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5/25/2011

Foundation
 As a composite of soil, concrete, steel, wood, plastic, and
other materials that are designed to work together to provide a
stable base that supports a superstructure.

 Sebagai komposit tanah, beton, baja, kayu, plastik, dan bahan


lain yang dirancang untuk bekerja sama untuk menyediakan
dasar yang stabil yang mendukung suatu suprastruktur.
...

MAJDI ALI

retak Slab ditemukan di bawah karpet Tanah adalah Rakasa Tidur

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Alasan untuk Pemeliharaan Pondasi, tergantung


Air bisa membangkitkan monster pada:

 Jenis Foundation
Suprastruktur Jenis
Arsitektur Penutup
Jenis Tanah
Tanah Air
Situs Drainase
Situs Vegetasi
Iklim
Awal Gerakan Tanah

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Plesteran retak di atas jendela


Garasi pemisahan haeder
Keep the monster sleeping

Shower ubin / drywall crack


Luar memisah pemisahan

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Foundation Inspection Objectives


 ni pengalaman luas bidang inspeksi dan pendidikan, dikombinasikan dengan inspeksi bangunan informasi dan
hati-hati, memberikan garis pertahanan pertama yang berharga bagi pemilik gedung dan penghuni yang
mungkin akan menghadapi kerusakan sebelumnya yayasan tidak dikenal mahal atau berbahaya.
 Yayasan inspeksi dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi & mendokumentasikan kondisi mahal atau berbahaya
potensial. pemeriksaan harus mempertimbangkan banyak faktor di luar kondisi jelas terlihat dari yayasan,
seperti menghadiri untuk kondisi lokasi, bukti sejarah gerakan bangunan, dan jenis, lokasi, dan tingkat retak
dan gerakan. Data ini, dikombinasikan dengan pendidikan dan pengalaman, izin inspektur dasar
berpengetahuan untuk memberitahu klien tentang urgensi perbaikan pondasi dan jenis perbaikan yang
Metode & Prosedur untuk mungkin diperlukan.
 Akuntabilitas: inspektur yang bertanggung jawab untuk bagian terlihat pondasi dan untuk mengenali tanda-
Mengevaluasi Celah Foundation tanda cacat. Dalam beberapa keadaan ini mungkin termasuk kondisi tidak terlihat atau sulit melihat yang ada
tetap petunjuk yang memadai: kontekstual, sejarah, atau bukti-bukti sekunder terlihat.

Residential Struktural, Gerakan, &  Tindakan: Jika sesuai, inspektur mungkin menyarankan evaluasi lebih lanjut / perbaikan termasuk metode
invasif seperti menghapus materi selesai yang meliputi yayasan, di luar penggalian, kerja dengan seorang
insinyur yayasan, yayasan perbaikan perusahaan, sebuah perusahaan tes untuk membuat borings tanah, atau
Kondisi lainnya investigasi langkah-langkah....
 Bahaya: Karena cacat struktur batu tertentu, seperti melotot di atas dinding batu bata tanah, dapat
menyebabkan runtuh terjal dan bencana tiba-tiba, kondisi berbahaya bisa jadi harus hadir di beberapa sifat.
Meskipun seringkali ada kondisi tersembunyi yang dapat menyembunyikan kondisi bangunan, kemampuan
untuk mengenali kondisi berpotensi mendesak atau berbahaya yang dapat dideteksi adalah penting dalam
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inspeksi yayasan
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1. SITE FACTORS AFFECTING FOUNDATIONS - in Foundation


FOUNDATION INSPECTION METHODS Damage Diagnosis: How to Observe Site Factors Which May
Damage a Building Foundation
Langkah-langkah prosedural umum dan topik utama dalam pemeriksaan yayasan termasuk
langkah-langkah ini. Link ke diskusi dari masing-masing topik berada di sisi kiri halaman ini.
• Area History in Foundation Damage Diagnosis: Is there evidence of a history of earthquakes,
Faktor situs: situs Amati faktor yang mempengaruhi struktur seperti lereng, drainase, rock, landslides, mud slides, soil settlement, sink holes, construction on fill, or buried debris on or at sites
in the area?
atau kegiatan terdekat seperti peledakan • Area geology in Foundation Damage Diagnosis
Konstruksi: Mengidentifikasi jenis konstruksi, bahan, urutan konstruksi - sejarah situs, • Soils in Foundation Damage Diagnosis: Are there problem soils such as wet, expansive clay soils,
yayasan, dan konstruksi rincian scree, bedrock, boulders, buried debris, evidence of fill? Problems having soil characteristics as their
 Kejadian Cacat: cacat Amati terjadinya - hal yang telah terjadi pada struktur seperti origin can show up years later.
tanda-tanda gerakan, sejarah, petunjuk lain • Original and Surrounding Slopes: show the original direction of excavation-sequence used in
constructing a building.
 Kelalaian cacat: cacat Amati peninggalan - hal yang telah ditinggalkan-out atau dihapus • tepped foundation footings: are a normal practice on steep slopes
(sulit untuk spot) seperti adanya kemungkinan posting pendukung, dermaga, ketahanan, • Exposure of foundation to mechanical or vehicle damage: A driveway close to the
atau komponen penting lainnya foundation wall, common in older cities, e.g. NYC & Toronto, exposes foundations to damage when
 Evaluasi Pengamatan: Evaluasi informasi yang telah dikumpulkan (sejarah, pengamatan, heavy trucks such as an oil tank truck or a cement delivery truck pass close to the building to make a
petunjuk), bukti visual dampaknya terhadap struktur, dan kepentingan mereka. Mengenali delivery
kapan ahli evaluasi tambahan atau perbaikan yang dibutuhkan oleh sebuah yayasan atau • Water, Foundation Leaks, Wet Basements in Foundation Damage Diagnosis: Trees (their
roots) and rocks which are near the foundation define areas to watch out for both root damage to a
insinyur struktur atau spesialis dasar perbaikan foundation and, more subtle, water entry from ground water (or roof spillage) which is directed
 Laporan Pengamatan & Membuat Rekomendasi: yang Berkomunikasi pengamatan towards the building foundation wall
dan rekomendasi kepada klien dengan jelas sehingga klien memahami implikasi dari temuan • Nearby Roadways: may expose a building foundation (or other components) to damage from
traffic-induced vibration.
13 dan perlunya tindakan (jika ada).

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2. YAYASAN KONSTRUKSI-Mengidentifikasi Yayasan Tipe Konstruksi, 3. DEFECTS OF OCCURRENCE - Identify Foundation Defects of
Bahan, Sequence Occurrence

3.a. COMMON FOUNDATION FAILURES - Common Foundation


Defects of Occurrence – General
Sequence Konstruksi Pertimbangan • Structural / construction defects & damage
Yayasan • Concentrated loads
• Excessive backfill height; premature backfill
Persiapan lokasi, pembangunan di isi • Improper materials (soft brick, below grade)
Penggalian-kesalahan • Shallow/absent/undermined/cut footings, settlement & frost damage
• Improper soil preparation - settling footings & slabs
Bentuk dan kesalahan Pijakan • Foundation damaged during moved/modular building set
Yayasan kesalahan • Equipment damage (backfill, vehicles)
Backfill kesalahan • General Signs of Movement / Damage
• Foundation cracks (see "Diagnosis")
Situs Drainase kesalahan • Leaning or Tipping
Konstruksi modular keprihatinan • Bulging
• Settlement, uniform or differential
Situs peledakan • Excessive loading, fractures
Berdekatan Situs Blasting • Interior cracks (trace to source)

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3.b. FAILURES by FOUNDATION TYPE & MATERIAL - Foundation Defects


of Occurrence - by Material
• Concrete foundation damage from horizontal loading, vehicles, frost is
Poured Concrete Foundation Defects less commonly seen than with unit-construction materials such as brick or masonry
• Cold Pour Joints in concrete foundations which leave visible lines in the block but might occur under unusual conditions.
concrete foundation wall are not usually a structural problem but may in some
cases form a dry joint which permits water leakage through the foundation wall. • Concrete foundation damage from unusual point loads
Cold pour joints occur when there is too much time delay between subsequent • Incomplete sealing between foundation sections, leading to later basement leaks
"pours" into the foundation forms. An astute inspector, by noting the position, and water entry
pattern, and slope of the cold pour joint, can probably determine the position
from which the concrete was poured into the forms (the high end of the sloping • Poor modular foundation section alignment, poor sealing between sections,
lines) and the extent of delay between pours (evidence of water leaks through particularly at building corners, resulting in foundation leakage
the joints indicates that enough time passed for the lower pour to solidify). • inadequate footing drains (or none), and/or inadequate roof drainage system
• Concrete shrinkage cracks are not usually a structural problem but may
permit water leaks through the foundation wall. installation (gutters and leaders) resulting in flooding the foundation and water entry
• Holes and penetrations in concrete foundations such as poorly-sealed passing under the wall bottom and up over the basement slab at the slab/wall joint.
openings left for piping for water or electrical lines or where form ties were • Excessive spanning of areas with no fill and no footing at all (shown in photo
broken off may form points of water entry into the structure but are not above)
normally a structural concern.
• Concrete foundation settlement cracking such as from footing settlement, • Basement water entry and leak problems require adaptation of common
absence of or poorly prepared footings, water leading to settlement or actual loss internal trench and drain systems, as cutting the slab to excavate for an internal
of soils, thus undermining the footings (this can occur and can damage most drainage trench exposes the gravel footings
foundation types), or movement of the foundation due to nearby blasting or
excavation work.
Wood Foundation Defects

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Stone Foundation Defect List


• Bulges: due to frost, water, vehicle loading if vehicles are driven close to walls Masonry block (concrete & "cinder block") Foundation
• Cracks (if mortared): settlement, vehicle driving close to walls Defect List
• Other: interruptions for mechanicals may destroy the integrity of these walls. In original
construction stones were placed in an overlap pattern from course to course. Removing a
▫ Leaning: water, frost, vehicles, footings
section of wall may result in future wall movement unless other steps are taken to stabilize ▫ Buckled: water, frost, vehicles - potentially urgent depending on
the modified section circumstances and amount
▫ Cracks: water, frost, vehicles, shrinkage/expansion, footings
Brick Foundation Defect List
• Bulging brick walls: this is likely to be a bond-brick or bond-course failure - potentially
▫ Poured concrete
extremely dangerous and very urgent - can presage sudden catastrophic building collapse! ▫ Leaning: water, frost, vehicles, footings
• Cracks and Bulges in brick walls (such as the photo above): frost and earth loading - ▫ Cracks*: settlement, shrinkage, cold joints
can push a below-grade brick foundation wall inwards.
• Cracks and loose bricks: frost, settlement, expansion, usually diagonal or stair-stepped, ▫ Spalling: poor mix, cold weather construction, erosion
often at building corners where roof spillage is concentrated. ▫ Shrinkage: improper mis-diagnosis. Concrete blocks don't shrink.
• Loose bricks and missing or lost mortar: and movement where mortar is severely Check the other possibilities. ...
washed-out by roof spillage or other water movement against the foundation. Loose and lost
bricks may also occur where wood blocks, originally set into a wall to permit nailing of ▫ Wood foundations (not considered here)
interior components, is damaged by insects or decay. ▫ Pile foundations (not considered here)
• Spalling bricks: spalling is caused by water and frost, such as water leaking into a brick
structure at (improperly) caulked and rusty steel lintels, improper brick masonry structure or
▫ Tipping/undermining - serious defects
wall "repair work" or re-pointing using hard mortar on soft brick where originally a soft high- ▫ Identify (Possible) Missing Components
lime mortar was used.
▫ missing footings, piers, reinforcement, drainage

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4. FOUNDATION DEFECTS OF OMISSION - Identify Foundation FOUNDATION CRACK EVALUATION - How to Inspect & Evaluate Building
Defects of Omission Foundation Cracks & Movement & Foundation Crack Patterns

• Missing supporting column such as a basement Lally column, where General Suggestions for the Evaluation of Foundation Cracks
an owner has removed the column to open up a basement space • Look at shape, pattern, frequency of occurrence, relationship to wall discontinuities
being remodeled for use as living area and angles, placement of wall penetrations, correlation with cracks in floors, and location in the
wall (corners, center), as well as length, width, continuity, age of wall, relation to site conditions
• Missing footings (may or may not be a defect depending on design (depth of backfill, blasting, rock).
and soil conditions) • Shrinkage cracks are usually uniform in width or (less common) vee-shaped, wider at top
and diminishing or stopping before reaching the bottom of the foundation wall (where
• Omitted steel reinforcement - footings (not visibly detectable after attachment to footing may tend to hold foundation wall materials in place). A wall crack which
continues into the floor is likely to involve the building footings and may be a settlement crack
construction) of more structural importance.
• Omitted steel reinforcement - walls (not visibly detectable after • Concrete shrinks as it cures. In poured concrete, shrinkage cracks may be non-uniform if
wall components are held by footings/framing; very often there are minor shrinkage cracks
construction) which are hairline, random, intermittent, multiple, and meandering in the concrete, forming
• Missing piers beneath interior posts discontinuous cracks in the wall. Shrinkage cracks occur as concrete cures, appearing more
frequently and larger if the mix was improper and where control joints were omitted. Omission
• Missing control joints in poured concrete or pattern of placement of steel reinforcement may also be a factor in crack formation and
location.
• Missing expansion joints in large brick masonry walls • Poured concrete shrinkage cracks: usually shrinkage cracking is due to conditions at
original construction: poor mix, rapid curing, possibly other conditions. Shrinkage cracks are
• Missing expansion joints/materials around windows in brick less likely to require structural monitoring and repair in poured concrete as they would be
masonry walls expected to continue after initial curing.

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General Suggestions for the Evaluation of Foundation Cracks 5. FOUNDATION DAMAGE REPORTS - How to Report Foundation
Damage
• Concrete block foundation walls shrink as they cure. They rarely expand much
on exposure to moisture and temperature variations. In concrete block walls
shrinkage cracks are likely to be uniform in width and usually occur towards the
center of a concrete masonry unit (CMU) wall. The wall is stronger at the building Making Foundation Monitoring/Action Recommendations
corners. Possible outcomes and report information include:
• Brick walls do not normally shrink, but rather, grow indefinitely. Bricks are not • Do Nothing (cosmetic, minor)
often used for below-grade foundations but were often used above-grade supporting
the first floor of older buildings, and of course entire buildings may be constructed • Monitor for signs of movement
using structural brick walls (look for the bond courses). If you see a crack in a brick • Evaluate Further
wall it's more likely due to movement in the structure, a support problem, or due to
thermal expansion. Cracks in structural brick walls may be very serious if the bond • Repair, replace, improve, provide*
courses are broken as there is then a risk of sudden catastrophic wall collapse. Cracks • Priority: urgent or defer*
and especially bulged cracked brick walls need immediate expert investigation.
• Cost estimates: major/minor*
• Stone foundation walls do not normally crack through individual stones, but the
interlaced stone layout of the wall may be bulged and cracked due to damage from • References to authoritative sources*
frost, loading from driving vehicles near the wall, or by the removal of stones to pass • References to foundation repair experts*
piping or make doorways. As with other cases of foundation movement, a diagnosis
of the cause, amount of movement, and effects on structure are needed to decide
what repair may be needed

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FOUNDATION REPAIR METHODS FOUNDATION REPAIR METHODS

 Repair Methods for Foundation Shrinkage  Repair Methods for Vertical Foundation
Cracks Movement - Foundations, slabs, fireplaces,
 Water entry leaks at foundation cracks: Polyurethane foam chimneys
sealant is used for foundation crack repairs to stop water entry. (Also
 Grout pumping - suitable if bearing rock is not too deep;
find and correct outside water sources).
 Driven steel pins - $1000./pin for average. 30 ft. depth. (more
 Structural repairs as well as sealing against water entry may
be attempted for cracked foundations using masonry epoxy precise leveling control across the building, possible durability
products. These products may be used for repairing cracks in problem? Warranted 60 years)
concrete foundations following evaluation and advice from a  Chance screw piers - reconstruction
foundation professional. An evaluation of the presence, absence, or  Friction piers, driven piles (Failing at Vancouver Is.)
condition of reinforcing steel in cracked concrete foundations should
be a part of such an inspection.  Excavation and reconstruction, possibly with reinforcement over
original design and with additional foundation and site drainage

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FOUNDATION REPAIR METHODS

 Repair Methods for Bulged Foundation Walls


 horizontal driven pins, steel tension cables + stars
 pilasters
 steel beams anchored to slab and framing
 reconstruction


inside reinforcing wall
Excavation and reconstruction, possibly with reinforcement over
original design and with additional foundation and site drainage SELESAI
 Horizontal foundation movement creep
 Pin to hills, etc. is a separate engineering problem.
 Excavation and reconstruction, possibly with reinforcement over
original design and with additional foundation and site drainage

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