some typical natural bucket modes are shown in

of Eigenmodes and measures to prevent resonance in Figure 11. The relevant mode in operation is the bend-

Pelton runners. In contrast to former simple methods ing mode in circumferential direction, which, in some

of looking at the Pelton bucket as a single mass system cases, can be combined with a vibration of the buckets’

Schmied and Angehrn (2006) published a method rim. In the right hand side of Figure 11 the lowest

which allows the determination of the Eigenmodes six natural modes of the BIEUDRON runner are

of the Pelton runner as a coupled multi mass system. presented. It can be seen that, for the natural modes

Based on excitation measurements on a number of with a higher number of nodal diameters, the mode

individual buckets on one hand and an iterative solu- shape resembles a pure bucket vibration. The frequen-

cies of these modes are almost equal. In case of the

tion of the transfer matrix on the other hand it is

theoretical model with identical buckets the 5 jets

possible to determine the parameters of the Pelton

would excite the 6th mode with 5 nodal diameters at

runner as coupled multi-mass system and thereby to 762 Hz, the lower modes shown in the figure would

determine a detuning procedure if needed. not be excitable.

Calculated frequencies of the lowest 6 natural modes of bucket bending vibration: f i (i=1-6) = 508 / 576 /

706 / 760 / 761 / 762 Hz (i = number of mode, n = i–1 = number of nodal diameters) – BIEUDRON

Figure 11 Most important natural modes of a Pelton runner: bucket (left) entire runner (right)

Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 19

The next step in the near future will be to drasti- and ensure structural safety at the same time. CFD

cally reduce the need for detuning by applying FEM prediction is also being used for gaining insight into

analysis of the Eigenmodes in an early phase of the flow phenomena with strong two phase character

design process. As shown in the previous chapter for such as the dispersion of the jet or the detachment at

a Francis runner today’s structural simulation meth- the outer surface of the Pelton bucket. It has been

ods allow natural frequencies to be determined with found that for these phenomena there is still need for

good accuracy and with affordable computing effort. improved models. Considerable progress is being

The same applies to Pelton runners where some more made in the field of structural analysis and a today’s

validation work has to be done, especially in order detailed analysis of deformation and stress is based

to determine the influence of water on the Eigen- on detailed input data. Yet, more validation work is

modes of the runner. needed, especially with respect to the prediction of

Discussion natural modes under the influence of water.

1. Measurement technique: For the observation and

5. CONCLUSION

quantitative measurement on Pelton jet new optical

measurement technique was developed during the In order to meet the challenge of designing leaner

last few years (Parkinson et al, 2005). At the same turbines with higher power output engineering meth-

time, pressure measurement techniques have been ods are being further improved and validated. Main

refined in order to obtain more detailed information target of these developments is the reliable prediction

on the pressure distribution in Pelton buckets. of the dynamic load and the according structural

2. Flow mechanisms: Measurements are then used response. It is expected that these developments will

to validate the CFD prediction of the jet – bucket provide more targeted safety rules which allow design

interaction leading to good confidence in the reli- optimisation with respect to both performance and

ability of the CFD prediction of the pressure dis- safety.

tribution on the bucket surface. This reliability is Progress has been taking place in all disciplines

extremely important as the CFD results serve as of engineering:

input for the structural analysis. Still, refinement R Measurement techniques:

has to be done in the field of modelling genuine • PIV measurement of the draft tube vortex,

two phase flow phenomena: As observed for vari- LDA measurement in the Pelton jet

ous projects, the real jet diameter is influenced by • Unsteady pressure distribution in the Pelton

dispersion – an effect which is not yet sufficiently bucket

modelled by today’s CFD methods. Therefore, the • Determination of structural properties under

jet diameter is usually prescribed based on theoreti- the influence of water

cal considerations. Similarly, the effect of water R CFD simulation of the three major flow mecha-

detachment at the outer surface of the bucket nisms which lead to vibration in water turbines:

requires refined two phase flow models and is not • Draft tube vortex flow at part load

yet predicted sufficiently accurately to allow a • Von Kármán vortex shedding at stay vanes

precise prediction of the hydraulic efficiency of • Unsteady interaction between guide vanes and

a Pelton runner. runner blades

3. Structural response: Both the mean and the dynamic R FEM prediction of stress due to dynamic load and

load on a Pelton bucket are well predicted by mod- structural properties

ern CFD methods and serve as reliable input for a • Fluid structure coupling

structural analysis. Modern Finite Element Analysis

• Natural frequencies of a structure which is

has proven to deliver realistic values of deformation

immersed in water

and stress and thus can be relied on with respect

• Harmonic response analysis

to dynamic load. A field of further development is

the analysis of natural frequencies without and Significant progress has been made and still, more

with influence of water. Today’s measurement investigation is needed in order to achieve reliable

and analysis methods give excellent insight into results for a wider application range. In the case of

the structural properties but some more validation the draft tube vortex flow there are still open questions

and development have to be done. with respect to the effect of cavitation and system

A major step in Pelton turbine design is the pos- response. Some more validation work is required for

sibility to obtain reliable and detailed information the numerical prediction of the von Kármán vortex

about the pressure distribution and, as consequence, shedding and these results still have to be transferred

about the stress in the Pelton bucket. With this ability to runner trailing edges in a future step. Rotor stator

it is possible to further develop Pelton bucket design interaction and its effect on the dynamic pressure field

20 Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

are found to be well predictable even under simpli- 10. Nennemann, B., Vu, T.C., Ausoni, Ph., Farhat, M.J.L.,

fying assumptions such as incompressibility and Avellan, F., ”Unsteady CFD prediction of von Kármán

constant mass flow but more validation is needed, vortex shedding in hydraulic turbine stay vanes”, to

be published in Proceedings of Hydro2007, Granada,

especially for the pump mode. Validation of the

Spain, October 15-17, 2007.

simulation method by comparison to measurement 11. Parkinson E., Weiss Th., Neury C., Kuntz M., Braune A.,

data will be a major task for structural analysis as “Computational analysis in Pelton hydraulic turbines”,

well, especially for the installed prototype runner. In 22nd CAD FEM Users’ Meeting, Dresden, Germany,

addition, the effect of water on natural frequencies, 2004

also in the case of Pelton turbines, requires further 12. E. Parkinson, C. Neury, H. Garcin, G. Vullioud, Weiss,

investigation. Th., “Unsteady Analysis of a Pelton Runner with Flow

and Mechanical Simulations”, Proceedings of Hydro

2005, Villach, Austria, October 17-20, 2005.

REFERENCES

13. Parkinson, E., Angehrn, R., Weiss, Th. “Modern design

1. Ausoni, Ph., Farhat, M., Bouziat, Y. A., Kueny, J.L., engineering applied to Pelton runners”, Hydropower

Avellan, F., “Kármán vortex shedding in the wake of a and Dams, Issue 4, August 2007.

2 hydrofoil: Measurement and numerical simulation” 14. Ruprecht, A., Helmrich, Th., Aschenbrenner, Th., Scherer,

IAHR Int. Meeting of WG on Cavitation and Dynamic Th., “Simulation of the Vortex Rope in a Turbine Draft

Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Bar- Tube”, Proceedings of the XXIst IAHR Symposium on

celona, Spain, June 28 – 30, 2006. Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Lausanne, Switzer-

2. Ciocan, G. D., Avellan, F., “Flow Investigations in a land, September 9 - 12, 2002.

Francis Draft Tube: Advanced Experimental Methods”, 15. Schmied, J., Weiss, Th., Angehrn, R., “Detuning of

3rd Conference of Romanian Hydropower Engineers, Pelton Runners”, 7th IFToMM Ciference on Rotor

Bucharest, Romania, May 28 – 29, 2004. Dynamics, Vienna, Austria, 25-28 September 2006

3. Coutu, A., Prolux, D., Coulson, S., Demers, A., “Dy- 16. Seidel, U., Grosse, G., “New Approachesto simulate the

namic Asssessment of Hydraulic Turbines”, HydroVi- dynamic behaviour and dynamic stresses of Francis- and

sion 2004 Pump Turbine Runners”, IAHR Int. Meeting of WG on

4. Egusquiza, E., Mateos, B., Escaler, X., “Analysis of Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Ma-

runner stator interactions in operating pump-turbines”, chinery and Systems, Barcelona, Spain, 28-30 June 2006.

Proceedings of the XXIst IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic 17. Sick, M., Doerfler, P., Sallaberger, M., Lohmberg, A.,

Machinery and Systems, Lausanne, Switzerland, Sep- Casey, M. “CFD Simulation of the Draft Tube Vortex”,

tember 9 - 12, 2002. Proceedings of the 21st IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic

5. Grein, H., Staehle, M., “Fatigue Cracking in Stay Vanes Machinery and Systems, Lausanne, Switzerland, Sep-

of Large Francis Turbines”, Escher Wyss News 1/1978. tember 9-12, 2002.

6. Keck, H., Angehrn, R., Sallaberger, M., Winkler, St., 18. Sick, M., Doerfler, P., Michler, W., Sallaberger, M.,

Nowicki, P., „New Technologies in Design and Manu- Lohmberg, A., “Investigation of the Draft Tube Vortex

facturing of Large Francis- and Pump-Turbine Runners, in a Pump-Turbine”, Proceedings of the 24th IAHR

HYDRO 2002, Kiris,Turkey Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems,

7. Keller, M., Sallaberger, M., “Modern hydraulic design Stockholm, Sweden, 2004.

of pump turbines”, Proceedings of the International 19. Sick, M., Lais, S., Michler, W., Stein, P., Weiss, Th.,

Seminar on Hydropower Plants, Vienna, Austria, No- „Numerical prediction of flow induced dynamic load

vember 22 - 24, 2006. in water turbines: recent developments and results”, to

8. Lais, S., “Numerische Modalanalyse in Wasser: Neue be published in Hydro 2007 Conference, Granada, Spain,

Möglichkeiten in ANSYS 11.0 am Beispiel eines October 15-18, 2007.

Francisturbinen Laufrades”, 12. CADFEM Users’ 20. Stein, P., Sick, M. Doerfler, P., White, P., Braune, A.,

Meeting Schweiz, Zurich, Switzerland, June 14, 2007 “Numerical simulation of the cavitating draft tube

9. Lockey, K. J., Keller, M., Sick, M., Staehle, M., Gehrer, vortex in a Francis turbine”, Proceedings of the 23rd

A., “Flow induced vibrations at stay vanes: Experience IAHR Symposium, Yokohama, Japan, October 2006.

at site and CFD simulation of von Kármán vortex 21. Tanaka, H., “Vibration and dynamic stress of runners

shedding”, Proceedings of Hydro2006, Porto Carras, of very high head reversible pump-turbines”, XV IAHR

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