Anda di halaman 1dari 23

EMTP-RV

USER GROUP MEETING

EMTP_RV MODELLING FOR THE TRANSMISSION LINE LIGHNTING PERFORMANCE COMPUTATION

T. Sadovic, S. Sadovic

Dubrovnik 30.04.2009

LINE LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE I 0 , t f I 0 , t f I 0
LINE LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE I 0 , t f I 0 , t f I 0
LINE LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE
I 0 , t f
I 0 , t f
I 0 , t f
SHIELDING FAILURES
I 0 , t f I 0 , t f I 0 , t f SHIELDING

THE ANNUAL NUMBER OF LIGHTNING OUTAGES PER 100 KM OF LINE LENGTH

BACK FLASHOVERS

INDUCED

LINE BACK FLASHOVER RATE

THE ANNUAL OUTAGE RATE CAUSED BY A FLASHOVER OF LINE INSULATION RESULTING FROM THE STROKES TO THE

TOWERS AND TO THE GROUND WIRES

I 0 , t f Back flashover
I 0 , t f
Back
flashover
FLASHOVER OF LINE INSULATION RESULTING FROM THE STROKES TO THE TOWERS AND TO THE GROUND WIRES

LINE SHIELDING FAILURES

THE ANNUAL NUMBER OF LIGHTNING EVENTS THAT BYPASS THE OVERHEAD GROUND WIRES AND TERMINATE ON THE PHASE CONDUCTORS

THE ANNUAL NUMBER OF FLASHOVERS CAUSED BY SHIELDING FAILURES

I 0 , t f Shielding failure
I 0 , t f
Shielding failure

Shielding failure

flashover

THE ANNUAL NUMBER OF FLASHOVERS CAUSED BY SHIELDING FAILURES I 0 , t f Shielding failure

HOW TO IMPROVE LINE LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE?

HOW TO IMPROVE LINE LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE? Additional Shield Wires Underbuilt Ground Wire Increasing Insulation Line Surge
HOW TO IMPROVE LINE LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE? Additional Shield Wires Underbuilt Ground Wire Increasing Insulation Line Surge

Additional Shield Wires

Underbuilt Ground Wire

Increasing Insulation

Shield Wires Underbuilt Ground Wire Increasing Insulation Line Surge Arrester Guy Wires Foot_resistance improvement

Line Surge Arrester

Guy Wires

Foot_resistance

improvement

LINE SURGE ARRESTER APPLICATION

123 kV Line Dubrovnik - Ston

2 LSA per tower 1 LSA per tower
2 LSA
per tower
1 LSA
per tower

ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS SIMULATION MODEL OF THE LINE INSULATION FLASHOVER

Flashover models: (s 2 ) U(t) (s 1 ) Constant voltage (U - t) Insulation
Flashover models:
(s
2 )
U(t)
(s
1 )
Constant voltage
(U - t) Insulation characteristic
U
Equal area
2
U
1
Leader propagation
U
0
Leader propagation model:
u t
(
)
t 2
t 1
t
u t
( )
0,0015
v
170
d
E
e
d
l
0
d
l
l
d
v l - Leader speed (m/s)
u(t)
d - Arcing distance (m)
l l - Leader length (m)
u(t) - Applied voltage (kV)
E 0 = 520
(kV/m)
EQUAL AREA FLASHOVER MODEL d U U(t) t 710 k ( U ( ) t
EQUAL AREA FLASHOVER MODEL d U U(t) t 710 k ( U ( ) t
EQUAL AREA FLASHOVER MODEL
d
U
U(t)
t
710
k
(
U
( )
t
U
)
D
U
(400
)
d
(kV)
[IEEE]
gap
0
0, 75
t
U 2
t
s
0
k
1
U 50%
D
710
U 0
U
U
(400
)
d
550
d
8
s
50%
0, 75
8
2
8
U
0,9
U
495
d
t (
s)
0
50%
EMTP_RV Model data:
710
U
(400
)
d
822
d
[d - arcing distance in meters]
2
s
0, 75
2
U
495
d
0
D
0,2045
d
k
1
D
0,2045
d

gap (t)

ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS SIMULATION SOIL IONIZATION TOWER FOOTING RESISTANCE MODEL

I

SIMULATION SOIL IONIZATION TOWER FOOTING RESISTANCE MODEL I     R lc R i I 1
   
R lc

R

lc

R

i

I 1 I g
I
1
I
g
 

I

g

g

g g E R 2 2 lc

E

g g E R 2 2 lc
R
R

2

2

lc

 
U (kA) Linear Resistance Non-Linear Resistance I (kA) I g
U (kA)
Linear Resistance
Non-Linear Resistance
I (kA)
I g
)
)

R lc low current tower footing resistance ( R i tower footing impulse resistance ( I impulse current (kA) I g soil ionisation limit current (kA) E g soil ionisation critical electric field (kV/m) [E g = 400 (kV/m)]

)
)

QUICK BACK FLASHOVER RATE COMPUTATIONS

Stroke current is changed until flashover [I C obtained]

h

I C av
I
C
av

Back

Flashover

W - Line shadow width A - Line attraction area

h av - Tower average height

I C - Back flashover critical current

100 km A = 100 x W (km 2 ) W
100 km
A = 100 x W (km 2 )
W
0,6 14 h R a av W 2 R b a A 100 W N
0,6
14
h
R a
av
W
2
R
b
a
A
100
W
N
N
A
L
G

W

flashover critical current 100 km A = 100 x W (km 2 ) W 0,6 14

QUICK BACK FLASHOVER RATE COMPUTATIONS

h

I C av
I
C
av

Back

Flashover

W
W
100 km A = 100 x W (km 2 ) W
100 km
A = 100 x W (km 2 )
W

P

I

C

1 I ( C 2,6 1 ) 31
1
I
(
C
2,6
1
)
31
BFR 0,6 N P L I C
BFR 0,6 N P L I C
BFR 0,6 N P L I C

BFR 0,6 N P

L

I

C

0,6 14 h R a av W 2 R b a A 100 W N
0,6
14
h
R a
av
W
2
R
b
a
A
100
W
N
N
A
L
G

W - Line shadow width

b - Ground wire separation distance

N L - Number of strokes collected [str/100km/year] N G Ground flash density [str/km 2 /year] BFR - Back flashover rate 0,6 > Takes into account strokes hitting shield wire

IEEE DISTRIBUTION

CURRENT PEAK

STEEPNESS

Equal Probability

P I

1 I 2,6 1 ( ) 31
1
I
2,6
1
(
)
31

P S

1 S 4 1 ( ) 24
1
S
4
1
(
)
24
P P S I
P
P
S
I
i 0 (t) S (kA/ s) I 0 I 0 /2 t f t t
i 0 (t)
S (kA/
s)
I
0
I
0 /2
t f
t t

t (

s)
s)
I S 0 t f Equivalent Front Time
I
S
0
t
f
Equivalent Front Time

123 kV TRANSMISSION LINE DUBROVNIK STON

No

DC Resistance

[Ohm/km]

Outside diameter

[cm]

x [m]

y [m]

y [m]

at midspan

3.5 4 0.4555 0.9 0

3.5

4

0.4555

0.9 0

x [m] y [m] y [m] at midspan 3.5 4 0.4555 0.9 0   11.9 18.3
x [m] y [m] y [m] at midspan 3.5 4 0.4555 0.9 0   11.9 18.3
x [m] y [m] y [m] at midspan 3.5 4 0.4555 0.9 0   11.9 18.3
 

11.9

18.3

9.7

28.9

21.3

1 0.1444

1.708

2.5

22.7

14.1

2 0.1444

1.708

-3

20.5

3 0.1444

1.708

1 0.1444 1.708 2.5 22.7 14.1 2 0.1444 1.708 -3 20.5 3 0.1444 1.708
1 0.1444 1.708 2.5 22.7 14.1 2 0.1444 1.708 -3 20.5 3 0.1444 1.708
1 0.1444 1.708 2.5 22.7 14.1 2 0.1444 1.708 -3 20.5 3 0.1444 1.708
1 0.1444 1.708 2.5 22.7 14.1 2 0.1444 1.708 -3 20.5 3 0.1444 1.708

4

2 0.1444 1.708 -3 20.5 3 0.1444 1.708 4   U n = Length = 46
 

U

n = Length = 46 km

123 kV

1

Span =

200 m

L = Z T /v

v

- velocity of light

3

2

h T = 28,9 m

L 1 = 2,8 H L 2 = 1,37 H L 3 = 1,37 H
L 1 = 2,8
H
L 2 = 1,37
H
L 3 = 1,37
H
Propagation
element
l prop = 20 m
Z T = 184

LINE SURGE ARRESTER

Rated voltage: 123 kV

IEC Class II

Polymer housed

Current (A)

Voltage (V)

1000

239000

Current (A) Voltage (V) 1000 239000 2500 252000 5000 275000 10000 291000 20000 324000
Current (A) Voltage (V) 1000 239000 2500 252000 5000 275000 10000 291000 20000 324000

2500

252000

5000

275000

10000

291000

20000

324000

40000

357000

123 kV TRANSMISSION LINE DUBROVNIK STON

Ground flash density: 5 strokes/km 2 /year Length = 46 km

0,6 0,6 R 14 h 14 28,9 105 (m) a av W 2 R b
0,6
0,6
R
14
h
14 28,9
105 (m)
a
av
W
2
R
b
2 105
0
210 (m)
a
A
100
W
100 0,210
21
(km2)
N
N
A
5
21
105
(strokes/100km/year)
L
G

Using EMTP_RV find I C (Critical current)

P

I

C

1 I ( C 2,6 1 ) 31
1
I
(
C
2,6
1
)
31

BFR

0,6 105 P I
0,6 105
P
I

C

AUTOMATIC BACKFLASHOVER COMPUTATIONS

EMTP_RV Line section model created Netlist file obtained
EMTP_RV Line section model created
Netlist file obtained

AUTOMATIC BACKFLASHOVER SIMULATIONS

Tower Model> Sub circuits

BACKFLASHOVER SIMULATIONS Tower Model> Sub circuits Air gap model Signal = 0: No flashover Signal =1:
BACKFLASHOVER SIMULATIONS Tower Model> Sub circuits Air gap model Signal = 0: No flashover Signal =1:

Air gap model Signal = 0: No flashover Signal =1: Flashover

AUTOMATIC BACKFLASHOVER SIMULATIONS

Tool developed to run EMTP_RV in a loop

Current step Initial stroke current
Current step
Initial stroke current

AUTOMATIC BACKFLASHOVER SIMULATIONS

EMTP_RV is running in the loop until gap signal > 0

Stroke Sub circuit
Stroke Sub circuit

Flashover Tower 2 Phase conductor C

AUTOMATIC BACKFLASHOVER SIMULATIONS

EMTP_RV is running in the loop until gap signal > 0

Critical current Back flashover rate
Critical current
Back flashover rate

FUTURE WORK > 3D EGM

I 0 , t f DOWNWARD LEADER r T1 r T2 span r E x
I 0 , t f
DOWNWARD
LEADER
r T1
r T2
span
r E
x 0
W S

y

0

IEEE:

W S - SIMULATED WIDTH

STRIKING DISTANCES

r

E

1. TO PHC & GW:

r S

= A I B

[A=10, B=0,65]

2. TO TOWERS:

r TT = k r S

[k= 1 1,1]

3. TO EARTH:

3,6 1,7 ln(43 y ) I 0,65 v
3,6
1,7 ln(43
y )
I
0,65
v

FUTURE WORK > 3D EGM

I 0 , t f
I 0 , t f

DOWNWARD LEADER APPROACHES UNDER ANGLE

2
2

cos

2

2 cos 2
f r GW GW r PHC r NO PHC h l
f
r GW
GW
r PHC
r NO
PHC
h l
d l x 0 W S /2 W S /2
d l
x 0
W S /2
W S /2

r GW = r PHC = r NO = r S

NEARBY

OBJECT

FUTURE WORK > sigma slp like interface EMTP_RV modeling and transients computation Monte Carlo Statistical Study and 3D EGM

WORK > sigma slp like interface EMTP_RV modeling and transients computation Monte Carlo Statistical Study and