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17.4. Harmonic Response Analyses

Description of Analysis

Complex Displacement Output

Nodal and Reaction Load Computation

Solution

Variational Technology Method

Automatic Frequency Spacing

Rotating Forces on Rotating Structures

motion ( ) for linear structures undergoing steady-state vibration.

17.4.1. Assumptions and Restrictions

1. Valid for structural, fluid, magnetic, and electrical degrees of freedom (DOFs).

Thermal DOFs may be present in a coupled field harmonic response analysis using

structural DOFs.

2. The entire structure has constant or frequency-dependent stiffness, damping, and

mass effects.

3. All loads and displacements vary sinusoidally at the same known frequency

(although not necessarily in phase).

4. Element loads are assumed to be real (in-phase) only, except for:

a. current density

b. pressures in SURF153 and SURF154

17.4.2. Description of Analysis

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where:

[M] = structural mass matrix

[C] = structural damping matrix

[K] = structural stiffness matrix

{u} = nodal displacement vector

a

{F } = applied load vector

As stated above, all points in the structure are moving at the same known frequency, however,

not necessarily in phase. Also, it is known that the presence of damping causes phase shifts.

Therefore, the displacements may be defined as:

where:

umax = maximum displacement

i = square root of -1

command)

t = time

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Note that umax and may be different at each DOF. The use of complex notation allows a

compact and efficient description and solution of the problem. can be rewritten

as:

or as:

where:

{u1 } = {u max cos } = real displacement vector (input as VALUE on D command, when

specified)

when specified)

where:

Fmax = force amplitude

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{F 1 } = {Fmax cos } = real force vector (input as VALUE on F command, when specified)

specified)

it

The dependence on time (e ) is the same on both sides of the equation and may therefore

be removed:

17.4.3. Complex Displacement Output

The complex displacement output at each DOF may be given in one of two forms:

command HROUT,ON).

2. The form umax and (amplitude and phase angle (in degrees)), as defined in

(selected with the command HROUT,OFF). These two terms are

computed at each DOF as:

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Note that the response lags the excitation by a phase angle of -.

17.4.4. Nodal and Reaction Load Computation

Inertia, damping and static loads on the nodes of each element are computed.

The real and imaginary inertia load parts of the element output are computed by:

where:

The real and imaginary damping loads part of the element output are computed by:

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where:

The real static load is computed the same way as in a static analysis (Solving for Unknowns

and Reactions) using the real part of the displacement solution {u1 }e . The imaginary static

load is computed also the same way, using the imaginary part {u2 }e . Note that the imaginary

pr

part of the element loads (e.g., {F }) are normally zero, except for current density loads.

The nodal reaction loads are computed as the sum of all three types of loads (inertia,

damping, and static) over all elements connected to a given fixed displacement node.

17.4.5. Solution

and Variational Technology and each are described subsequently.

17.4.5.1. Full Solution Method

be expressed as:

where c denotes a complex matrix or vector. is solved using the same sparse

solver used for a static analysis in Equation Solvers, except that it is done using complex

arithmetic.

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17.4.5.2. Reduced Solution Method

The reduced solution method (HROPT,REDUC) uses reduced structure matrices to solve the

equation of motion ( ). This solution method imposes the following additional

assumptions and restrictions:

1. No element load vectors (e.g., pressures or thermal strains). Only nodal forces

applied directly at master DOF or acceleration effects acting on the reduced mass

matrix are permitted.

2. Nonzero displacements may be applied only at master DOF.

This method usually runs faster than the full harmonic analysis by several orders of

Substructuring Analysis is used so that the matrix representing the system will be reduced to

the essential DOFs required to characterize the response of the system. These essential

discussed in Automatic Master Degrees of Freedom Selection and guidelines for their manual

selection are given in Modal Analysis of the Structural Analysis Guide. The reduction of

for the reduced method results in:

where the ^ denotes reduced matrices and vectors. These equations, which have been

reduced to the master DOFs, are then solved in the same way as the full method. may

contain prestressed effects (PSTRES,ON) corresponding to a non-varying stress state,

described in Stress Stiffening.

17.4.5.2.1. Expansion Pass

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the master DOFs only. In order to complete the analysis, an expansion pass is performed

(EXPASS,ON). As in the full method, both a real and imaginary solution corresponding to { )

1

2

ALL).

solution is computed at this phase angle for each master DOF by:

where:

= amplitude given by

max

This solution is then expanded and stresses obtained for these displacements. In this case,

only the real part of the nodal loads is computed.

17.4.5.3. Mode Superposition Method

The mode superposition method (HROPT,MSUP) uses the natural frequencies and mode

shapes to compute the response to a sinusoidally varying forcing function. This solution

method imposes the following additional assumptions and restrictions:

2. There are no element damping matrices. However, various types of system damping

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are available.

Superposition Method. The equation of motion ( ) is converted to modal form,

as described in Mode Superposition Method. is:

where:

yj = modal coordinate

where:

nd

{F } = nodal force vector

s = load vector scale factor, (input as FACT, LVSCALE command)

s

{F } = load vector from the modal analysis (see Mode Superposition Method).

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where:

fjc = complex force amplitude

where:

yjc = complex amplitude of the modal coordinate for mode j.

,

it

Collecting coefficients of yjc and dividing by (e )

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where:

{Cj} = contribution of mode j (output if Mcont = ON, on the HROUT command)

where:

{uc} = vector of complex displacements

If the modal analysis was performed using the reduced method (MODOPT,REDUC), then the

vectors {} and {u c} in the above equations would be in terms of the master DOFs (i.e.

and { }).

c

In the case of the QR damped mode extraction method, one substitutes for

, so becomes:

Solving the above equation and multiplying by the eigenvectors, one can calculate the

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complex displacements shown in .

17.4.5.3.1. Expansion Pass

The expansion pass of the mode superposition method involves computing the complex

displacements at slave DOFs (see ) if the reduced modal analysis was used (

MODOPT,REDUC)) and computing element stresses. The expansion pass is the same as the

reduced method discussed in the previous section.

17.4.6. Variational Technology Method

A common way to compute the harmonic response of a structure is to compute the normal

modes of the undamped structure, and to use a modal superposition method to evaluate the

response, after determining the modal damping. Determining the modal damping can be

based on modal testing, or by using empirical rules. However, when the structure is non-

metallic, the elastic properties can be highly dependent on the frequency and the damping

can be high enough that the undamped modes and the damped modes are significantly

different, and an approach based on a real, undamped modes is not appropriate.

One alternative to straight modal analysis is to build multiple modal bases, for different

property values, and combine them together over the frequency range of the analysis. This

technique is complex, error prone, and does not address the problem of determining the

modal damping factors. Another alternative is a direct frequency response, updating the

elastic properties for every frequency step. This technique give a much better prediction of the

frequency response, but is CPU intensive.

The variational technology method (HROPT,VT) is available as the harmonic sweep capability

of the VT Accelerator add-on. You can define the material elastic properties as being

frequency-dependent (using TB,ELASTIC and TB,SDAMP) and efficiently compute the

frequency response over an entire frequency range. For the Variational Technology theory,

see Guillaume([333.]) and Beley, Broudiscou, et al.([360.]).

17.4.6.1. Viscous or Hysteretic Damping

When using the Variational Technology method, the user has a choice between viscous and

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hysteretic damping.

Viscous Damping

the system is given by:

Due to the damping, the system is not conservative and the energy is dissipated. Using

viscous damping, the energy dissipated by the cycle is proportional to the frequency, . In a

single DOF spring-mass-damper system, with a viscous damper C:

where:

U = change of energy

C = viscous damper

Hysteretic Damping

Experience shows that energy dissipated by internal friction in a real system does not depend

where:

= frequency-dependent damping (input using TB,SDAMP command)

damping is known as structural or hysteretic damping. It can be included in the elastic

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properties by using a complex Young's modulus:

where:

E = Young's modulus (input using TB,ELASTIC command)

Using this kind of representation, the equations of motion of the system become:

where:

[M] = structural mass matrix

[K] = structural stiffness matrix

[H] = structural damping matrix

{u} = nodal displacement vector

a

{F } = applied load vector

17.4.7. Automatic Frequency Spacing

In harmonic response analysis, the imposed frequencies that involve the most kinetic energy

are those near the natural frequencies of the structure. The automatic frequency spacing or

Clust = ON, on the HROUT command) provides an approximate method of

choosing suitable imposed frequencies. The nearness of the imposed frequencies to the

natural frequencies depends on damping, because the resonance peaks narrow when the

damping is reduced. Figure 17.2: Frequency Spacing shows two typical resonance peaks and

the imposed frequencies chosen by this method, which are computed from:

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gives slightly higher frequencies. The spacing parameter a ij is defined as:

where:

i = modal damping as defined by . (If i is computed as 0.0, it is redefined to

be 0.005 for this equation only).

N = integer constant (input as NSBSTP, NSUBST command) which may be between 2 and

20. Anything above this range defaults to 10 and anything below this range defaults to 4.

j = 1, 2, 3, ... N

Each natural frequency, as well as frequencies midway between, are also chosen as imposed

frequencies.

Figure 17.2: Frequency Spacing

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17.4.8. Rotating Forces on Rotating Structures

If a structure is rotating, forces rotating synchronously or asynchronously with the structure are

of interest.

General rotating asynchronous forces are described in General Asynchronous Rotating Force.

A specific synchronous force: mass unbalance is shown in Specific Synchronous Forces:

Mass Unbalance.

In both cases, the equation solved for harmonic analysis is the same as ( )

except for the coefficients of the damping matrix [C] which will be a function of the rotational

velocity of the structure (see the CORIOLIS command). [C] will be updated for each excitation

frequency step using the following rotational velocity:

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where:

= rotational velocity of the structure (rd/s)

= frequency of excitation (rd/s)

s = ratio between and (s = 1 for synchronous excitations) (input as RATIO in the

SYNCHRO command).

The right-hand term of the equation is given below depending on the force considered.

17.4.8.1. General Asynchronous Rotating Force

If the structure is rotating about X axis, then an asynchronous force having its direction in the

plane perpendicular to the spin axis is expressed as:

where:

F = amplitude of force

where:

i = square root of -1

Fa = Fcos = real force in Y-direction; also, negative of imaginary force in Z-direction

(input as VALUE on F command, label FY; input as VALUE2 on F command, label FZ)

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Fb = Fsin = negative of real force in Z-direction; also, negative of imaginary force in the Y-

direction

(input as VALUE on F command, label FZ; input as VALUE2 on F

command, label FY)

The expression of the forces for structures rotating about another direction than X are

developed analogously.

17.4.8.2. Specific Synchronous Forces: Mass Unbalance

Consider a structure rotating about the X axis. The mass unbalance m situated at node I with

the eccentricity e may be represented as shown in Figure 17.3: Mass Unbalance at Node I

Figure 17.3: Mass Unbalance at Node I

If we only consider the motion in the plane perpendicular to the spin axis (YZ plane), the

kinetic energy of the unbalanced mass is written as:

where:

m = mass unbalance

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= amplitude of the rotational velocity vector of the structure (input as OMEGA or

CMOMEGA command). It is equal to the frequency of excitation .

= phase of the unbalance

Because the mass unbalance is much smaller than the weight of the structure, the first two

terms are neglected. The third term being constant, will have no effect on the final equations.

where:

F = me

frequency step.

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